Riddles in the Vedas (Post No.3135)


Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 8 September 2016


Time uploaded in London: 16-38



Post No.3135


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


Most of the foreign writers who wrote about Vedas, or in general Hindu scriptures, fall under five categories; so one must be careful before reading any foreigner’s book on Hinduism:-

1.Those who came to propagate their religion

2.Those who colonised our territories

3.Those who want to be on headlines by creating controversies

  1. Half-baked researchers; ignoramuses

5.Those who write for international book companies or to anyone who gives money.

So before buying a book use it as the touch stone. Better read books written by Indian authors except Marxists and atheists. There is no need to say anything about the bluffers who are attached to Marxism or Atheism.


Another touch stone is to see whether these trouble makers have written criticizing about any other religion. To my knowledge they did not write anything against other religions. They are cowards! Most of them are morally corrupt and bankrupt. They can’t be the judges of our culture.

Don’t ask questions about anything before you read a scripture in full. You cannot criticise anything before reading and understanding a book.


Hindu Scholar Subash kak has described the symbolism in the Vedic literature. Here is a small excerpt from his book:


Source book:

The Asvamedha, The Rite and its Logic by Subhash Kak, Delhi, 2002


“The central idea behind the Vedic system is the notion of ‘bandhu’ (bindings or connections) between the astronomical, the terrestrial, the physiological and the spiritual. These connections are described in terms of number of characteristics, such as the 360 bones of the infant (which later fuse into the 206 bones of the adult) and the 360 days of the year. In a similar vein, the Garbha Upanishad says that the body has 180 sutures, 900 sinews. The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad takes the number of Nadis to be 72,000. All these numbers are related to 360, the nominal day count of the year.

Modern research has shown that all life comes with its inner clocks. Living organisms have rhythms that are matched to the periods of the Sun or the Moon.


It is reasonable to assume that the Vedic thinkers were aware of these connections, as were the ancient people in other cultures. The uniqueness of the Vedic vision was the extension of the bindings to the body to those in the inner landscape of the spirit.


The Vedic rites were meant to help the participant transform themselves this was accomplished through sacrifice. The place of sacrifice represents cosmos. Three fires are used which stands for the three divisions of space. The course of the sacrifice represents the year, and all such rituals forms part of continuing annual performances.


The riddle of the sacrifice is best expressed in the Asya Vamasya Hymn (Rig Veda 1-164):

I ask you about the farthest end of the earth

I ask you about the navel of the universe

I ask you about the seed end of the bursting horse

I ask you about the final abode of the speech


This altar is the farthest end of the earth

This sacrifice is the navel of the universe

The Soma is the seed of the bursting horse

This voice is the final abode of speech


The mystery of the sacrifice, with its suspension between life and death, reality and magic, logic and mystical experience is communicated in a language which is full of paradox. For example, it is stated that that Prajapati is Agni’s father, but he is also Agni’s son (SB6-1-2-26); also the gods sacrificed to the sacrifice with the sacrifice (RV 1-164-50)


The sacrifice is the drama associated with it, but rather the transformation accruing from it. Says Kena Upanishad 2-3:

“He by whom Brahma is not known, knows it.

He by whom it is known, knows it not. It is not

Known by those who know it; it is known by those who do not now it”.

Vedic ritual is also related to ongoing struggle, between the Devas and Asuras, where the Devas represent the higher cognitive centres in man and the Asuras represent the lower centres associated with the body.



Unfortunately, to a beginner trying to understand the Vedic system, the asuric position appears most natural and this is responsible for much misunderstanding of Vedic rites and their meaning.


Let me add that the Chandogya Upanishad warns us about those who do not understand that the rite is about paradox and regeneration, and not the actual mechanics of the theatre. It compares the ritual of such people, who look only at the outer performance, to the Udgitha of the dogs. That is what Vaka Dalbya (also called Glava Maitreya) saw of the dog udgita (C.U.1-12)


A white dog appeared and other dogs gathering around him, asked, “Sir, sing and get us food, we are hungry”.


The white dog said to them, “come to me tomorrow morning.”


The dogs came on, holding together, each dog keeping the tail of the preceding dog in his mouth, as the priests do when they are going to sing praises with the Vahispavamana hymn. After they had settled down, they began to say Hin.


Om Let us eat! Om, let us drink!”


The dangers of misreading a highly symbolic language were recognised. The Puranas warn that the asuras copy whatever the devas do and do it on a grander scale.


— Subham–







மறைந்து போன வேதங்கள்! (Post No.3093)


Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 26  August 2016


Time uploaded in London: 6-26 AM


Post No.3093


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks for the pictures.




உலகிலுள்ள பழையமொழிகள் ஒவ்வொன்றும் நிறைய நூல்களை இழந்துள்ளன. எந்த பழைய மொழியும் இதற்கு விதிவிலக்கல்ல. இந்திய மொழிகளில் சம்ஸ்கிருதமும் தமிழும் நிறைய நூல்களை இழந்துவிட்டன. சில நூல்களின் மேற்கோள்களைப் பல உரையாசிரியர்கள் கையாளும்போது அவர் காலத்தில் அந்த நூல்கள் இருந்தது நமக்குத் தெரிகிறது. இன்னும் சில நூற் பெயர்கள் மட்டும் கிடைக்கின்றன. இன்னும் சில ஆசிரியர்கள் பெயர்கள் மட்டும் கிடைக்கின்றன.


உலகில் மிகப் பழைய சமய நூல் ரிக் வேதம் ஆகும். அ தை ஒட்டி யஜூர், சாமம், அதர்வண வேதங்களை வியாசர் தொகுத்து வைத்தார். இந்துக்கள் இற்றைக்கு 5000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் அவர் வாழ்ந்ததாகக் கணக்கிடுகின்றனர்.


அவர் ஏன் 4 வேதங்களை த் தொகுத்தார்?

ஏனென்றால் அவர் காலத்திலேயே வேதம் என்பது கடல் போலப் பரந்த இலக்கியம் ஆனது. யார் ஒருவராலும் தனியாக அவ்வளவையும் மனப்பாடம் செய்ய இயலாது என்பது அவருக்கு விளங்கியது. உடனே நான்காகத் தொகுத்து நான்கு சீடர்களை அழைத்து ஒவ்வொருவரும் ஒரு வேதத்தைப் பரப்புங்கள் என்றார். அதிலும் கூட முழு வேதத்தையும் மனப்பாடம் செய்ய முடியாவிடில் ஒரு சாகையை (கிளை) மட்டும் படித்தால் போதும் என்றார். இப்படியெல்லாம் எளிமைப்படுத்தியும் இன்று வேதம் இருக்கும் நிலையை நாம் அறிவோம்.


பிற இலக்கியங்களிலிருன்த்து அழிந்து போன வேத நூல்கள் என்ன என்பதை அறிகிறோம்.



பதஞ்சலி எழுதிய மஹாபாஷ்யம்,  வேதங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை எவ்வளவு என்று சொல்லும். அந்த நூல் குறைந்தது 2100 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முந்தையது.


ரிக் வேதத்தில் 21 சாகைகளும்,

யஜுர் வேதத்தில் 100 சாகைகளும்

சாம வேதத்தில் 1000 சாகைகளும்

அதர்வ வேதத்தில் 9 சாகைகளும்

இருந்ததாக பதஞ்சலி கூறுகிறார்.


முக்திகோபநிஷத், இந்த வேதங்களில் முறையே 21, 109, 1000, 50 சாகைகள் இருந்ததாகக் கூறுகிறது.


எல்லோரும் வேதம் அழிந்துவருவதைக் காட்டி இருக்கின்றனர். இருக்கும் வேதங்களையாவது காப்பாற்றுவது இந்துக்களின் தலையாய கடமை ஆகும்.

1130-க்கும் அதிகமான சாகைகள் இருக்க வேண்டிய இடத்தில் இப்பொழுது 11 சாகைகள்தான் இருக்கின்றன. மேலும் 4 சாகைகளின் சில பகுதிகள் மட்டும் கிடைத்திருப்பதாக அறிஞர் பெருமக்கள் உரைப்பர்.



இப்போதுள்ள நான்கு வேதங்களிலும் 20,000 துதிகள் இருக்கின்றன. உலகில் மற்ற மதத்தினரும், மற்ற மொழியினரும் எழுதுவதற்கு முன்னரே வேதம் கடல் போலப் பரவிவிட்டது. இன்றுவரை, அது கோவில்களிலும், பூஜை, வழிபாடுகளிலும் பயன்படுகின்றன. திருமணச் சடங்குகளிலும் இறுதிச் சடங்குகளிலும் வேத மந்திரங்கள் பயன்படுகின்றன்.



முதல் இலக்கண   நூல்

2700 க்கு ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் பாணினி எழுதிய அஷ்டாத்யாயீ — தான் உலகின் முதல் இலக்கண   நூல். அவர் தனக்கு முந்தைய இலக்கண ஆசிரியர்களின் பெயர்களைச் சொல்லுகிறார். நமக்கோ ஒன்றும் கிடைத்தில.


மனு ஒரு லட்சம் ஸ்லோகங்கள் கொண்ட தர்ம சாஸ்திரத்தை 1080 அத்தியாயங்களாகப் பிரித்து எழுதியதாக நாரத ஸ்ம்ருதி கூறுகிறது.


நாரதர் அதை 12,000 ஸ்லோகங்களாகவும், மார்க்கண்டேயர் அதை 8000  ஸ்லோகங்களாகவும், பிருகுவின் மகன் சுமதி அதை 4000  ஸ்லோகங்களாகவும் குறைத்ததாகக் கூறும். ஆனால் இப்பொழுதுள்ள மனு ஸ்மிருதி 12 அத்தியாயங்களில் 2685 ஸ்லோகங்கள் மட்டுமே இருக்கின்றன.


இதிலிருந்து நமக்குத் தெரிவது என்ன?


Picture of Hindu Yogi/ Saint/ ascetic

கிருத யுகத்தில் எல்லோரும் நல்லவர்கள். அவர்கள் 400 ஆண்டுகள் வாழ்ந்த தாக மனு சொல்லுவார். ஆனால் கலியுகத்தில் இராட்சத புத்தியுள்ளவர்கள் அதிகம். ஆகையால் எல்லாவற்றையும் குறைத்துக் குறைத்து சிறிதாக்கி விட்டனர். திருவள்ளுவரும் கூட ‘எனைத்தானும் நல்லவை கேட்க’ என்பார். ஏதாவது உங்கள் காதில் நல்லது விழட்டும் என்பார். ஆகவே இருப்பதைக் காப்பாற்றிப் போற்றுவது நம் கடமை. யாருக்கு விஷயம் தெரியுமோ அவர்களை ஆதரிப்பதும் நமது கடமை.


மேலும் வெளிநாட்டுக்காரர்கள் நமது சாத்திரங்களுக்குத் தேதி குறிப்பதும் தவறு என்று தெரிகிறது. அவர்கள் குப்தர் காலத்திலும், அதற்கு முந்தைய பிராமண சுங்க வம்ச ஆட்சிக்காலத்திலும் எழுதப்பட்ட புத்தகங்களையும் அதிலுள்ள ஓரிரு குறிப்புகளையும் வைத்து தவறாகக் காலம் கணிப்பர். அதை ஒதுக்கி விடுதல் நன்று.


வேதம் என்றும் வாழ்க என்று கொட்டு முரசே – மஹாகவி பாரதியார்.




Oldest Bribery in the World! Rig Veda speaks of Bribes!!


Research paper No 1954

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 25 June 2015

Uploaded in London at 14-23

I wrote about the Vedic Dog Sarama and the story’s occurrence in various cultures in mutilated or corrupted forms. The hymn in the Rig Veda (10-108) is very interesting in various ways. Here we read about


2.Inducement to change party loyalty

3.Ambassadorial role

4.Dog as human pet

5.Dog employed in detective work

All these show that the Vedic society is well advanced. Earlier I wrote about the Rig Vedic Sabha and Samitis, oldest democratic institutions in the world. All these are my observations.


Here is the Sarama hymn (RV.10-108):–

The hymn, as Griffith notes, “is a colloquy between Sarama, the messenger of the Gods or of Indra …… and the Panis or the envious demons who have carried off the cows or Rays of Light which Indra wishes to recover”.

But, according to Macdonell, the hymn is about “the capture by Indra of the cows of the Panis ….. (who) possess herds of cows which they keep hidden in a cave far beyond the Rasaa, a mythical river. Sarama, Indra’s messenger, tracks the cows and asks for them in Indra’s name, but is mocked by the Panis”.

Clearly there is a basic difference in the above descriptions of the myth, says Shrikant Talageri in his book—“The Rig Veda – A Historical Analysis”.

From Griffith’s translation (R V 10-108):–

“I come appointed messenger of Indra, seeking your ample stores of wealth, O Panis

This has preserved me from the fear of crossing; thus I have made my way over Rasaa’s waters (Sarama said this) 10-108-2

Wat is that Indra like, what is his aspect whose envoy, Sarama, from afar thou comest?

Let him approach, and we will show him friendship; he shall be made the herdsman of our cattle (Panis said this) 10-108-3

Even thus, O Sarama, hast thou come here by celestial might to make the journey

Turn thee not back, for thou shalt be our sister; O Blest One, we will give thee of the cattle (10-108-9)

bribe 2

My comments:


1.From the above three stanzas we come across the word MESSENGER/ENVOY.

This shows that the dogs have detective power to find the hidden cows and the hymn says the dog travelled long distances, even crossed a river. Nowadays we hear amazing animal stories where the dogs travel hundreds of miles to go back to their owners. Probably this is the oldest dog story. Dogs have powerful smelling – 3000 times more powerful than human beings.

2.The second point is that sending an animal as AMBASSADOR. We come across swan as a messenger in the Nala – Damyanti story and later great poet Kalidasa sings about Cloud Messenger in his poem Meghaduta. In the 2000 year old Sangam Tamil poetry and later devotional poetry we see lot of animal and bird messengers to their lovers or God. Probably Rig Veda has the oldest reference to such ambassadors (apostrophes to birds etc).

3.The third point is that Panis were ready to bribe Sarama with some cattle and ready to take her their sister. But Sarama rejected the bribe. Panis were the bad people in this episode.

Later Vedic literature Jaiminiya Brahmana (2-440/442) has a slightly different story, according to Talageri. Here, the cows and are clearly referred to as the cows of the Gods stolen by the Panis. This time, the Gods first send Suparna, the eagle or the Sun Bird. However the Panis BRIBE him into silence, and he accepts their gifts and returns without any information. The enraged Gods strangle him, and he vomits out the curds etc. received from the Panis.

Then the Gods send Sarama. She crosses the River Rasaa and approaches the Panis. She is also offered BRIBES, but (as in the Rig Veda), she refuses their bribes and returns to Indra with the information that the cows are hidden (DETECTIVE WORK) inside the Rasa. She and her descendants are then blessed by a grateful Indra.


4.Dogs are grateful animals. Sarama stick to her loyalty in spite of temptations. Dogs are kept as pets from the Vedic days.

According to Talageri, the myth appears in Brhatdevata (8-24/36). Here the myth develops a curious twist. The same sequence of events take place, but this time Sarama accepts the bribe of the Panis, and apparently transfer her loyalty to them. When she returns to Indra and refuses to disclose the hideout of the cows, Indra kicks her in a rage she vomits out the milk she received as a BRIBE and then goes back trembling to the Panis (Ayaram, Gayaram stories in Indian political field).

We know that all these are symbolic stories of what is happening in Nature. But even if we accept it, the similes such as bribe etc used reflects the ways of life in Vedic days. But the good thing about the bribe is, it is offered by the bad people (Panis). Moreover good people reject it or get punishment for accepting it.


5.Two other notes won’t be out of context here:

Chanakya, the author of Arthashastra, says that like the fish that lives in water drinks water, the government officers take bribe!

There is a Tamil Proverb, “Wont the person who extracted honey (from the honeycomb) lick his fingers?”

So, taking bribes has been there from Vedic days, but it is condemned in the Vedas.

(Bribery pictures are used from various sites;thanks)

Views of Indian Scholars on Translations of the Vedas


Compiled by London swaminathan

Article No.1901; Dated 31 May 2015.

Uploaded at London time: 18-18

“The Rigveda is not only the oldest and hoariest religious text of the oldest living religion in the world today- Hinduism, but also the most authentic record of the Vedic Hindus.

The entire text was kept alive over a long period, almost without change of a tone or a syllable, in oral form recited and memorised from generation to generation. A text which is alive in this manner, as part of a living tradition, cannot be analysed without reference to what that tradition has to say about it”.

About twenty foreign scholars tried their hands on translating the Vedas into European languages from Sanskrit. All of them failed miserably. Indian scholars are able to identify the blunders in foreign translations. Since the foreign “scholars” were not sons of the soil, they could not understand the culture. They came with a motive to undermine the country and Hindu religion. And they believed that the world was created at 9 am on 23rd October 4004 BCE!!!

To understand the foreign psyche, one must read the estimate of Indian scholars:

P Subrahmanya Aiyer, Sanskrit Curator, King’s Library, Bangkok, Siam (Thailand)

Today when the Vedic literature, though venerable as ever, has ceased to offer solace and inspiration to suffering millions, ignorant as they are of its language; when the western scholarship alone – all honour be to them – have taken the trouble of explaining our religious scriptures , imperfectly of course owing to their lack of faith in it , and still more because of their defiance for such accredited scholars as the great Sayana and others; when the weight of controversial religious literature and meaningless babbling for reforms embarrass every sensible man , your translations of a  religious literature which needs no expatiation upon it, marks, I swear with truth, a red letter day in our national history.

(Sent on the occasion of publication Vidhyanandatirtha Maharishi’s Translation of Rig Veda into Tamil, Year 1937).

Following extract is taken from The Rigveda- A Historical Analysis by Shrikant G.Talageri :–

About B K Gosh: The first Mandala falls naturally into two parts: the first fifty hymns have the Kanvas as authors like the eighth Mandala……

Actual fact: 1-1-12, 24-30 (nineteen hymns) are by Viswamitras

1-31-35 (five hymns) are by Angirases

1-12-23, 36-50 (26 hymns ) are by Kanvas

About D D Kosambi: The principal Vedic God is Agni, the god of fire; more hymns are dedicated to him than to any other. Next in importance comes Indra”

Actual fact: The ratio between number of hymns and verses to the two gods, by any count is Indra: Agni=3:2

About Maurice Bloomfield: Under the title “Untrustworthiness of Anukramani statements shown by the repetitions”, Bloomsfield remarks that the statements of sarvanukramani….. betray the dubiousness of their authority in no particular more than in relation to the repetitions………………….

However, the repetitions do not disprove the authenticity of the Anukramanis. The repetitions in the Rigveda are representative of a regular phenomenon in classical and liturgical literature throughout the world.

About Rajesh Kochar: There is even an extreme lunatic fringe which would like to suggest that the Ganga and Yamuna of the Rig Veda are rivers in Afghanistan. A political ‘scholar’, Rajesh Kochar, as part of a concerted campaign to show that the events in the Ramayana took place in Afghanistan, transfers the entire locale of the epic to Afghanistan: Ravana’s Lanka can be a small island in the midst of River Indus…by Vindhyas is meant Baluch Hills, and by sea the Lower Indus. He does this under the cover of examining the geography of the Rig Veda.

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About Griffith’s blunders

Jahnavi is another name of River Ganges. Griffith translates it as as Jahnu’s children (1-116-19) and the house of Jahnu (3-58-6)

The evidence, however, admits only one interpretation. It is River Ganga.

In RV 7-5-3, Griffith mistranslates the name of the River Asikni as dark hued people, thereby killing two birds with one stone: the people of Askini become the dark hued races, thereby wiping out the sense of direction inherent in the reference, while at the same time introducing the racial motif.

Griffith again mistranslates names of the tribes as “armed with broad axes” and the word “praca” as “forward”

(In my post “Conspiracy of Foreign Scholars”, posted on 18th April, 2015, I have given more details of T H Griffith’s mistranslation of the word Arya in Valmiki Ramayana)

Griffith in his foot note to RV 6-61-2, suggests that perhaps Sarasvati is also another name of Sindhu or the Indus.

Griffith, in his footnote to 10-75-5, takes pains to suggest that the poet addresses first, the most distant rivers.  Actual fact is the Eastern most river (Ganga) is the first river.

Bhagwan Sing in his book “ Vedic Harappans”

“No commentator or translator of the Rigveda can be relied upon blindfold; this is more so because both traditional and modern scholars have committed serious blunders in determining the socio- cultural milieu of the Rigveda which had a great bearing on the correct interpretation of a passage. Traditional commentators, working in an age when the social position of merchants had played a hegemonistic role. Western translators could not get reconciled to the fact that a civilization we meet in the disruptions of the Rigveda could have prospered at such an early period. They therefore started with  reductive interpretations—a mistake which was not rectified even after the discovery of Harappan civilization.


Marxist View of Indian History

The trouble with some of the Marxist scholars was that they lifted abstract and absolutist theories from Marxist text books and thrust them on the Vedic society without attaching any importance to the specific character and exclusive features of that society. Before lifting extracts from Morgan and others it should have been seen how many tribal societies governed by chiefdoms had created and cared to preserve in bulk a literature approximating the level of the Rigveda or how many of them had cared to remember the poets of each of the compositions popular in their society, or how many of them living on predatory enterprise had evolved a moral code in which a theft, violence, aggressiveness, arrogance, dependence on unearned income, lying, immodesty in speech and behaviour including even the sins contemplated but not committed, are condemned in the most disparaging terms and propitiated by conscientious persons.

No doubt the Vedic language is terse and almost fossilised. But its terseness is more due to misconceived notions in regard to the cultural level of its authors. If Max Muller wanted to read “the first beginnings of our society” and “the earliest deposit of the Aryan speech” in it, he had on the one hand to treat it as a product of early childhood of our society which it is not, and on the other to eulogize it –“few understand children and still fewer understand antiquity” – and finally to hold that “large number of the Vedic hymns are childish in the extreme; tedious, low, commonplace” as well as “ dead letter to us”.

An overdose of poetry in history can ruin the charm of both. But we do agree with Max Muller when he says that, “No translation in any modern language can do them justice”, and adds that translation in a foreign tongue, and more so in metrical limitations, can compound the plight by new dimensions to inaccuracy.

But the Rigveda is neither a dead letter nor a living word one has to grapple with the text with the help of Sayana and modern translators, though both of them fall short of  our requirement as we have stated at the outset. We find even key words like Devata and Rsi to have been misinterpreted by scholars like Macdonell who had also translated the Brhatdevata in which the terms have been defined.

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According to Saunaka, he who speaks in a dialogue is rsi of that verse. In other words Rsi is not necessarily the poet but the character, whether human or sub human or superhuman who is made to utter the dialogue.

Likewise Devata is not a divinity but the subject of the verse, and so it could be a deity, or an action, or an object, or even a vice. That is why we have such entities in the list of rsi names as Indra, Garuda, Vaisvanara, Sarama the dog, Vrsakapi, Indrani, Masa, marbles for gambling, Panis, Atma or soul, Jara or paramour, rivers, fish, Yama, Yami Saptarsi, Snake/sarpa, Sarparajni/chief  female snake, Soma etc. likewise we find in the list of Devatas such objects as Isu/arrow, Jya/bow string, Varma/armour, Grava/pressing stone, Ulukhala/mortar, Musala/pestle, Krsi/agriculture, Dhanu/bow, Asva/horse etc.

If Macdonell mistook them for divinities or gods, we can well understand the state of Vedic studies and the limitations of modern scholars. Likewise, we find in Griffith translating Samudra as ‘flood’ even in contexts where it clearly means ocean, ‘sena’ as host and bhisag as leech. We can imagine how misleading the translations may be, if we do not our selves read the original carefully.

In most of the studies, scholars ignore information which is inconvenient to them lest their thesis gets demolished. Sometimes they dismiss an entire development in one sentence without going into its merits.

So reconciliation of all the crucial points is the real challenge and there lies the key to correct conclusions.


What you have learnt is Handful, what you haven’t learnt is…………


What we have learnt — picture
Article written by S NAGARAJAN
Post No. 1776; Date 5th April 2015
Uploaded from London at  12–48

Hindu Vedas, Vedangas and the Great Sages Associated With the Vedas

By Santhanam Nagarajan

The primary scriptures of Hinduism are the Vedas.

They are beginning less, endless. They are eternal in nature.

The Vedas are not composed by any man. They are ‘apaurseya’ (meaning not man made).

They are called ‘Sruthi’ (meaning ‘heard’).

The Vedas were revealed to the sages after the creation of the Universe for the benefit of mankind. These have been handed down from generation to generation in the teacher -disciple tradition orally because the method of chanting cannot be mastered otherwise.

The oral method of instruction has ensured that there has not been any distortion.

The Vedas are four namely Rik , Yajur , Sama  and Atherva Veda.

These Vedas consist of thousands of mantras so to say countless. The mantras  are vibrations which are very potent.

Each of the four Vedas has further been divided into various branches. The Rik has 21 branches, the Yajur has 101 branches, the Sama has 100 branches and the Atharva Veda has 9 branches.

But at present some of the branches alone exist. Thus we have only one branch in Rik Veda. This is called pauzhiyam.

We have three branches in Yajur Veda namely Tatittriya, Kanva and Madhyandina,  only two branches in Sama  namely Chandoga and Talavakara and only one branch in Atharva Veda. This is available in Northern part of India.

Krishna Dwaipayana also known as Vyasa divided Vedas into four parts. He selected four of his intelligent disciples to study these diligently.

He taught Rig  to Paila, Yajur  to Vaisampayana, Sama  to Jaimini and Atharva Veda to Sumantu.

He also taught the 18 Puranas and Idihasa (meaning great epics) to Romoharshana.

Then again Paila has divided Rig Veda into two parts and imparted its teachings to two of his disciples – to Indrapramiti and Baspala. Baspala has divided his own branch to four parts and taught them to his pupils Bodhya, Agnimadaka, Yagnyavalkya and Parasara. Indrapramiti has taught his own branch to his son Mandukya.

One should not take the outward meaning of the mantras. Each and every word has ten meanings. Not by scholarly reading buy by intuition only one could understand these.

From time immemorial till modern days many have revealed the fantastic sciences that are potent in these which include vedic mathematics, the science of building planes, the ways to enhance one’s life span etc.

Swami Vivekananda, Maharishi Dayanada Saraswathi, Aurobindo, Swami Bharathi Krishna Tirtha are some of the great men who revealed the greatness of Vedas.

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What we have not learnt – picture

What you have learnt: Bharadwaja Story

Vedas are countless and one cannot master it completely.

An interesting story with regard to mastering of Vedas is worth reading.

The great sage Bharadwaja started studying the Vedas. One purusha ayus (meaning a full span of life for human which is one hundred years) was completed. Still there was a lot to learn. He prayed Indra for another purusha ayus. Indra granted. One more hundred years passed. But Bharadwaja found that a lot more to learn. He again prayed and Indra again granted another 100 years. Thus 300 years passed. After 300 years Indra appeared and Bharadwaja was proud that he completed Vedas fully. Indra made three huge mountains before him. He took a handful of the earth from each of the mountains and told the sage, “Oh, Bharadwaja, what you have learnt so far is equivalent to these three handfuls of the earth only and whatever Vedas you are yet to learn are equivalent to these three huge mountains.” Thus Vedas are endless.

Sage Vaisampayana, the disciple of Ved Vyas has compiled twenty seven branches of Yajur Veda.

Sukarna was the son of Sumanthu and the grand son of sage Jaimini; they have studied one branch of Sama Veda. Sumanthu divided Sama Veda samhitha into one thousand branches. Kaysaly, Hiranyanabha, Pauspincha are his disciples. Hiranyanabha had 500 disciples for himself. One disciple Kruthi has studied twenty four Samhithas of Sama Veda.

Maharishi Maunchakesh have compiled Nakhyatra, Veda kalpa, Samhitha kalpa, Agnirakshya kalpa and Santi kalpa. These five bikalpas are the important parts of Atharva Veda Samhitha.

The Vedas are also called as Veda purusha. He has got six different organs or limbs namely 1) Shiksha 2) Vyakaranam (meaning Grammar) 3) Chandas (meaning Sconce of Prosody) 4) Niruktam (Science of etymology) 5) Jyotisham (Astronomy and Astrology) 6) Kalpam

These six are called as Vedangas.

Shiksha is that work which helps us to obtain the full results of Vedas. It is found that there are 35 of them. Shiksha tells us about the various aspects of letters. Details are not enumerated here.

Vyakarana helps us in understanding the Vedas by analyzing the words and their meanings.

Chandas tells us about the various meters such as Gayatri, Trishtub etc.

Niruktam gives a detailed exposition about the Vedic words and their meanings.

Jyotisha is based on Jyothis Lord namely the sun. This tells us the proper timings for the performance of various Vedic rituals.

Kalpa means the performance or practice of something. It tells us the method of practicing the various sacrifices and other karmas (or duties) mentioned in the Vedas.