METALS IN VEDAS (Post No.7060)

WRITTEN by London swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 5 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-59
Post No. 7060

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Vedic Hindus were predominantly agriculturists. The Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world, was transmitted unaltered from generation to generation simply through oral traditions. It furnishes us with a picture of the earliest Hindu culture. Vedic people domesticated cows, horses and sheep. They knew the uses of bronze, gold , copper and silver.

The Rig Veda is regarded as a genuine document belonging to 1500 BCE or before that. Scholars like Herman Jacobi and BG Tilak even place it between 4000 and 6000 BCE

In the RV, we find mention of gold, silver, copper and bronze among metals. A hymn (1-162) gives an account of the bronze cauldron slung over the fire by pot-hooks for the cooking of meat.  Gold was used for ornaments like anklets, rings etc. Mention of metal vessels, tools and armour, made mainly of bronze, affords evidence of the knowledge of metal working.

Some writers believe that iron was known during the time of the Rig Veda . For according to them the word ayas in the hymns of the Rig Veda  definitely refers to iron in certain instances. But many other scholars pointed out that AYAS is a generic term for metals in the Vedic age and sometimes for gold.

In Tamil also PON refers to gold, iron and five metals in gods’ (Pancha loka= Aim Pon) idols. Even in Tamil Veda Tirukkural, it is used for both iron and gold.

Then again in the Brahmanas and Upanishads, which were of later date than the Vedas we find that the word ayas has been differentiated into lohita ayas or red metal and Krishna ayas or black metal, representing copper and iron respectively. So Rig Veda ayas is not iron and in the Indus valley civilization we don’t find iron.  It may be early Vedic civilization.

xxxsubham xxx

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2 Comments

  1. There are many presumptions here in this article.
    1.Dating of the Veda : The Europeans or other foreigners never got the date right, nor even made an intelligent or sincere attempt to understand it. Max Mueller made an ass of himself, first giving out a date, and finally saying no one could date it, and in any case it could not be later than 1500 BCE. Most people are hanging on to this date still as final, forgetting that Max MUeller, as a Christian, had 4004 BCE as the beginning of the world on the basis of the Bible, as interpreted by some Bishop. Now all this is proven bunkum. We don’t even have to mention this. BGTilak was also totally wrong in his theory of the Arctic home for the Veda and the date he guessed.
    – There is a scientific method to determine the age of the Veda. We have to begin with the Mahabharata, and the age of Krishna for which we have more than 200 ASTRONOMICAL references in the Mahabharata. Then we go further back in time for Valmiki Ramayana These are based on the position of the stars, planets and other astronomical events/ phenomena., which no man could invent, or alter., or interpolate., and which continue to be valid and are verifiable even today. While many Indian scholars have referred to these astronomical data, no one has studied all of them in a scientific manner, without mixing up astrology and traditional beliefs. Their methodology has not been scientific.
    Indian scholars tend to take 3102 BCE as the start of Kali Yuga, and the age of Krishna. But there is actually no basis for this belief in Mahabharata itself.
    – Recently Nilesh NIlkanth Oak has studied ALL the astronomical references in both the Itihasas and cross checked and reconciled them. He has studied them on a purely scientific basis, without any reference to any tradition or mythology. He has established the date of Mahabharata war as 5561 BCE- and shown scientifically that it could never have been later than 4508 BCE. He has shown the date of Rama -Ravana yuddha as 12209 BCE. He has worked out these dates on the basis of latest astronomical software, adopted even by NASA., and mathematical calculations.
    – He has cross checked these dates with inputs from many other scientific disciplines like geology, hydrology, geophysics, ocean and monsoon studies, etc, where other researchers in those fields have independently arrived at their dates. According to them , Yamuna and Sutlet separated from the mighty Saraswati river by 27,000 BCE., for which scientific evidence exists.
    – Rig Vedic mandalas do not follow a chronological order. If we follow the chronological sequence, we observe that while the earlier mandalas describe Saraswati as a mighty river, [ Ambitame, Naditame, Devitame] the later mandala 10 mentions it as just one of the 19 rivers in the Nadi Sukta. So, we may safely infer that the full mighty river Saraswati flowed in its original grand form before 27,000 BCE. This has been proved by actual scientific studies on the site of the ancient Saraswati river bed, which has been photograhed by satellites.
    – Shri Oak wrote to all the living Indian Mahabharata and Ramayana scholars studying their dates and asked them to examine and critique his theory. NO one has done so far. He has shown in true scientific spirit that he is not holding his dates as dogma but as a purely scientific theory, which can be refuted. He has invited people to refute his theory.
    My point in writing this is to show that the Veda is incredibly old, and we need not be defensive or apologetic in holding on to our dates, and do not have to kowtow to any white scholar’s opinion any longer.
    2. The idea that Rig Veda is the oldest is an alien implant, uncritically accepted by Indians. The Veda was one, but it was delimited into 4 by Vyasa. In fact, all other Vedas contain Riks from the Rig Veda- they are not mutually exclusive. No doubt they evolved over millennia.
    3. Most Indians writing on the Veda do not write on the basis of studying the Veda in the original. They read from translations. Max Mueller did not know proper Sanskrit, he did not know spoken Sanskrit. He relied on the work of Indian pundits who relied on Sayana. Sayana who lived just 600 years ago himself did not know the meaning of the Veda. He tried to show Veda as a ritual document. In this he completely lost track, and ignored the ancient knowledge, tradition and work of Yaska and other who always understood the Veda as carrying three levels of meaning. In historical times, it was only Madhvacharya who realised this and has commented on some portions of the Veda on this basis. Sayana’s translation ia absurd in many places, as in his efforts to fit the Veda to ritual, he has resorted to give different meanings to the same word.
    4. In the last century, Sri Aurobindo arrived at this conclusion independently. He has given his ideas and interpretation , refuting both Sayana and foreign scholars in two books: The Secret of the Veda and Hymns to the Mystic Fire. Following Sri Aurobindo, T.V.Kapali Sastry translated and interpreted some parts of the Veda on the same lines. Pursuing that line, Dr. R.L.Kashyap of Sri Aurobindo Kapali Sastry Institute of Vedic Culture [ SAKSHI] , Bangalore, has translated all the Vedas in their entirety., with text in Devanagari, translation and notes, giving the meaning pada by pada., with cross references. No arbitrary meaning is assigned to any rik or word or expression. With this monumental work, we no more need to refer to any old book by any other authority, be it foreign or Indian. At least we, who value the Veda and the authentic Vedic tradition, have to consign all foreign works to the dust bin and the dung heap.
    5 People may be taken aback or annoyed at the audacity in proposing a date beyond 27,000 BCE in the light of the date line of 1500 BCE held like a religious dogma even by Indians. But that is the truth , based on pure science. I would urge people to study the three books by Shri N.N. Oak before they fire their salvo;
    1. When Did The Mahabharata War Happen -The Mystery of Arundhati
    2. 12209 BCE Rama-Ravana Yuddha
    3. Bhishma Nirvana

    These are books following strict scientific methodology, and not religious or sentimental hocus-pocus.
    Incidentally, both Shri Oak and Sri Kashyap are professional engineers, with Ph.D earned in reputed Canadian/American Universities. Their works are well written treaties, fully referenced and documented. Their work is based on the study of original, not translations.

  2. Thanks for the information about N N Oak’s books. It sounds very interesting. I will ask the London University Library to get them if the London Uni. hasn’t got them.

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