POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

 

Date: 12 JUNE 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  21-11  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5103

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

 

Professor Bency Kumar Sarkar of Calcutta (Kolkata) has written an article about the political ideas of Cendeswara who has dealt with political thought under sixteen topics. When I read that I did my own quick research with the political thoughts of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar. It is not a comprehensive one but touches all the 16 topics. Ilango of Tamil epic Silappadikaram also make several statements reflecting Tamil political thought.

Candesvara was the author of Raajaniiti Rantnaakaara. He lived in the fourteenth century and served as a minister under king Harisimha deva of Mithila (North Bihar). He was a student of law and so wrote this book. But he never claimed any originality, but collected materials from several ancient authors and produced them as a digest. So his work Rajaniiti Ratnaakara is a digest. In addition to collection Candesvara made comments as well.

 

Unfortunately, we have no law book in Tamil to compare with Sanskrit law books which are umpteen in number. But Sangam Tamil literature has several verses which deal with the law. Post Sangam works such as Tirukkural and 17 other minor works and Tamil epic Silappadikaram deal with law, but not separately. Tirukkural, a didactic work, may come nearer to a law book and Silappadikaram by Ilango is also useful to compare some points.

It is very interesting to see Tirukkural- a single book of the Tamils, covers almost all the topics except Coronation.

The author of the original article B K Sarkar has given the 16 topics and showed how many times Candesvara quotes the books or authors. I will use it as the base for my research and show how many times Tamil poets touched those topics (only a rough figure):-

1.THE KING

Kulluka Bhatta Rajaniiti Kamadhenu (twice); Guru (Brihaspati or Candesvara’s Guru), Yajnavalkya- thrice; Narada Niti aand Mahabharata- twice, Mahabharata – twice, Manu (4 times); Yasa, Naradiya Smrti, Harita

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapters 70, 39, 55, 56 (Total 40 couplets)

 

xxx

2.THE MINISTER

Manu (4), Yajnavalkya, Vysa, Amarakosa, Mahabharata, Harita, Nardas smriti.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 64 (Ten couplets)

xxx

3.THE FAMILY PRIEST-

Vyasa, Manu (2), Yanjavalkya (1)

None

xxx

  1. THE JUDGE-

KaatyaayanaBrihaspati, Pallavakara Lakshmidhra, Harita, Vyasa, Manu, Narada.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 12, 108

 

xxx

5.THE COUNCIL

Manu, Harita, Brhaspati

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 99, 100

6.FORTS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapters 74,75

 

 

7.DELIBERATIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 45

 

8.TREASURE

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Pallava

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 76+ couplet 247

 

 

9.THE ARMY

Manu (7 times), Kamandaka, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

10.THE GENERAL

Manu, Mahabharata, Rajaniti

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

11.THE AMBASSADOR

Manu, Sukraniti, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata, Pallava, Kamandaka

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 69

 

 

12.KING’S  FUNCTIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Maya Maitra

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapter 39, 49, 50, 55, 56

 

 

  1. PUNISHMENT

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Pallava

Chapters 57, 55,44

 

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH ABDICATION)

Manu, Kandaki, Harita, Narada, Vyasa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brihaspati, Katyayana

N/A

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH PRIEST)

Manu, Amarakosa, Ramayana, sukraniti, Padmapurana, Lakshmidhara, Narada, Pallavakara

Pathitrupaththu (one of the 18 Major works of Sangam Period)

 

16.CORONATION

Candesvara cites 42 authors or books under this topic.

He quoted Manu 38 times

Yajnavalkya 19

Mahabharata 14

Narada 13

Kamandaka 2

Pallavakaara 8

Lakshmidhara 7

Katyayana 6 Times

Candesvaea did not consider Arthasastra as a dharma sastra. It is not a Law book but a book on politics and economics.

Tirukkural , Naladiyar and 16 other didactic works are called 18 Minor Works. They contain lot of law points.

 

–Subham–

 

 

பாரதியார் பற்றிய நூல்கள் – 49 (Post No.5037)

Written by S NAGARAJAN

 

Date: 23 MAY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  5-43 AM   (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5037

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

 

மஹாகவி பாரதியார் பற்றிய நூல்கள் – 49

க.கைலாசபதி அவர்களின் ‘இரு மகா கவிகள்

 

ச.நாகராஜன்

pictures from Taitini Das are used;thanks. 

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பாரதி ஆர்வலர் .கைலாசபதி அவர்கள் மகாகவி பாரதியாரையும் வங்கக் கவிஞர் இரவீந்திரநாத் தாகூர் பற்றியும் ஒப்பிட்டு எழுதியுள்ள நூல் இது. 114 பக்கங்கள் கொண்ட இந்த நூல் என்சிபிஎச் பிரைவேட் லிமிடெட், சென்னை -2 பதிப்பகத்தாரால் செப்டம்பர் 1962ஆம் ஆண்டு வெளியிடப்பட்டுள்ளது.

மிக அழகாகவும், தெளிவாகவும் இரு கவிஞர்களைப் பற்றிய முக்கிய விஷயங்களை பத்து அத்தியாயங்களில் தருகிறார் நூலாசிரியர்.

 

Taitinidas Dance Troupe

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இரவீந்திரநாத் தாகூரைப் பற்றி மகாகவி பாரதியார் எழுதியுள்ள இந்தக் குறிப்புடன் நூல் ஆரம்பிக்கிறது:

கீர்த்தியடைந்தால் மஹான் ரவீந்திரரைப் போலே அடைய வேண்டும். வங்காளத்தில் மாத்திரமா? இந்தியா முழுமையுமா? ஆசியா முழுதுமா? ஜெர்மனி, ஆஸ்திரியா, பிரான்ஸ் பூமண்டல முழுமையும் பரவின கீர்த்தி. இத்தனைக்கும் அவர் பாடிய பாட்டுக்களோ வங்க பாஷையிலே உள்ளன. வெறும் மொழிபெயர்ப்புகளைத்தான் உலகம் பார்த்திருக்கிறது. அதற்குத் தான் இந்தக் கீர்த்தி.

தாகூர் இறப்பதற்கு இருபது ஆண்டுகள் முன்னதாகவே இறந்தவர் பாரதியார். அவரை விட இருபத்தோரு ஆண்டுகள் இளையவர்.

இருவரது கவிதைகளின் ஆழத்தையும், கவிஞர்களின் பார்வையில் உள்ள ஒற்றுமை, வேற்றுமைகளையும் அலசி ஆராய்கிறது இந்த நூல்.

3

ஒரு முக்கிய நிகழ்ச்சியை இந்த நூல் இரண்டாம் அத்தியாயத்தில் பதிவு செய்கிறது. அது வருமாறு:

மகாகவி பாரதியாருடைய சரிதையைத் தமிழில் எழுதியவர்களில் ஒருவரான சுத்தானந்த பாரதியாரும், ஆங்கிலத்தில் எழுதியுள்ள பேராசிரியர் பி.மகாதேவனும்  ஒரு சம்பவத்தைக் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளனர். பாரதியார் இரவீந்திரநாத் தாகூருடன் கவிதைப் போட்டி நடத்த விரும்பினார் என்பதைக் காட்டும் அந்தச் சம்பவத்தைச் சுத்தானந்தர் பின்வருமாறு எழுதியுள்ளார்.

பாரதி : அப்பா! இப்போது டாகூர் எங்கிருக்கிறார்?

சிஷ்யன் : மதுரையில்.

பாரதி : உடனே புறப்படு. சலோ மதுரை.அவனை ஒரு கை பார்க்கிறேன்.

சிஷ்யன் : நாம் போவதற்குள் டாகூர் சென்று விட்டால்..?

பாரதி : அட அபசகுனமே! நமது தமிழ்நாட்டுக்கு டாகூர் வந்து நம்மைக் காணாமல் செல்லுவதா?

சிஷ்யன் : விலாசம் தெரியாதே!

பாரதி : அட சீ! “டாகூர் மதுரை என்றால் தந்தி பறக்கும் ஐயா!

சிஷ்யன் : சரி, என்ன செய்தி அறிவிக்க?

பாரதி : ‘தமிழ்நாட்டுக் கவியரசர் பாரதி, உம்மைக் கண்டு பேச வருகிறார் என்று உடனே தந்தி அடியும்.

சிஷ்யன் : அங்கே போய் என்ன செய்யப் போகிறீர்?

பாரதி : ஓய் ஓய், நாம் டாகூருக்கு ஒன்று சொல்லுவோம்.நீர் வங்கக் கவி; நாம் தமிழ்க் கவி, விக்டோரியா ஹாலில் கூட்டம் கூட்டுவோம். உமது நோபல் பரிசைச் சபைமுன் வையும். நாமும் பாடுவோம்.நீரும் பாடும். சபையோர் யார் பாட்டுக்கு ‘அப்ளாஸ் கொடுக்கிறார்கள் என்று பார்ப்போம். நமது பாட்டே நயம் என்று சபையோர் மெச்சுவார்கள். உடனே உமது கையால் எமக்கு நோபல் வெகுமதியைத் தந்து செல்ல வேண்டியது என்போம்.

Dancer Taitini Das in Tagore Celebrations

சிஷ்யன் : அதெப்படி? அவர் வங்காளத்தில் பாடுவார். நீர் தமிழில் பாடுவீர். வங்காளத்திற்குக் கிடைத்த நோபல் பரிசு உமது தமிழுக்கு எப்படிக் கிடைக்கும்?

பாரதி : அட, அட ஜெயமே! சர்வேசுவரன் தமிழனுக்கு எல்லாம் வைத்தான்; புத்தி மட்டும் வைக்கவில்லை. நேற்றுப் பிறந்த வங்காளத்தான் நோபல் பரிசு வாங்க வேண்டும். கற்பகோடி காலம் வாழ்ந்த தமிழ் அந்தப் பரிசு லாயக்கில்லையோ?

சிஷ்யன் : மன்னிக்க வேண்டும். தமிழ் வங்கத்திற்குத் தாழ்ந்ததில்லை. ஆனாலும் அவர் உலக மகாகவி, உலகப் புகழ் பெற்றவர்.

பாரதி : நாம் உலகப் புகழ் பெற முடியாதோ? அட தரித்திர மனிதா! அந்த இழவுக்குத் தான் நோபல் வெகுமதியை டாகூரிடமிருந்து வெல்ல வேண்டும் என்கிறோம்!

இந்த மாதிரியே பேசிக் கொண்டு பாரதியார் இரவில் எட்டையபுரம் வந்தார். (1919) பிறகு நன்றாகச் சாப்பிட்டுத் தலையைச் சாய்த்தார்; மறுநாள் காலையில் தான் எழுந்தார். நோபல் வெகுமதி விஷயம் மறந்தே போயிற்று.

         

இது யோகி சுத்தானந்த பாரதியார் தீட்டிய சித்திரம். 1918-ல் பாரதியார் புதுச்சேரி வாழ்க்கை அலுத்துப் போய்த் தமது மனைவியின் ஊரான கடயத்திற்குச் சென்றார். கடயத்தில் ஈராண்டு வாழ்க்கை; அப்பொழுதுதான் மேற்கூறிய சம்பவம் நிகழ்ந்ததாகத் தெரிகிறது.

நூலாசிரியர் ரவீந்திரரைப் பாரதியார் பாராட்டி எழுதியதையும் அவரது சிறுகதைகள் சிலவற்றை மொழிபெயர்த்திருப்பதையும் இந்த அத்தியாயத்தில் குறிப்பிடுகிறார்.

ஸ்ரீ ரவீந்திர திக் விஜயம் என்னும் கட்டுரையை 1921 ஆகஸ்டு 25ல் சுதேசமித்திரனிலே பாரதியார் எழுதினார்.அதற்கடுத்த மாதம் செப்டம்பர் 11ம் தேதி பாரதி அமரராகிறார்.

புதுச்சேரியில் இருந்த காலத்தில் (1908-1918) தாகூர் சிறுகதைகளில் எட்டைப் பாரதியார் மொழி பெயர்த்தார்.

தாகூருடைய ஐந்து கட்டுரைகளை பாரதியார் மொழி பெயர்த்திருக்கிறார். 1917-ல் ‘மாடர்ன் ரிவியூசஞ்சிகையில் இந்தக் கட்டுரைகள் வெளிவந்தன.

        

4

மூன்றாம் அத்தியாயத்தில் தாகூர் உலகக் கண்ணோட்டத்தைக் கொண்டிருந்ததையும் பாரதியார் இந்தியாவில் முகிழ்ந்த மறுமலர்ச்சியானது இந்து மதத்தின் அடிப்படையில் இருந்ததை ஏற்றுக் கொண்டதையும் நூலாசிரியர் விவரிக்கிறார்.

மகாத்மா காந்தியை எமது தலைவர் என்று தாகூர் பாராட்டினாலும் அவர் ஆரம்பித்த வெகு ஜன இயக்கத்தைக் கண்டித்தார். ஆனால் பாரதியாரோ, “ஸ்ரீ காந்தியின் நெறியையும் திடசித்தத்தையும் பார்த்தால் இப்படிப்பட தெய்வீக குணங்களமைந்த புருஷனும் உலகத்திலிருக்கிறானாவென்று யோசிக்க வேண்டியதாயிருக்கிறது” என்று மகாத்மாவை வெகுவாகப் பாராட்டினார்.

      

5

இந்தியா முழுவதையும் கவர்ந்த சக்தி வழிபாட்டை ஏறத்தாழ தாகூர் நிராகரித்தார் என்றே சொல்ல வேண்டும் என்று ஆறாம் அத்தியாயத்தில் விவரிக்கும் நூலாசிரியர் பாரதியார் சிவாஜி உற்சவம் கோலாகலமாக நடைபெற வேண்டும் என்று ‘இந்தியா பத்திரிகையில் வேண்டுகோள் விடுத்ததையும் சக்தி வழிபாட்டை பாரதியார் மேற்கொண்டதையும் விவரிக்கிறார்.இருவருக்கும் உள்ள வேறுபாடு நன்கு விளக்கப்பட்டிருக்கிறது.

 

6

ஏழாம் அத்தியாயம் தாகூர் இயந்திரங்களைப் பற்றி கருத்துத் தெரிவிக்கையில் அவை சிருஷ்டிக்கு முரணானவை என்று கருத்துக் கொண்டிருந்த போது பாரதியாரோ அதற்கு நேர் முரணான கருத்தைக் கொண்டிருந்ததைச் சுட்டிக் காட்டுகிறது.

7

மகாகவிகள் இருவரும் தமது எழுத்துக்களில் கவிதையே நித்தியத்துவத்தைப் பெறும் என்பதை உணர்ந்திருந்தனர்.இருவரும் மேலான இசை உணர்வு கொண்டவர்கள். இது இருவருக்கும் உள்ள ஒற்றுமை.

 

இது போன்ற ஒற்றுமைகளைச் சுட்டிக் காட்டும் நூல் அரவிந்தருடனான பாரதியாரின் தொடர்பை விரிவாக இறுதி அத்தியாயங்களில் சுட்டிக் காட்டுகிறது.

 

    

 

நூலாசிரியர் இலங்கையின் பிரபலமான எழுத்தாளர். இலங்கை சர்வகலாசாலையில் விரிவுரையாளராகப் பணியாற்றியவர். இந்த சிறந்த ஆய்வு நூலை எழுதியுள்ளதன் மூலம் இரு கவிஞர்களைப் பற்றிய சிறந்த ஒப்பீடு நமக்குக் கிடைக்கிறது.

பாரதி ஆர்வலர்கள் அவசியம் படிக்க வேண்டிய ஒரு நூலாக இது அமைகிறது.

****

MYTHS ABOUT TAMIL VEDA EXPLODED; DR NAGASAMY’S NEW BOOK ON THIRUKKURAL (Post No.4939)

MYTHS ABOUT TAMIL VEDA EXPLODED; DR NAGASAMY’S NEW BOOK ON THIRUKKURAL (Post No.4939)

 

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  17-22 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4939

 

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TIRUKKURAL is considered the Tamil Veda; it was written by Thiru Valluvar. One of Valluvar’s contemporary himself said this in Thiruvallauva Malai. He said that Sanskrit has Veda and Tamil has now got Tirukkural. It has 1330 couplets divided into 133 chapters which deal with didactic topics. There are lots of myths about its author Tiruvalluvar and his book. After Dravidian parties came to power in Tamil Nadu fifty years ago, lot of things about Vallauvar’s personal life was changed in the text books. And the accepted commentary of Parimel Azakar is tampered with. Dr R Nagaswamy, eminent historian and famous archaeologist looks at the book from a new angle.

 

He explodes the myths about G U Pope’s contribution to Tamil literature, Pope’s half- baked statement about Valluvar’s date  (800 to 900 CE) and some people’s attempt to show Tirukkural a text of Jain origin. G U Pope who translated 72 Purananuru verses, deliberately vomited Kapilar’s vesre showing him as an ‘Antana’ (Brahmin) and dubbed him a Pariah. Dr Nagasamy also Shows how hardly Pope tried to show Valluvar as a Christian or influenced by Christianity.

Another myth exploded by Dr R N is the gold coin of Valluvar. The coin said to have been issued by Ellis is not of Valluvar, but of Buddha. It was found in a museum in Calcutta. Ellis’ name was unnecessarily dragged into this matter.

Nagaswamy described in detail the futile colonial attempt to Christianise Tirukkural.

Dr R Nagaswamy needs no introduction. He was the Director of Archaeology in Tamil Nadu from 1966 to 1988. He was the Vice Chancellor of Kancheepuram University. He was the author of over 50 books and hundreds of research articles. He has travelled around the world lecturing on History and culture of Tamil people. Recently he has been awarded Padmabhusan by the Government of India.

 

He says that there is no gem in the whole field of Tamil literature more precious than Tirukkural. He has compared Tirukkural with lot of similar verses in Sanskrit Dharma sastras, Artha sastra, Natya sastra and Kama Sastra. He has also shown that Valluvar wrote it on the basis of Hindu values Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Valluvar himself divided his book into three major sections Dharma (Aram), Artha (porul) and Kama (Inbam). Moksha is dealt with in the book under Dharma.

 

Dr Nagaswamy says that the work of Valluvar is an abridgement of Sanskrit sastras.  Without leaving anyone to guess the authenticity, he has given the relevant passages as well. So no one could challenge him. It is a treasure for the English speakers,  and particularly the Non Tamil speakers in India.

Though scholars like V R Ramachndra Dikshitar has done such a comparative study before Dr Nagasawmy, he has added more materaias from different scriptures such as Dhammapada of Buddha and Bhagavad Giat of Lord Krishna.

Another unique feature is the addition of Sanskrit verses in Devanagari lipi which would be of help to North Indians.

He as beautifully summarised all the relevant data from Sangam literature to prove the ancient character of the Tirukkural. First he deals with the three theories about the age of the work and concludes that it is older than the Tamil epic Silappadikaram of second century CE. He rightly pointed out that the couplets are in Sutra format which is further proof for its age.

 

About Valluvar’s religion Dr Nagasamy says, after examining the previous arguments, “The examination of the personal religion of Valluvar does not  give us any definite lead in the matter. Valluvar did not wish to give his work a sectarian character. He gives lot of examples to show the striking correspondence between the Kural couplets and the works of Manu, Kautilya and Vatsyayana.

 

In another chapte,r the author of the current book examines the statement of Nataka Valakku by the doyen of Tamil literature U Ve  Swaminatha Aiyar.

In the concluding chapter hr makes an important statement, “Thirukkural of Thiruvalluvar can be fully understood only with the knowledge of Sanskrit, as it draws heavily from Dharma sastras, Artha sastras, Natya sastra and Kama Sastra and also their commentaries.

Everyone who is interested in Tamil literature  must have this book.

 

The book is priced only 150 rupees which is very cheap. The book has got great value for money.

Details of the Publication:

Tirukkural- An Abridgement of Sastras

Dr R Nagaswamy

December 2017

Pages 248, Price Rs.150

Published by Tamil Arts Academy and Giri Trading Agency Private Limited

Contact: www.giri.in

sales@giri.in

 

–SUBHAM-

ON WEALTH- THE RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA (Post No.4924)

ON WEALTH- THE RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA (Post No.4924)


WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 17 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  14-49 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4924

 

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Rig Veda is the oldest book in the world. Tamil Veda is Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar, the greatest of the Tamil poets, who lived around 5th century CE. Tamil Nadu government placed him in 30 BCE.

Tiruvalluvar, Kavasa Ailushan and Grtsamada- all the three poets praise wealth (money). They know the importance of wealth. Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar makes it very clear that this world in not for the poor.

 

Let us look at a few verses from both the Rig Veda and the Tamil Veda Tirukkural.

“As those without money (wealth) can have no enjoyments in this world so also are those without compassion denied the blessings of the world above (heaven)”—Kural/couplet 247

 

The poor may sometimes (by winning a lottery prize, finding a treasure trove)  prosper, but those without compassion will be ruined without redemption – Kural 248

 

It is interesting to note that Valluvar insists one should have money but money may come and go, but compassion once gone, gone for ever, no redemption.

Money and wealth are compared with the wheel of a cart, elsewhere in the Rig Veda. It goes up and down.

 

Now look at what the Vedic poets say about wealth: –

The Right Way to Wealth

Rishi- Kavasha, son of Elusha

Rig Veda 10-31-2

Let a man think well of wealth, and try to

win it by the path of Law and by worship;

and let him consult his own intellect

and grasp with his mind greater ability

 

 

And in another hymn,

Rishi Gritsamada

RV 2-21-6

 

Bestow on us, Indra, the best of treasures;

the efficient mind and great brilliance

the increase of wealth, the health of bodies

the sweetness of speech and the fairness of days.

 

Bring thou to us wealth with the power to strike – says another rishi/seer in RV3-46-4

xxx

 

But the Brihadaranyaka (Big Forest Upanishad) Upanishad warns money wont help a person in the other world:-

Through wealth there is no hope of immortality

–Br.U. 4-5

What should I do with worldly wealth by which I cannot become immortal?

 

–Maitreyi to Yajnavalkya in Br.Up. 2-4-3

 

That is the reason Hindu seers erected the Hindu building on the four pillars of Dharma, Artha , Kama, and Moksha ( Virtue, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation.)

Seers insist that one should find a balance between the four and they say one should have one or two  without affecting the others in the four.

Tirukkural followed the same pattern and Valluvar divided his book into three chapters: Virtue, Wealth and Pleasure.

It is also interesting to note that the same order is recited in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam in at least two or three verses.

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

 

RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA ON GAMBLING (Post No.4907)

RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA ON GAMBLING (Post No.4907)

 

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 12 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  10-33 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4907

 

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Dice is a Vice; Be Wise and slip out Nicely! –The Rig Veda (10-34)

 

It is very interesting to see both Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world, and the Tamil Veda Tirukkural, the greatest Tamil book, oppose gambling. Both point out the evils of gambling. This message is very relevant even today. Unlike the olden days now Governments themselves are encouraging gambling by conducting lotteries in almost all the countries. Only when poor people lost everything and started stealing and robbing, they put some limits for spending or gambling in casinos. All the people knew this is only an eyewash. Governments get more funds from horse races, betting shops and lotteries. In London and other western cities every bazar street has at least three to four Betting shops. It makes people to think that they can make good money without working. Even Manu, the oldest law maker in the world lists gambling as an evil.

 

The longest epic in the world with two million lines, The Mahabharata, is an epic based on the evils of gambling. In those days, even kings gambled their countries.

 

Let us compare the famous Gambling Hymn in the Rig Veda and the chapter on gambling in the Tamil Veda Tirukkural written by Tiru Valluvar.

The author of the Rig Vedic gambling hymn (10-34) is

a seer called Kavasa Ailushan.

Picture posted by Lalgudi Veda

 

It is in the last mandala of the RV (10-34). This describes the lament of a gambler and the advice he gives to the world. A very interesting poem!

 

Dice is a Vice; Be wise and slip out Nicely!

The poem has 14 stanzas or mantras; the summary of the poem is: –

Gambling gives pleasure like the Soma drink from Mujawan mountains ( no one is sure about its location; only guess work).

 

My wife was very nice to me and my friends. She never got angry; but I drove her out after losing in the gambling (What a shame!)

 

Wives don’t like it; mother and mother in law hate it. They think that the person is going wrong.

My father, mother, wife and sons say- We do not know this fellow, take him out! (like a drunkard on the roadside)

Every time I go to the casino; I think I am going to win! But the dice favours only my opponent (very much disappointing)

 

The dice go up and down and dance. They are like the coal that burns my heart.

The gambler goes to others’ houses in the night ( to steal or borrow money)

The gambler feels remorseful when he sees the status of his wife and wives of others. He started the day with good hopes and finished it miserably.

Now I open both my palms to show I have nothing on me now. (I am bankrupt)

Good Advice!

Do not play with the dice.

Better till your lands and be content (with what you harvest there)

Only when you feel content, thinking that is plenty, you will feel happy and regain your wife. This is God’s advice. Savita Devi told me this!

(To the dice coins, the gambler say)–

Don’t be angry with me; be my friend. Do not attack me. Let your anger fall on the misers. Go to my enemy and let him fall in your trap.

 

Family might have enjoyed the winning money; but they are not ready to share the sin.

The game of the dice was played in public places such as halls (compare it with modern casinos)

The sound of the rolling dice is luring; I vow not to repeat the mistake; but the sound of the rolling dice and friends pull me towards it. I run to it like a woman runs to the meeting place to see her lover.

After losing I look like an old horse ready to be sold (unwanted stuff).

Mysterious Number 53

There is one stanza which baffles every translator.

The group of the avowed gamblers plays the game, divided into three five (tri pancha in Sanskrit); or three times five or in a group of fifty three. – Sayana takes it as 53 coins in the gambling; Ludwik says 15;it shows Vedic language is very difficult to understand. Though we have detailed report about Dice Games in Nala Charita and Mahabharata, still we could not solve this mysterious Tri pancha!!!)

In the same way, ‘To the great captain of your mighty army’ is translated as the big number in Dice by some and  as Kali, the losing throw by others. Vedic language is several thousand years old; no one can translate it correctly; Griffith attempted to translate it in English and say that the meaning is obscure, the meaning is uncertain in every other page; Mischief makers like Max Muller say they followed Sayana, but use their own interpretations; Sayana of 13th century himself only guessed the meaning several thousand years after the Vedic seers recited it!

The dice are made with Vibhitaka seeds- no one knew the plant!

 

TIRUKKURAL

Now let us compare it with the Tamil Veda Tirukkural:

Tiru Valluvar described the evils of gambling in ten couplets ( Chapter 94; from 931 to 940)

 

931.Do not take to gambling even if you can win.

What can the fish gain by swallowing the baited hook?

  1. To win once, the gambler loses a hundred to foes. What good can gamblers gain in life? Nothing but loss.

933.Were a man to speak incessantly of that which he gains by rolling dice, the wealth would leave him and pass on to others.

934.Gambling increases miseries and ruins one’s fame. There is nothing that reduces one to poverty like that.

935.Many who took pleasure in gambling and gambling booths, proud of their skill in dice have been ruined.

 

(like the Rig Vedic seer, Tiru Valluvar also talks about casinos/gambling booths. Like Rig Veda, we see the miserable status of the gambler here, loosing fame and standing like on old unwanted horses, ready to be sold).

938.Gambling ruins a man’s fortune, makes him resort to falsehood.

This can be compared with the night visit of the gambler in the Veda (for stealing or borrowing).

 

  1. The five things

clothing

wealth

food

fame and

learning/education

avoid a person who takes to gambling

 

  1. Passion for gambling grows with every loss. It is craving for life which grows through all suffering.

This can be compared to a woman running to see her lover kin the Rig Veda. The more she is separated the more she longs to see him. A person who is sick wants to live longer.

In the Kural couplet 936 , Tiruvalluvar refers to Hindu goddess of Misfortune Muudevi (Mukati in Tamil). He says gambling is the ogress misfortune.

Manu also refers to the evils of gambling in at least 20 couplets.

–Subham–

 

 

POETS’ CLOSE OBSERVATION ON BEES! (Post No.4782)

Time uploaded in London- 19-48

Written by London swaminathan

Post No. 4782

PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources. They may not be directly related to the article. They are only representational.

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Tamil and Sanskrit poets are keen observers of nature. We have already seen how Dattatreya and others observed the nature and learnt from them. Crows and snakes are used by the poets and saints to teach us lot of things. Two poets warn us not to accumulate money so that we would not lose like the bees. William Wordsworth said, ‘Let Nature be your Teacher’; Hindu poets have been following it for over two thousand years. Here are two verses about the bees:

Chanakya says,

The pious people should always give food and money in charity, never should they accumulate them. The glory of the illustrious Karna, Bali and Vikramditya persists unabated even now. Look, the honey bees rub their hands and feet because of the despondency of losing honey that they had gathered for long.

–Chanakya Niti 11-18

 

deyam bhojyadhanam sadaa sukruthirbinaa sanchitavyam sadaa

sriikarnasya nhaleerasca vikramateradhyaapi kiirtihi sthithaa

 

asmaakammadhu daanabogarahitam nashtam chiraat sanchitam

wirvaanaaditi paanipaathayugale garshantyaho makshikaahaa

xxx

A Tamil poet in Naladiyar says………………

Naladiyaar is a Tamil didactic book composed by Jain saints in Tamil. The poet Padumanaar, who compiled 400 verses, says,

“Those who vexing their own bodies by stinting in food and clothing, perform not acts of charity that ever remain undestroyed, but avariciously hoard up a great wealth, will lose it all. O Lord of the mountains, which touch the sky, the bees that are driven away from the honey they have collected bear testimony to this.

 

—-Subham–

 

 

 

மாணவர்கள் நாடகம் (சினிமா) பார்க்கக்கூடாது! சாணக்கியன் கட்டளை (Post No.4770)

Date: 21 FEBRUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-06 am

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Post No. 4770

 

PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources. They may not be directly related to the article. They are only representational.

 

 

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சாணக்கியன் என்ற பிராஹ்மணன் 2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் வாழ்ந்தான். உலகம் வியக்கும் முதல் பொருளாதார நூலான அர்த்தசாஸ்திரத்தை யாத்தான்; பல நீதி மொழிகளை புகன்றான். மகத சாம்ராஜ்யத்தை ஸ்தாபித்து அலெக்ஸாண்டரின் படைகளை நடுநடுங்க வைத்தான். ஆனால் வியப்பான விஷயம் என்ன வென்றால் ஒரு குடிசையில் வாழ்ந்தான். விருப்பு வெறுப்பற்ற ஒரு யோகி போல வாழ்ந்ததால் யாருக்கும் கட்டளை இடும் துணிவு அந்த பிராஹ்மணனுக்கு இருந்தது.

 

அவன் செப்பாத விஷயம் இல்லை; பேசாத பொருள் இல்லை. சாணக்கிய நீதி என்னும் நீதி நூலில் அவன் மொழிவதாவது:

 

முட்டாளாக இருக்கும் மந்தமான மாணவர்களுக்குக் கற்பிக்கும் , புத்திசாலியான ஆசிரியர்களும் துன்பமே அடைவார்கள்;

கெட்ட பெண்களைக் கவனித்துக் கொள்வோர் நிலையும் அஃதே;

கெட்டவர்களுடன் நட்பு பாராட்டுவோரும் பரிதாபத்துக்கு உரியவர்களே;

சாணக்கிய நீதி, அத்தியாயம் 1, ஸ்லோகம் 4

 

மூர்க்க சிஷ்ய உபதேசேன  துஷ்ட ஸ்த்ரீபரணேன ச

துக்கிதைஹி ஸம்ப்ரயோகேன பண்டிதோஅப்யவஸீததி

 

xxx

 

மாணவர்கள் நாடகம் (சினிமா) பார்க்கக்கூடாது!

 

மாணவர்கள் Make-up மேக் அப் போட்டு அலங்காரம் செய்து கொள்ளக் கூடாது; ஆடல் பாடல், நாடக ( தற்காலத்தில் திரைப்படம்) நிகழ்ச்சிகளில் ஈடுபடக் கூடாது; காமம் க்ரோதம் (கோபம்) இருக்கக்கூடாது.

 

 

ஒரு மாணவன் கீழ்க்கண்ட எட்டு விஷயங்களைக் கைவிட வேண்டும்:

காமம் , கோபம், பேராசை, கேளிக்கை நிகழ்ச்சிகள், அலங்காரம் (மேக்- அப்), ஆடல், நாடக நிகழ்ச்சிகள், அதிக தூக்கம், மற்றவர்களைப் புகழ்ந்து வாழுதல் (காரியம் நடப்பதற்காக இச்சகம் பேசுதல்)

காமம் க்ரோதம் ததா லோபம் ஸ்வாதம் ச்ருங்காரகௌதுகே

அதி நித்ராதி ஸேவே ச வித்யார்த்தீ ஹ்யாஷ்ட வர்ஜயேத்

 

சாணக்கிய நீதி 11-10

 

xxx

வாத்தியாருக்கு நன்றிக்கடன்

 

ஆசிரியர் ஆனவர் உனக்கு ஒரு அக்ஷரம் (எழுத்து) சொல்லிக் கொடுத்தவர் ஆகட்டும்; அப்படியும் கூட அவருக்கு நன்றிக் கடன் செலுத்த உலகில் ஒரு பொருளும் இல்லை.

ஏக மேவாக்ஷரம் யஸ்து குருஹு சிஷ்யம் ப்ரபோதயேத்

ப்ருதிவ்யாம் நாஸ்தி தத் த்ரவ்யம் யத் தத்வா சான்ருணீ பவேத்

சாணக்கிய நீதி 15-1

 

((பெண்கள், பெற்றோர்கள், ஆசிரியர் ஆகியோரை இந்துமத இலக்கியங்கள் உயர்த்தி வைக்கும் அளவுக்கு உலகில் வேறு எந்த இலக்கியமும் உயர்த்தி வைக்கவில்லை; அப்படி இருந்தால் அவை எல்லாம் நமக்கு 1000, 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்குப் பின்னர் எழுதப்பட்டவையே.

விருந்தோம்பல், தூது, அமைச்சர், அரசன், கொடி, முரசு, கோ மாதா , தானம், தவம் – முதலிய விஷயங்களும் உலகில் எந்த நாட்டுப் பழைய இலக்கியங்களிலும் கிடையாது. இவை எல்லாம் இந்தியாவே உலகின் பழைய நாடு, இந்தியாவே உலகிற்கு நாகரீகத்தைப் பரப்பிய நாடு என்பதற்குச் சான்று பகரும். ரிக் வேதத்தின் கடைசி பாடல், இன்று ஐ.நா. முதலிய அமைப்புகளின் நோக்கமாக இருக்கின்றது. இத்தகைய உயர் சிந்தனை மலர, ஒரு சமுதாயம் பல்லாயிரம் ஆண்டுகள் வாழ்ந்த பின்னரே உதிக்கும்.

xxx

 

ஏட்டுச் சுரைக்காய் கறிக்கு உதவாது

ஒரு ஆசிரியரிடம் செல்லாது, புத்தகத்தில் இருந்து மட்டும் படித்தவன், ஒரு சபையில் சோபிக்க முடியாது; ஒரு பெண் கள்ளக் காதல் கொண்டால் எப்படியோ அப்படித்தான் இதுவும்!

 

புஸ்தகேஷு ச யா அதீதம் நாதீதம் குருஸந்நிதௌ

ஸபாமத்யே ந சோபந்தே ஜாரகர்பா இவ ஸ்த்ரியஹ

சாணக்கிய நீதி 17-1

ஒரு பெண், பெரிய பெரிய ஆட்களுடன் எல்லாம் படுத்து இருக்கலாம்; இருந்த போதிலும் அதை பொது இடங்களில் பேச முடியாது பேசினால் குட்டு வெளிப்பட்டுவிடும்; அது போலவே புத்தகத்தை மட்டும் படித்துப் பொருள் அறிபவன்; பொது சபைகளில் நாலு பேர் கேள்வி கேட்டால், திரு திருவென முழிப்பான்; அவன் குட்டு வெளிப்பட்டுவிடும்; ஆசிரியர் கற்பித்து இருந்தால், அவரே தடை எழுப்பி விடைகாணக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்து இருப்பார்.

 

ஆசிரியர்- மாணவர் உறவு பற்றி 2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் உலகில் இவ்வளவு தெளிவாக யாரும் சொல்லியிருக்க முடியாது.

அலெக்ஸாண்டரின் குரு அரிஸ்டாடில் (Aristotle)- அரிஸ்டாடிலின் குரு பிளாட்டோ (Plato) — பிளாட்டோவின் குரு சாக்ரடீஸ் (Socrates)- அவர் சாணக்கியனுக்கு ஒரு நூற்றாண்டு முன்னர் வாழ்ந்தார். அவருடைய கேள்வி கேட்டுப் பதில் காணும் முறையும் (Socratic Method) அவருக்கு 500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் உபநிடதத்தில் உள்ளது. அவரும் ஏசு கிறிஸ்துவும் உபநிடதங்களைக் கற்றது அவர்களின் உபதேசங்களில் வெள்ளிடை மலை என விளங்குகிறது.

 

(நல்லவர்களை எப்படி அறியலாம்? பிறர் எழுதியதை, பிறர் எடுத்த படங்களை அவர்களுடைய பெயர்களுடன் வெளியிடுவார்கள். கெட்டவர்களை எப்படிக் கண்டுபிடிக்கலாம்? பிறர் எழுதியதை,அது வெளியான பிளாக், பத்திரிக்கை பெயர்களை நீக்கிவிட்டு , தங்களுடையது போல வெளியிடுவார்கள்;  கெட்டவர்களைக் கண்டுபிடிப்பது மிகவும் எளிது))

Chanakya and Tamil Poetess Avvaiyar (Post No.4739)

Date: 13 FEBRUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-46

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Post No. 4739

 

PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources.

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

 

 

Who is Chanakya?

A Brahmin scholar, statesman, author of the first economics book in the world (Arthasastra), a king maker and author of several didactic works. He lived 2300 years ago.

 

Who is Avvaiyar?

There were at least three poetesses by the name Avvaiyar. Some people even say that there were six Avvaiyars. Most famous Avvaiyar lived 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu during Sangam age. But the Avvaiyar who wrote Muuthrai belonged to the middle ages. Her Athichudi is taught to the infants in the school.

 

Chanakya says,

If people make friends with a person of evil conduct, evil eye, evil habitation, the wicked one, the person doing so comes to naught quickly.

Duraacaariivca durdushtirduraavaasii ca durjanah

Yanmaitrii kriyate pumbirnarah siighram vinasyati

Chapter 2, sloka 19

Avoid contact with the wicked, associate with the good, engage in good deeds day in day out, keep in mind impermanence all the time.

Tyaja durjanasamsargam bhaja saadhusamaagamam

Kuru punya mahoraatram smara nityamanityataam

Chapter 14, sloka 20

 

Tamil Poetess Avvaiyar says,

To see the vicious is bad; to give ear to the words of the wicked is evil. To voice forth the base qualities of the evil or vulgar is wicked. To associate with them as friends is sinful.

Muuthurai 9

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Bull 5 metres, Horse 10 metres, elephant 1000 metres!

 

One should keep away from a cart to the distance of five hastas ( a measure of length equal to 24 angulas or about 18 inches) from a horse ten hastas, an elephant 100 hastas and for a wicked man even by leaving the country

Chapter 7, sloka 7

Sakatam pancahastena dasahastena vaajinam

Hastinam satahastena desatyaagena durjanam

 

This is in Tamil work ‘Neethi Venba:’ Keep away from horned animals to the distance of 5 hastas, from a horse ten hastas, for an elephant 1000 hastas and for a wicked man run away as long as he disappears from your sight.

Neethi Venba is by an anonymous author.

 

xxxxxx

 

Sandalwood and Sugar cane

Chanakya says,

The sandal wood tree, even when cut, does not give up its fragrance, a lordly elephant, even when old, does not give up its playfulness; sugarcane, even when inserted in machine, does not give up its sweetness. One born in a high family, even when reduced to poverty, does not give up the qualities going with good conduct.

Chapter 15, sloka 18

Chinnopi candanatarurna jahaati gandham

Vruddopi vaaranapatirna jahaati liilaam

Yantraarpito madhurataam  na jahaati  cekshuh

Kshiinopi na tyajanti siilagunaan kuliinah

 

Avvaiyar says,

Though the milk be boiled, it does not lose taste. Though enemies move sociably, they are enemies. The noble-hearted be reduced in circumstances, they are ever noble. The conch shell, though burnt is white nevertheless.

Muuthurai 4

The fragrance of the soft sandal wood, even when ground down, does not abate. Though wreathed kings suffer defeats and have less revenues, will they thereby become less generous or less resolute?

Muuthurai 28

 

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Can crow become an eagle?

Chankaya says,

 

One goes up by one’s qualities and not by occupying a high seat. Does a crow by sitting on top of a place turn into Garuda?

Gunairuttamataam yaati noccaira asanasamsthitah

Praasaadasikharasthopi kaakah kim garudaayate

Chapter 16, verse 6

Avvaiyar says,

The turkey cock, seeing the wild peacock dance, fancies itself to be and spreads its own unattractive wings and dances. So is the little learning of the ignorant man.

Muuthurai 14

 

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Good are always Good!

Meru may shake at the end of the Yuga, the seven oceans may turn rough at the end of the Kalpa. The good however, would not turn away from what they had undertaken.

Chapter 13, sloka 19

 

Yugaante calate meruh kalpaante sapta saagaraah

Saadhavah pratipannaarthaan na calanti kadaacana

 

Avvaiyar

The great, though fallen, are great and those who are not great, when they fall are non-entities. Though a precious gold pot breaks it is still god (valuable). What will be mud pot worth when it is broken? –

Muuthurai 18

 

—- Subham—

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4615)- Part 3

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 3

 

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 14 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  7-04 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4615

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

PART 1 AND PART 2 WERE PUBLISHED HERE IN THE PAST TWO DAYS.

 

 

14.Matavi and Manimekalai

Matavi having heard all the tragic news shaved her hair and entered the Buddha Vihara. These people died because they heard this news from me; therefore I come to bathe in the holy waters of Ganges ( in order to purify myself). Long live you, O king of kings!

When Matalan finished, Senkuttuvan asked what happened to the Pandya kingdom.

 

Thus Matalan was used to give all the news about all the important characters in the epic.

 

15.One Thousand Goldsmiths Executed!

Matalan continued, “O King, you destroyed  in a day the nine umbrellas of nine enemy kings who joined together in an alliance against your brother in law Killivalavan. Listen! The victorious Ver Celiyan residing at Korkai offered a human sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths in a day to the divine Pattini who had twisted off one off her breasts.

When Matalan gave all this information the sun set and then the court astrologer said, “ Long live the ruler of the earth. It is now thirty two months since we left Vanci.

 

  1. Fifty Tula Gold to the Brahmana!

When Senkuttuvan asked about the succession in the Cola kingdom, Matalan praised the Colas whose forefathers destroyed the three fortresses suspended in the sky (mythological story), who gave flesh to a kite to save a dove (mythological Sibi Story) would never move away from the righteous path , Senkuttuvan became very happy and said to the Brahmana,

“O Brahmana Matalan, please accept the gift of fifty Tulams of pure gold” equal to Senkuttuvan’s own weight (Tula Bharam).

 

17.BRAHMIN’S ADVICE TO SENKUTTUVAN!

Matalan in Natukar Katai

“Then a Cakkayan, a dancing expert from Paraiyur, which was famous for Brahmans versed in the four Vedas, exhibited for king’s pleasure, the dance known as Koticetam danced with Uma as part of Himself by the mighty Siva, while the anklet worn on his  beautiful feet tinkled.

In the Natukar Katai Matalan speaks:

“O King wearing a long garland of victory and possessing a huge army! O Lion of kings, who knows all that can be known from great men, dismiss your wrath! Ruler of the earth, may the days you have yet to live become more numerous than the particles of sand in the cool river An Porunai.

Pray do not dismiss my words! Even after passing through fifty years of your protection on this earth you do not perform religious sacrifice but continue to perform the sacrifice at the battle. Among your ancestors in this city one king distinguished himself by destroying the Katampu of the seas, another exhibited great prowess by carving the bow emblem on the Himalayas, another enabled a Vedic Brahmana in return for composing some poems, to ascend bodily to the higher world, another commanded the messenger of death not to take away lives indiscriminately but only in particular order; another Cera penetrated the golden region of the high mountain in the fertile kingdom of the Barbarous Yavanas. After adding two more ancestor king’s adventures Matalan says, “It is not necessary to point out to men of wisdom that youth will not last for ever. The goddess of wealth abides in your chest, for you see your own body covered with grey hairs. Even good souls in divine bodies may, it is just possible, enter human frames on earth. Souls of those who are born as men now may by chance be reborn as animals. Men are but actors on a stage, and will have no  enduring embody in only one fixed form. That life after death will depend upon deeds done in a previous birth is a significant statement which is not untrue”.

 

“O King of the powerful sword! I have chosen not to solicit rare gifts from you. I cannot suffer to see a good soul wrapped within a good body travel the path trodden by the common people of this vast world. O king who has crossed the limits of learning! you should therefore do that great and fruitful yajna with the help of sacrificial priests learned in the four Vedas in order you may gain that superior path which Gods extoll.

 

“If you say that good deed can be done tomorrow it may chance that your good soul trained in Vedic lore will leave your body even today.”

 

When the learned to tongue of the Vedic Brahmana, thus ploughed and sowed the seeds of divine wisdom in the kings’ ears, those seeds sprouted forth in right time.

 

With a desire to enjoy the fruits of the harvest of virtue, the king with the resounding anklets, commanded the presence of those sacrificial priests who had completed their studies by listening to teachers belonging to a group of traditional interpreters of the four Vedas. They were asked to commence the festival of sacrificial rituals in the manner instructed by Matalan.

 

 

18.Matalan’s Last appearance in Varantaru Katai

 

Brahmana Miracle!

In the chapter Varanataru Katai there is a long anecdote where Devanti gives the history of Manimekalai, daughter of Kovalan and courtesan Matavi. Then Devanti was possessed by Pasanatan Cattan.

It is said that there are three girls in the crowd—twin daughters of Arattan Cetti and a little daughter of Cetak Kutumpi, a temple priest. If Matalan sprinkled the water of a divine pool on those girls, they would reveal their past births. Devantikai gave that water to Matalan which kept in his string-bag (Uri).

 

Seeing all this Senkuttuvan was lost in wonder and turned towards Matalan when he said with good cheer: ‘Hear this O King! Let all your ills disappear.

 

Then Matalan sprinkled the water on the three girls. They recited their previous births. Senkuttuvan looked at the face of Matalan, wearing the sacred thread on his chest, he blessed him: O King of Kings! Long may you live. These three were, in previous births, attached to the devoted wife of Kovalan, who seized the mad elephant’s tusk to release a Brahmana from the clutches of the mad elephant.

 

Matalan finished his speech with a good advice:

“It is not strange that people who do good things attain heaven and people who have worldly minds are reborn and that good and bad deeds have their own reward and those born should die, and those dead should be re born. Those are ancient truths ( Bhagavad Gita echo: Jaatasya hi dhruvo mrtyuh dhruvam janma mrtasya ca)

 

Matalan continues:

You (Senkuttuvan) were born through the grace of Him who rides on the sacred bull (Lord Shiva) and have won distinction as a king in this wide world, saw, clear as an object held in the palm of your hand, the fruits of righteous deeds and the forms of holy people. Long live from eon to eon protecting the earth! Live long gracious monarch!

 

Pleased with what the Brahmana Matalan said, the king endowed grants to the temple of the ever youthful Pattini who had twisted off her breast and there by raised flames which enveloped the noisy Kutal (another name for Madurai) of the great Pandyan Kingdom, much celebrated in poetical themes. He further ordered the conduct of daily festivals by instructing Devantikai to offer flowers, perfume and incense.

The monarch of the world circumambulated the shrine thrice and stood proffering his respects. Many kings including the Gajabahu of sea girt Sri Lanka participated in the festival.

 

Kannaki too when she burnt Madurai down asked the Agni Deva (Fire God) to spare Brahmins, old people, cows, chaste women, invalids and all good people.

19.Chief Duties of the Lady of the House

The chief duties of the lady of the house were giving of gifts to the deserving, the serving of the Brahmins and the entertaining of the ascetics and guests, as evidenced by Kannaki’s own words in canto XVI.II 71-3 Kolaikkala Katai

 

  1. Brahmin Ambassador and Brahmin Actors

There are more references to Brahmins throughout the epic

A Brahmin ambassador by name Kausikan delivered the message of Matavi to Kovalan and took back his message to his parents – Purancheri Irutta Katai

Brahmin actors (Kuutta Chakkaiyar) staged a show in front of Senkuttuvan- Natukar Katai

Keeranthai, a Brahmin, told his wife that Pandyan king would protect her when he went out of the city and that led to Porkai Pandya Story (Pandya with a Golden Hand)—Katturai Katai

Ilango says that Pandyan kings always hear the Vedic recital but never the justice bell (katturai Katai)

A Brahmin poet by name Palaik Kautamanar going to heaven with his body- Natukar Katai

 

Madurai is full of smoke from the Vedic Fire altars—Naatu Kaan Katai

Conclusion:

Hundreds of lines were attributed to Brahmin Matalan and he gave us lot of information to fill the gaps in the epic. Miraculous incidents happen in front of the Brahmana and the king Senkuttuvan. He commands the king to do Yagas and yajnas and the king readily obeys. Kannaki lamented that she could not feed the Brahmins and saints. She spared Brahmins when she burnt down Madurai. Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy anecdote showed the condition of Vedic education in Tamil Nadu. Kovalan could read s Sanskrit manuscript. Brahmins are praised as great scholars in Tamil (Vandamiz Maraiyor in Katturaik Katai; it speaks of the Brahmin who composed a poem on Chera king in Patitrup Pattu and went to heaven with his wife in his human body).

Why did Ilango do it?

Why did Ilango do it? did he write a Brahmana Kavya? My opinion is that he did not exaggerate anything. He described the real condition of second century CE Tamil Nadu where Brahmins commanded great respect. They could command great and mighty kings like Senkuttuvan. They could guide them what to do for the welfare of the community. Through Parasran-Dakshinamurthy anecdote, Ilango not only showed that even a child in a remote village of Tamil Nadu could recite Vedas perfectly, but also Brahmins were unselfish and could donate their wealth for the Vedic children. Ilango was the first poet in Tamil to show the weddings conducted by the Brahmins in front of fire.

 

Silappadikaram was the most popular epic. It was the only epic which based its story on a pure Tamil theme.

Paranar and other poets of Patitrup Pattu, one of the 18 books of Sangam Tamil literature, confirmed all that was said by Ilango. There is no doubt that the history second century Tamil Nadu was a golden period in the history of Tamil Nadu.

 

References:

The Cilappatikaram,Prof. V R Ramachandra Dikshitar,The South India Saiavasiddhanta Works Publishing Society, Tinnelvelly Limited, Madras,600 001, 1978

Akananuru, Varthamanan Pathippakam, A Manikkanar,Chennai- 600 017,1999

Srimad Bhagavad Gita, Anna, Sri Ramakrishna Mutt, Chennai-600 004,1965

 

 

–Subahm–

 

 

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 2

KANNAKI COOKING, WORLD TAMIL CONFERENCE SOUVENIR PICTURE

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 13 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  6-16 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4612

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

 

PART 2 (PART 1 WAS PUBLISHED YESTERDAY)

6.Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy Anecdote in the Katturai Katai is equally interesting:

 

“An able Brahmana, Parasara, who belonged to the good and fertile Kingdom of the Lord of the highly reputed Pukar wielding a righteous sceptre and a triumphant sword – one of whose kings weighed (his flesh) to save a dove (Story of Sibi) and another awarded justice to a cow (story of Manu Niti Cholan) who had heard the peerless munificence of the Cera of the curved lance, by offering the heavens to a Tamil Brahmana poet, said to himself, “I shall see the Cera of great valour and long lance”. He then passed through jungles and country places and towns leaving behind him the tall Malaya Hills. There by the force of his dialectical skill which he had acquired in the traditional manner, from the twice born Brahmana—who with the thought of achieving oneness with the Infinite, kindled the three fires as ordained in the four Vedas and performed the five great sacrifices (Pancha Maha Yajna) and the six great duties- he defeated his rivals and earned the title of Parpana Vakai.

(A typical Brahmin’s profile!)

As he was returning home with great and valuable gifts, he reached the village of Tankal (Tirutankal near Sivakasi) of the righteous Pandyan and of Dharmic Brahmanas. In this village, on a platform beneath the Bodi tree, luxuriant with green leaves, the tired man stayed awhile with his staff, water bowl, white umbrella, fire stick, a small bundle of articles and slippers (the impedimenta of an orthodox Brahmana; white umbrellas can be used only by the Kings and Brahmins who did Soma yaga) and said,

“Long live the victor whose protecting white umbrella assures his certain success. Long live the protector who uprooted the Katampu from the sea (Marine attack on sea pirates)! Long live the king who engraved his bow on the Himalayas! Long live the Poraiyan, possessor of the cool and beautiful Porunai! Long live King Mantaran Ceral! (contemporary king of Ceran Senkuttuvan)

 

Surrounded by a group of playful youths, some with curly hair and some with tufts and some with lisping mouths and coral lips, toddling some distance from their homes, he addressed them,

“Young Brahmana boys, if you can recite the Veda after me you may go away taking this little bundle of jewels.” Then the son of famous Brahmana Vartikan, by name Aalamar Selvan (Dakshinamurthy) whose rose lisps still retained the fragrance of his mother’s milk, in the presence of his playmates, with prattling tongue and great inward pleasure, recited the Veda, faultlessly observing the correct rhythm. The elderly man was exceedingly pleased with young Dakshinan and presented him with a sacred thread of pearls and bright jewels, as well as with bangles and earrings before departed for his native place”.

7.VEDIC  TAMIL NADU

Here Ilango was so poetic that we are captivated by every word he said here. This gave the beautiful description of Vedic education in the second century Tamil Nadu. Every word of Ilango praised the Brahmins and Brahmin boys. A little boy could recite Vedas with a learned Pundit. He described the appearance of Vedic Brahmins in minute details

 

The translator adds a beautiful note here:

The Brahman’s love for the Veda and his magnanimity in giving away the valuable jewels to a child reciting Vedas according to established practice show how unselfish were the learned Brahmins of those golden days.

 

Through Matalan  and Parasaran and a little boy we know that Vedas were recited in nook and corner of Tamil Nadu.

 

8.A MIRACLE HAPPENED!

“When Vartikan’s child departed with the little bundle of jewels, Vartikan was accused of misappropriating treasure trove which belongs to the king. So Vartikan was imprisoned. His wife Kartikai grew frantic. She wept in grief. She threw herself on to the ground rolling and fulminating. Seeing this the Goddess Durga of untarnished glory refused to open the door of her temple for the conduct of daily worship. When the king of the mighty spear heard that the massive door remained shut and would not open, he was confounded, and inquired, “Has any injustice been done? Come and tell me if you have heard of any failure in the discharge of our duties to the Goddess of Victory”.

 

“Then his young messengers made obeisance to the protecting king and informed him the case of Vartikan. “This is not fair, burst forth the king in anger and addressed Vartikan, It is your duty to forgive me. My righteous rule still has life, though owing to the ignorance of my men, it has deviated from the ordained path”.

 

“The king granted him Tankal with its paddy fields watered by tanks and Vayalur of immeasurable yield and prostrated himself on the ground before Vartikan, the husband of Kartikai. Then the door of the Goddess who rode upon the stag, opened so loudly as to be heard throughout the long and broad streets of mountain like mansions of the ancient city.

Then he issued a proclamation to release all the prisoners and allowed everyone to enjoy the treasures they find!”

 

Such is the power of Brahmins. Even mighty kings fell at their feet!

 

9.In this chapter (Katturai Katai) , Brahmins are praised as Vandamil Maraiyor i.e people who speak chaste Tamil. This answered the question whether Brahmins are sons of the soil!

 

10.Matalan Again!

Matala Maraiyon, the influential Brahmin, appears again in the last three sections:

Nirppataik Katai

Natukar Katai

Varantaru katai

 

Matalan giving Important News!

Ilango uses Matalan to fill the gaps in the epic. Mighty Cera King Senkuttuvan brought the stone from the holy Himalayas and bathed it in the Holy Ganges and carved the stone into the Goddess Pattini.

Following is in the Nirppataik Katai

“While Senkuttuvan was sitting on his throne ( in North India), the Brahmana Matalan appeared before him and said, Long live our king! The seashore song of the lady Matavi made the crowns of Kanaka and Vijaya bear a weight (the implied meaning is that Kovalan left Matavi’s house and other events followed resulting in Kannaki becoming a goddess; Kanaka and Vijaya who challenged Senkuttuvan made to carry the stone on their heads).

 

The Brahmana Matalan then continued: “The maid Matavi, whilst sporting on the cool beach, had a lover’s quarrel with Kovalan. Then governed by fate she sang the seashore song appropriate to her dance. This not resulted in their reunion but in their separation, and necessitated his entry with his virtuous wife into the ancient towered city of Madura, whose reigning king with his wreath of leaves attained blissful heaven as a result of the murder of Kovalan, whose wife, O Lord of the Kutavar, entered your country. And now she is being borne upon the crowned heads of the northern kings”.

 

11.Matari commits suicide!

“Be good enough to listen also to the reason for my coming here, O king of kings holding the illustrious spear! After going round the Potiyil Hills sacred to the great sage (Agastya) and bathing in the famous ghat of Kumari, I was returning, when as if impelled by fate, I went into Madura belonging to far famed Tennavan of the sharp sword. There when Matari heard that the beautiful Kannaki had defeated the Pandyan king of the mighty army with her anklet, she proclaimed in the Taateru manrdram (common meeting point of the Yadava community), ‘O People of the cowherd community! Kovalan has done no wrong; it is the king who has erred; I have lost her to whom I gave refuge. Have the king’s umbrella and the sceptre fallen from the righteous path? With these words she threw herself into the burning flames in the dead of night!

12.Kavunti died of Starvation!

Kavunti, distinguished for her holy penance, waxed wroth; but when she heard of the death of the great king renowned for his righteous sceptre, her ire was appeased and she burst out: Was this the fate of those who joined my company? She took a vow to die of starvation and thus gave up her life.

 

13.Kovalan’s mother died of Depression!

I heard in full detail all this and also of the devastation that overtook the great city of Madura ruled by the Pandyan of the golden car. Overcome by great I went back to my native place, the ancient capital of the Colas, and informed the chief men there of this. Kovalan’s father heard what happened to his son and daughter in law and also to the righteous monarch of Madura and became deeply afflicted. He distributed all his wealth in charity, and entered Seven Indra Viharas (The Buddhist Temple) and began to practise self -denial like the three hundred monks who roam the sky, having renounced the world to obtain release from the cycle of births. The wife of him who thus renounced, unable to endure the sorrowful news of the death of her son under such tragic circumstances, died of pity.

 

Kannaki’s father also gave away his wealth in religious gifts and adopted Dharma in the presence of Ajivakas like sages engaged in penance of a high order. The noble wife of him who made these gifts gave up her good life within a few days.

 

TO BE CONTINUED……………………………………….