Why did Rama marry Sita on Phalguni Uththiram Day?

Written by London swaminathan

Research Article No: 1823

Date: 23 April 2015; Uploaded in London at 19-21

“During the Muhurtha sacred to the sun, and when the moon was in conjunction with UTTARA PHALGUNI, such of her kinswomen as had their husbands and male children living, put decorations on her (Uma’s) body” – Kalidasa in Kumarasambhava, Chapter 7, Sloka 6

Choza Bronzes of Parvati- Paramasiva (Kalyanasundara);wikipedia picture.

Valmiki who lived thousands of years ago according to Hindu tradition, Kalidasa who lived before first century BCE and Kamban who lived in 12th century CE — all mention the star Uttar Phalguni as the most auspicious day for the wedding. Tamil saint Sambandhar of seventh century CE praised Panguni (Phalguni) uththaram in his Tevaram verse. All the Tamil temples have been celebrating this day as a great festival day for at least 2000 years. It is very interesting to see the same culture and belief from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari. The largest country in the world at that time.

In my research paper “Why did Sangam Tamils marry on Rohini star day?” posted by me on 20th May 2014, I have explained that the two Akananuru verses and Tamil epic Silappadikaram say that Tamils got married on the day Rohini was in conjunction with the moon. Tamils followed what their Northern brothers did, because the culture was same from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari even before two thousand years ago. I have quoted Kalidasa’s Shakuntalam verse on Rohini and said that it explodes Aryan Dravidan Racist theory. Sangam Tamil literature and Silappadikaram have umpteen references to Arundhati (Vedic seer Vasistha’s wife) as the chaste woman in the world. This also gives a severe blow to the racist theory. Now there is another blow to the Aryan Dravidian Racist theory from the Panguni Uththiram festival.

Valmiki and Kamban who adapted Valmiki Ramayana in Tamil are very clear about the wedding day. Vamiki Ramayana says,

Picture of Sita Kalyanam

“Let the four princesses give their hands to four valiant princes on the same day, O Great Ascetic. O Brahmin, the wise declare the nuptials should take place on the last day under the Phalguni star when Bhaga is in the ascendant”—Bala Kanda, Chapter 72


Kamban says in Tamil “Panguni Uththaram”. The moon is in the asterism of Uththiram (Balakandam, Kamba Ramayana, Kadimana Patalam)

The astronomical name of the star Utra Phalkuni  is Beta and 93 Leo (உத்தரம்)

This is a very auspicious day for the Hindus. Holi festival and Kama Dhahanam (Burning of Kama/Desire/Manmatha are celebrated in the North and the South on a grand scale. All the Vaishnavite and Saivaite temples in Tamil Nadu have their main festivals during that period. Most importantly the marriage of Shiva with Uma is celebrated in most of the temples. Rama who broke Shiva Dhanus got married on the day Shiva got married!

It is more auspicious for the devotees of Kartikeyan (Skanda/Murugan). In all the Tamil speaking parts of the world, Murugan temples do Chariot festivals and other events.

This is the day Lord Shiva married goddess Meenakshi in Madurai. Later the Nayak king merged three festivals of Madurai, Tirupparnkundram and Alakarkoil for the convenience of general public. Now it is called Chitra (full moon day) festival.

Picture of Meenakshi Kalyan from Madurai Temple

Lord Skanda married Deivanai, daughter of Indra on the day as well. Lord Muruga helped Indra to defeat the evil demons and he, as a token of gratitude, gave his daughter Deivanai in marriage to Lord Skanda/Murugan. All these stories are mythological and to bring the atmosphere of cheer and happiness these celestial weddings were celebrated. People chose those days to celebrate the weddings of their near and dear ones. In countries like Malaysia and Singapore they take Kavadis and pull chariots in the streets.

Hindus chose Full Moon Day (Purnima or Paournami) for most of their festivals. There were no electric lights before 1880. Celebrating festivals on or around full moon day made it easier for the pilgrims to travel from far off places. Even among the 12 full moon days they avoided rainy season for big festivals. So big festivals are held between Magh (Masi) and Vaishak (Vaikasi).

Ellora Caves: Siva – Uma

Stars Rohini and Uttaram are Hindus favourite stars!


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