KISHKINDHA IN NORTH INDIA- MYSTERY DEEPENS! (Post No.9620)

Research article WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9620

Date uploaded in London – –18 May   2021           

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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The news about the birth place of Anjaneya also known as Hanuman hit the headlines recently in newspapers. Tirupati Balaji temple authorities believe that the hill where the temple is located is the birth place of Hanuman. They gave the reasons for such belief and gave some evidence as well.

Hampi area in Karnataka was identified as the Kishkinda Kingdom where Hanuman served as a minister in the cabinet of Sugreeva, the King of the Apes or Vanaras. (Vanaras mean Vana+Nara= Forest man). So they may be a tribe who lived in the forest wearing monkey symbols or masks or tattoos.

The other claimants are in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jharkand and Haryana. But all these people missed a reference in Patanjali ‘s Mahabhashya where Kishkinda is mentioned.

First, the very word KISHKINDA is strange word and not connected to any Sanskrit root. No Sanskrit root for this word is given in any book. The only related sound is Kish Kingdom in ancient Sumeria.  So my view is that the name Kishkinda was used by several people because of Rama’s story and it spread up to Sumeria 4000 years ago. Though Valmiki was the first one to put it in writing in simple and beautiful Sanskrit the story was known to a lot of people in India and beyond 2000 years ago. Sangam Tamil literature which is at least 2000 years old has two anecdotes that were not found in original Ramayanas. Prakrit book Gatha Sapta Sati also has an anecdote about Ramayana painting.

Here is what Patanjali says about Kishkinda:-

Describing two types of Shudras, the fourth caste in the Vedic society, he gives the example of Kishkinda- Gabdhikam , Saka- Yavanam and Saurya- Krauncham. They were Foreign Shudras. The native Shudras also did not practise Vedic rituals, but they lived within our boundaries. Foreign Shudras like Greek, Scythians  did not follow Vedic rituals. More over they lived outside the land of Cultured People i.e. Aryavarta. According to Manu, it is a region between the holy rivers in North India.

Talking about this M S Agrawala who wrote a doctoral thesis on Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, identified this Kishknda with Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. He also says that the Pali literature called this place Khukhundo. If we agree with Agrawala , then we may have to consider this Kishkinda also as the birth place or the work place of Minister/Lord Hanuman.

To complicate the issue there is another mountain also with the name Anjanaagiri. Hanuman’s mother was Anjana which means as black as ink or collyrium/Kajal/kohl. Originally all the women’s Kajal/kohl came from Anjana Giri which is located in North West India. Modern maps show this as Sulaiman mountain. Panini called it Tri kakut (5-4-147) because of its Three Peaks. Atharva Veda also mentioned it. It was the source of salve (anjana). It supplied the salve to the whole of Punjab and Sind. This is antimony, a chemical element. So from Gorakhpur , Panini takes us to Sulaiman Range to complete the story of Anjaneya/Hanuman.

My Viewpoint

The word Kishkinda or Anjana giri is found in various parts of India. We may ignore Anjana= Black Giri=Mountain, because black mountains are in different parts of the world. But no one can ignore Kishkinda, which is a rare word and became popular because of Ramayana only. I think the popularity of Lord Rama and Hanuman made them to name different places as Kishkinda. Last but not the least, no one did a proper research about the geographical matter in the Vedic literature. After Vedic literature comes, Nirukta of Yaska and Ashtadhyayi of Panini. In 1953, the year of publication of V S Agrawala’s thesis on Ashtadhyayi (His book India as Known to Panini) we did not have google maps or this much information. Now that more resources are at our hand at the touch of a button in computer, proper research can be done.

Even Agrawala makes a passing remark about Anjanagiri (Sulaiman Range) , “probably same as Sauviranjana in Vedic Index (Part 1, page 329)”. We need to identify all the places to come to a proper conclusion.

Last week I wrote about Goddess Hingula Mystery which is mentioned in Panini’s book. Even in Orissa/Odisah we see this Goddess.

From Baluchistan in present Pakistan to South India we see Anjanaagiri, Goddess Hinghula, Kishkinda etc. We must establish the link between them.

xxx

Please see ANJANAGIRI at the bottom left hand corner

News item from Tirupati

The Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD)  announced that Japali Theertham near Akasha Ganga waterfall in Tirumala Hills was the birthplace of Lord Hanuman. The announcement came on April 21, that is National Sanskrit University vice-chancellor V Muralidhara Sharma, who was one of the experts on the committee constituted by the TTD to establish Anjanadri Hill of the Seven Hills (Tirumala Hills) as the birthplace of Hanuman, announced at a programme organised in Tirumala that this was established after four months of intense research and collecting various pieces of evidence.

“It has been established based on puranic anthologies, literary evidence, epigraphic evidence and geographic details,” he said and added that Venkatachalam is also known as Anjanadri and 19 other names. Hanuman was born on Anjanadri in Treta Yuga, he said.

He said they have collected evidence from 12 Puranas and as for literary evidence, they were found in verses of Kamba Ramayanam and Annamacharya Sankeerthanas. He said that epigraphic evidence includes inscriptions found in Tirumala temple that in 12th and 13th-century Venkatachala Mahtyam was recited in Tirumala temple, processional deity of Sri Rangajanaya was brought to Anajandri for protection during the attack of Turks and later taken from there to Srirangam, inscriptions at Varadaraja Swamy temple in Kanchipuram, Sawal-e-Jawab, a record of practices engaged in Tirumala by North Arcot First Collector G Stratton in 1801–2 and later translated by VN Srinivas Rao in 1950.

As for geographical details, Sharma said in Skanda Puranam, when Anjana Devi asked Sage Matanga where Venkatachalam is, he clearly explained that it is north of Swarnamukhi river and 12 yojanas from Ahobilam.  

“Claims that Hampi is the birthplace of Hanuman are not true. Hampi is Kishkinda while Venakatchalam is Anjanadri. It is clearly evident from the conversation between Sugreeva and Hanuman when the former asks the latter to bring Vanaras from Anajandri. If it was in Kishkinda, he would not have asked that way,” he said. He also dismissed the claims of other places like in Bhoomla district of Jharkhand, Gujarat and Kaikal in Haryana.

Tamil Nadu governor Banwarilal Purohit, TTD Executive Officer Dr KS Jawahar Reddy, who constituted the committee to determine the birthplace of Lord Hanuman, additional EO Dharma Reddy and others were present.

Other Claims

However, there is doubt among some historians over Anjaneya’s birthplace. The five other places which claim Hanuman originated from include:

1. There is a hillock near Anjanadri at Hampi in Karnataka. But scholars of Kannada University at Hampi affirmed that there is no material evidence to prove that.

2. Anjan village, 21 km from Gumla district headquarter in Jharkhand.

3. Anjan mountain in Navsari region of Gujarat.

4. Kaithal region in Haryana

5. Anjaneri, 7 km from Triambakeswar in Nashik district of Maharashtra

Historians contend that the Hampi region was popularly known as Kishkinda in legends and Puranas. Hence, Anjaneya could have gone to Hampi from Tirumala, which was just 363 km away. They also scientifically say that Hampi was 1,240 km from Gumla in Jharkhand, 1,626 km from Kaithal of Haryana, 616 km from Maharashtra, and ruled them all out and suggested that migration to Hampi is feasible.

Xxx subham xxxx

tags – Kishkinda, Anjana Giri, Patanjali, Mystery

Hindu Women’s Education 2700 Years Ago! (Post No.9366)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9366

Date uploaded in London – –10 MARCH  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Amazing information about education of women during post-Vedic period is available from Panini’s Ashtadhyayi and the commentaries on it. When Panini wrote his grammar 2700 years ago, very few literary or religious works were there in other parts of the world. I am not talking about the museum languages of Egypt, Babylonia or Mayan. Sanskrit lives in all the languages of India. No one can speak even for a few minutes without Sanskrit words. Either his/ her name or their birth places or their patents names will be in Sanskrit.

I am a regular reader of articles on tribes of India. All the tribes have something Hindu or some words in Sanskrit. Half baked foreigners could not digest it and so created a new theory it was because of later contacts. Those who follow tribal birth, death and wedding rites find that they are based on Hindu beliefs ; like the civilised city Hindus have different birth, death and marriage customs they also differ in several rites.

Women in ancient India went to school with boys and achieved good qualifications. Here is the solid proof.

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar lived 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu. She could go to any kings’ assembly and praise him or criticise him. She saw three great kings of Chera, Choza and Pandya on the dias after the Choza king performed Rajaasuya Yaga. She blessed them whole heartedly and advised them to live without enmity. Apart from Avvaiyar we have about atlesasst 20 Tamil poetesses.

 About twenty Vedic poetesses lived 2000 years before the Tamils came on the scene. Most famous woman’s name is Gargi Vachaknavi. She took part in the All India Philosophers conference and challenged the famous scholar Yajnavalkya in front of Emperor Janaka. And this is not an isolated anecdote.

Information from Ashtadhyayi, is very interesting.

Aapisaali was a Pre Paninian scholar. Katyayana who wrote notes on Panini’s sutras refers to students studying his (Apisali) grammar. Patanjali even speaks of female Brahmana students of Aapisaali.

Both Panini and Patanjali refer to women admitted to Vedic study in the Charanas (Institutions like Oxford and Cambridge) . The term Jaati in sutra 4-1-63 includes the female members of gotras and charanas.

Thus a woman student of Katha School was called ‘Kathi’ and of the Rig Vedic Bahvrichi school, ‘Bahvrichii’. It appears that the three principles of naming the male students applied equally to the female students also.

Both panini and Patanjali called the female students of Aapisaala as ‘Aapisaalaa braahmanii’ . Katyayana here refers to the rule of a previous writer; similarly Kasika refers to Paaniniya Braahmanii.

Female students were also admired to study of Mimaamsa.

Example, Kaasakrstnii, a female student studying the Mimamsa work Kaaskrstnii

Panini himself  refers to female students as Chaatrii and their hostels Chhaatri saalaa. 6-2-86

The wife of an aacharya is Aachaaryaanii 4-1-49. Female teachers were called ‘aachaaryaa’. (Note different spellings for teacher’s wife and female teacher).

The term Kathi – vrindarikaa , the foremost female student of the Katha Saakhaa, points to the success of women as Vedic students.

Patanjali refers to a female student as Adhyetrii and a female novice as Maanavikaa 4-1-93; 2-249.

Manava and Manavi are used in Tamil until this day!

In another place Panini talks about ‘Kumaari Sramana’, a female  ascetic of young age. This was in the Pre Buddhist literature. Buddhists allowed women later .

The terms Bikshu, Nirvana and Kumari sramana are in Pre Buddhist literature, the Upanishads. Ancient Hindu literature did not mention Buddha.

Patanjali and other commentators mocked at students who were not interested in studying. They were compared to crows that bathe for a few seconds and fly. Like French Bath, Hindus have the idiom ‘Crow Bath’. In that context commentators mentioned some students are coming to school just to ‘see girls’. Probably co- education existed in Gurukula at the time of Panini and Patanjali.

Putting all these together give us a clear picture of women’s education in ancient India.

Later , Vatsyayana of Kamasutra listed 64 subjects in woman’s syllabus. That is the first syllabus for women in the world. So, we see the development of education in India.

Tamil language produced Six Avvaiyars in different periods and Saint poets like Karaikkal Ammaiyar and Andal.

(Avvai means a spiritually advanced, matured woman, probably  not married; like Kumari Sramana of Panini’s book)

Later we see scholars Lilavathi and Gangadevi. Women’s education stopped only when foreigners entered India.

Source book- India as known to Panini, V S Agrawala with my inputs.

–subham–

tags-  women’s education, ancient India, Panini, Patanjali