MYTHS ABOUT TAMIL VEDA EXPLODED; DR NAGASAMY’S NEW BOOK ON THIRUKKURAL (Post No.4939)

MYTHS ABOUT TAMIL VEDA EXPLODED; DR NAGASAMY’S NEW BOOK ON THIRUKKURAL (Post No.4939)

 

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  17-22 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4939

 

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TIRUKKURAL is considered the Tamil Veda; it was written by Thiru Valluvar. One of Valluvar’s contemporary himself said this in Thiruvallauva Malai. He said that Sanskrit has Veda and Tamil has now got Tirukkural. It has 1330 couplets divided into 133 chapters which deal with didactic topics. There are lots of myths about its author Tiruvalluvar and his book. After Dravidian parties came to power in Tamil Nadu fifty years ago, lot of things about Vallauvar’s personal life was changed in the text books. And the accepted commentary of Parimel Azakar is tampered with. Dr R Nagaswamy, eminent historian and famous archaeologist looks at the book from a new angle.

 

He explodes the myths about G U Pope’s contribution to Tamil literature, Pope’s half- baked statement about Valluvar’s date  (800 to 900 CE) and some people’s attempt to show Tirukkural a text of Jain origin. G U Pope who translated 72 Purananuru verses, deliberately vomited Kapilar’s vesre showing him as an ‘Antana’ (Brahmin) and dubbed him a Pariah. Dr Nagasamy also Shows how hardly Pope tried to show Valluvar as a Christian or influenced by Christianity.

Another myth exploded by Dr R N is the gold coin of Valluvar. The coin said to have been issued by Ellis is not of Valluvar, but of Buddha. It was found in a museum in Calcutta. Ellis’ name was unnecessarily dragged into this matter.

Nagaswamy described in detail the futile colonial attempt to Christianise Tirukkural.

Dr R Nagaswamy needs no introduction. He was the Director of Archaeology in Tamil Nadu from 1966 to 1988. He was the Vice Chancellor of Kancheepuram University. He was the author of over 50 books and hundreds of research articles. He has travelled around the world lecturing on History and culture of Tamil people. Recently he has been awarded Padmabhusan by the Government of India.

 

He says that there is no gem in the whole field of Tamil literature more precious than Tirukkural. He has compared Tirukkural with lot of similar verses in Sanskrit Dharma sastras, Artha sastra, Natya sastra and Kama Sastra. He has also shown that Valluvar wrote it on the basis of Hindu values Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Valluvar himself divided his book into three major sections Dharma (Aram), Artha (porul) and Kama (Inbam). Moksha is dealt with in the book under Dharma.

 

Dr Nagaswamy says that the work of Valluvar is an abridgement of Sanskrit sastras.  Without leaving anyone to guess the authenticity, he has given the relevant passages as well. So no one could challenge him. It is a treasure for the English speakers,  and particularly the Non Tamil speakers in India.

Though scholars like V R Ramachndra Dikshitar has done such a comparative study before Dr Nagasawmy, he has added more materaias from different scriptures such as Dhammapada of Buddha and Bhagavad Giat of Lord Krishna.

Another unique feature is the addition of Sanskrit verses in Devanagari lipi which would be of help to North Indians.

He as beautifully summarised all the relevant data from Sangam literature to prove the ancient character of the Tirukkural. First he deals with the three theories about the age of the work and concludes that it is older than the Tamil epic Silappadikaram of second century CE. He rightly pointed out that the couplets are in Sutra format which is further proof for its age.

 

About Valluvar’s religion Dr Nagasamy says, after examining the previous arguments, “The examination of the personal religion of Valluvar does not  give us any definite lead in the matter. Valluvar did not wish to give his work a sectarian character. He gives lot of examples to show the striking correspondence between the Kural couplets and the works of Manu, Kautilya and Vatsyayana.

 

In another chapte,r the author of the current book examines the statement of Nataka Valakku by the doyen of Tamil literature U Ve  Swaminatha Aiyar.

In the concluding chapter hr makes an important statement, “Thirukkural of Thiruvalluvar can be fully understood only with the knowledge of Sanskrit, as it draws heavily from Dharma sastras, Artha sastras, Natya sastra and Kama Sastra and also their commentaries.

Everyone who is interested in Tamil literature  must have this book.

 

The book is priced only 150 rupees which is very cheap. The book has got great value for money.

Details of the Publication:

Tirukkural- An Abridgement of Sastras

Dr R Nagaswamy

December 2017

Pages 248, Price Rs.150

Published by Tamil Arts Academy and Giri Trading Agency Private Limited

Contact: www.giri.in

sales@giri.in

 

–SUBHAM-

ON WEALTH- THE RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA (Post No.4924)

ON WEALTH- THE RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA (Post No.4924)


WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 17 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  14-49 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4924

 

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Rig Veda is the oldest book in the world. Tamil Veda is Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar, the greatest of the Tamil poets, who lived around 5th century CE. Tamil Nadu government placed him in 30 BCE.

Tiruvalluvar, Kavasa Ailushan and Grtsamada- all the three poets praise wealth (money). They know the importance of wealth. Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar makes it very clear that this world in not for the poor.

 

Let us look at a few verses from both the Rig Veda and the Tamil Veda Tirukkural.

“As those without money (wealth) can have no enjoyments in this world so also are those without compassion denied the blessings of the world above (heaven)”—Kural/couplet 247

 

The poor may sometimes (by winning a lottery prize, finding a treasure trove)  prosper, but those without compassion will be ruined without redemption – Kural 248

 

It is interesting to note that Valluvar insists one should have money but money may come and go, but compassion once gone, gone for ever, no redemption.

Money and wealth are compared with the wheel of a cart, elsewhere in the Rig Veda. It goes up and down.

 

Now look at what the Vedic poets say about wealth: –

The Right Way to Wealth

Rishi- Kavasha, son of Elusha

Rig Veda 10-31-2

Let a man think well of wealth, and try to

win it by the path of Law and by worship;

and let him consult his own intellect

and grasp with his mind greater ability

 

 

And in another hymn,

Rishi Gritsamada

RV 2-21-6

 

Bestow on us, Indra, the best of treasures;

the efficient mind and great brilliance

the increase of wealth, the health of bodies

the sweetness of speech and the fairness of days.

 

Bring thou to us wealth with the power to strike – says another rishi/seer in RV3-46-4

xxx

 

But the Brihadaranyaka (Big Forest Upanishad) Upanishad warns money wont help a person in the other world:-

Through wealth there is no hope of immortality

–Br.U. 4-5

What should I do with worldly wealth by which I cannot become immortal?

 

–Maitreyi to Yajnavalkya in Br.Up. 2-4-3

 

That is the reason Hindu seers erected the Hindu building on the four pillars of Dharma, Artha , Kama, and Moksha ( Virtue, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation.)

Seers insist that one should find a balance between the four and they say one should have one or two  without affecting the others in the four.

Tirukkural followed the same pattern and Valluvar divided his book into three chapters: Virtue, Wealth and Pleasure.

It is also interesting to note that the same order is recited in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam in at least two or three verses.

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

 

RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA ON GAMBLING (Post No.4907)

RIG VEDA AND TAMIL VEDA ON GAMBLING (Post No.4907)

 

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 12 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  10-33 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4907

 

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Dice is a Vice; Be Wise and slip out Nicely! –The Rig Veda (10-34)

 

It is very interesting to see both Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world, and the Tamil Veda Tirukkural, the greatest Tamil book, oppose gambling. Both point out the evils of gambling. This message is very relevant even today. Unlike the olden days now Governments themselves are encouraging gambling by conducting lotteries in almost all the countries. Only when poor people lost everything and started stealing and robbing, they put some limits for spending or gambling in casinos. All the people knew this is only an eyewash. Governments get more funds from horse races, betting shops and lotteries. In London and other western cities every bazar street has at least three to four Betting shops. It makes people to think that they can make good money without working. Even Manu, the oldest law maker in the world lists gambling as an evil.

 

The longest epic in the world with two million lines, The Mahabharata, is an epic based on the evils of gambling. In those days, even kings gambled their countries.

 

Let us compare the famous Gambling Hymn in the Rig Veda and the chapter on gambling in the Tamil Veda Tirukkural written by Tiru Valluvar.

The author of the Rig Vedic gambling hymn (10-34) is

a seer called Kavasa Ailushan.

Picture posted by Lalgudi Veda

 

It is in the last mandala of the RV (10-34). This describes the lament of a gambler and the advice he gives to the world. A very interesting poem!

 

Dice is a Vice; Be wise and slip out Nicely!

The poem has 14 stanzas or mantras; the summary of the poem is: –

Gambling gives pleasure like the Soma drink from Mujawan mountains ( no one is sure about its location; only guess work).

 

My wife was very nice to me and my friends. She never got angry; but I drove her out after losing in the gambling (What a shame!)

 

Wives don’t like it; mother and mother in law hate it. They think that the person is going wrong.

My father, mother, wife and sons say- We do not know this fellow, take him out! (like a drunkard on the roadside)

Every time I go to the casino; I think I am going to win! But the dice favours only my opponent (very much disappointing)

 

The dice go up and down and dance. They are like the coal that burns my heart.

The gambler goes to others’ houses in the night ( to steal or borrow money)

The gambler feels remorseful when he sees the status of his wife and wives of others. He started the day with good hopes and finished it miserably.

Now I open both my palms to show I have nothing on me now. (I am bankrupt)

Good Advice!

Do not play with the dice.

Better till your lands and be content (with what you harvest there)

Only when you feel content, thinking that is plenty, you will feel happy and regain your wife. This is God’s advice. Savita Devi told me this!

(To the dice coins, the gambler say)–

Don’t be angry with me; be my friend. Do not attack me. Let your anger fall on the misers. Go to my enemy and let him fall in your trap.

 

Family might have enjoyed the winning money; but they are not ready to share the sin.

The game of the dice was played in public places such as halls (compare it with modern casinos)

The sound of the rolling dice is luring; I vow not to repeat the mistake; but the sound of the rolling dice and friends pull me towards it. I run to it like a woman runs to the meeting place to see her lover.

After losing I look like an old horse ready to be sold (unwanted stuff).

Mysterious Number 53

There is one stanza which baffles every translator.

The group of the avowed gamblers plays the game, divided into three five (tri pancha in Sanskrit); or three times five or in a group of fifty three. – Sayana takes it as 53 coins in the gambling; Ludwik says 15;it shows Vedic language is very difficult to understand. Though we have detailed report about Dice Games in Nala Charita and Mahabharata, still we could not solve this mysterious Tri pancha!!!)

In the same way, ‘To the great captain of your mighty army’ is translated as the big number in Dice by some and  as Kali, the losing throw by others. Vedic language is several thousand years old; no one can translate it correctly; Griffith attempted to translate it in English and say that the meaning is obscure, the meaning is uncertain in every other page; Mischief makers like Max Muller say they followed Sayana, but use their own interpretations; Sayana of 13th century himself only guessed the meaning several thousand years after the Vedic seers recited it!

The dice are made with Vibhitaka seeds- no one knew the plant!

 

TIRUKKURAL

Now let us compare it with the Tamil Veda Tirukkural:

Tiru Valluvar described the evils of gambling in ten couplets ( Chapter 94; from 931 to 940)

 

931.Do not take to gambling even if you can win.

What can the fish gain by swallowing the baited hook?

  1. To win once, the gambler loses a hundred to foes. What good can gamblers gain in life? Nothing but loss.

933.Were a man to speak incessantly of that which he gains by rolling dice, the wealth would leave him and pass on to others.

934.Gambling increases miseries and ruins one’s fame. There is nothing that reduces one to poverty like that.

935.Many who took pleasure in gambling and gambling booths, proud of their skill in dice have been ruined.

 

(like the Rig Vedic seer, Tiru Valluvar also talks about casinos/gambling booths. Like Rig Veda, we see the miserable status of the gambler here, loosing fame and standing like on old unwanted horses, ready to be sold).

938.Gambling ruins a man’s fortune, makes him resort to falsehood.

This can be compared with the night visit of the gambler in the Veda (for stealing or borrowing).

 

  1. The five things

clothing

wealth

food

fame and

learning/education

avoid a person who takes to gambling

 

  1. Passion for gambling grows with every loss. It is craving for life which grows through all suffering.

This can be compared to a woman running to see her lover kin the Rig Veda. The more she is separated the more she longs to see him. A person who is sick wants to live longer.

In the Kural couplet 936 , Tiruvalluvar refers to Hindu goddess of Misfortune Muudevi (Mukati in Tamil). He says gambling is the ogress misfortune.

Manu also refers to the evils of gambling in at least 20 couplets.

–Subham–

 

 

POETS’ CLOSE OBSERVATION ON BEES! (Post No.4782)

Time uploaded in London- 19-48

Written by London swaminathan

Post No. 4782

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Tamil and Sanskrit poets are keen observers of nature. We have already seen how Dattatreya and others observed the nature and learnt from them. Crows and snakes are used by the poets and saints to teach us lot of things. Two poets warn us not to accumulate money so that we would not lose like the bees. William Wordsworth said, ‘Let Nature be your Teacher’; Hindu poets have been following it for over two thousand years. Here are two verses about the bees:

Chanakya says,

The pious people should always give food and money in charity, never should they accumulate them. The glory of the illustrious Karna, Bali and Vikramditya persists unabated even now. Look, the honey bees rub their hands and feet because of the despondency of losing honey that they had gathered for long.

–Chanakya Niti 11-18

 

deyam bhojyadhanam sadaa sukruthirbinaa sanchitavyam sadaa

sriikarnasya nhaleerasca vikramateradhyaapi kiirtihi sthithaa

 

asmaakammadhu daanabogarahitam nashtam chiraat sanchitam

wirvaanaaditi paanipaathayugale garshantyaho makshikaahaa

xxx

A Tamil poet in Naladiyar says………………

Naladiyaar is a Tamil didactic book composed by Jain saints in Tamil. The poet Padumanaar, who compiled 400 verses, says,

“Those who vexing their own bodies by stinting in food and clothing, perform not acts of charity that ever remain undestroyed, but avariciously hoard up a great wealth, will lose it all. O Lord of the mountains, which touch the sky, the bees that are driven away from the honey they have collected bear testimony to this.

 

—-Subham–

 

 

 

மாணவர்கள் நாடகம் (சினிமா) பார்க்கக்கூடாது! சாணக்கியன் கட்டளை (Post No.4770)

Date: 21 FEBRUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-06 am

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Post No. 4770

 

PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources. They may not be directly related to the article. They are only representational.

 

 

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சாணக்கியன் என்ற பிராஹ்மணன் 2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் வாழ்ந்தான். உலகம் வியக்கும் முதல் பொருளாதார நூலான அர்த்தசாஸ்திரத்தை யாத்தான்; பல நீதி மொழிகளை புகன்றான். மகத சாம்ராஜ்யத்தை ஸ்தாபித்து அலெக்ஸாண்டரின் படைகளை நடுநடுங்க வைத்தான். ஆனால் வியப்பான விஷயம் என்ன வென்றால் ஒரு குடிசையில் வாழ்ந்தான். விருப்பு வெறுப்பற்ற ஒரு யோகி போல வாழ்ந்ததால் யாருக்கும் கட்டளை இடும் துணிவு அந்த பிராஹ்மணனுக்கு இருந்தது.

 

அவன் செப்பாத விஷயம் இல்லை; பேசாத பொருள் இல்லை. சாணக்கிய நீதி என்னும் நீதி நூலில் அவன் மொழிவதாவது:

 

முட்டாளாக இருக்கும் மந்தமான மாணவர்களுக்குக் கற்பிக்கும் , புத்திசாலியான ஆசிரியர்களும் துன்பமே அடைவார்கள்;

கெட்ட பெண்களைக் கவனித்துக் கொள்வோர் நிலையும் அஃதே;

கெட்டவர்களுடன் நட்பு பாராட்டுவோரும் பரிதாபத்துக்கு உரியவர்களே;

சாணக்கிய நீதி, அத்தியாயம் 1, ஸ்லோகம் 4

 

மூர்க்க சிஷ்ய உபதேசேன  துஷ்ட ஸ்த்ரீபரணேன ச

துக்கிதைஹி ஸம்ப்ரயோகேன பண்டிதோஅப்யவஸீததி

 

xxx

 

மாணவர்கள் நாடகம் (சினிமா) பார்க்கக்கூடாது!

 

மாணவர்கள் Make-up மேக் அப் போட்டு அலங்காரம் செய்து கொள்ளக் கூடாது; ஆடல் பாடல், நாடக ( தற்காலத்தில் திரைப்படம்) நிகழ்ச்சிகளில் ஈடுபடக் கூடாது; காமம் க்ரோதம் (கோபம்) இருக்கக்கூடாது.

 

 

ஒரு மாணவன் கீழ்க்கண்ட எட்டு விஷயங்களைக் கைவிட வேண்டும்:

காமம் , கோபம், பேராசை, கேளிக்கை நிகழ்ச்சிகள், அலங்காரம் (மேக்- அப்), ஆடல், நாடக நிகழ்ச்சிகள், அதிக தூக்கம், மற்றவர்களைப் புகழ்ந்து வாழுதல் (காரியம் நடப்பதற்காக இச்சகம் பேசுதல்)

காமம் க்ரோதம் ததா லோபம் ஸ்வாதம் ச்ருங்காரகௌதுகே

அதி நித்ராதி ஸேவே ச வித்யார்த்தீ ஹ்யாஷ்ட வர்ஜயேத்

 

சாணக்கிய நீதி 11-10

 

xxx

வாத்தியாருக்கு நன்றிக்கடன்

 

ஆசிரியர் ஆனவர் உனக்கு ஒரு அக்ஷரம் (எழுத்து) சொல்லிக் கொடுத்தவர் ஆகட்டும்; அப்படியும் கூட அவருக்கு நன்றிக் கடன் செலுத்த உலகில் ஒரு பொருளும் இல்லை.

ஏக மேவாக்ஷரம் யஸ்து குருஹு சிஷ்யம் ப்ரபோதயேத்

ப்ருதிவ்யாம் நாஸ்தி தத் த்ரவ்யம் யத் தத்வா சான்ருணீ பவேத்

சாணக்கிய நீதி 15-1

 

((பெண்கள், பெற்றோர்கள், ஆசிரியர் ஆகியோரை இந்துமத இலக்கியங்கள் உயர்த்தி வைக்கும் அளவுக்கு உலகில் வேறு எந்த இலக்கியமும் உயர்த்தி வைக்கவில்லை; அப்படி இருந்தால் அவை எல்லாம் நமக்கு 1000, 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்குப் பின்னர் எழுதப்பட்டவையே.

விருந்தோம்பல், தூது, அமைச்சர், அரசன், கொடி, முரசு, கோ மாதா , தானம், தவம் – முதலிய விஷயங்களும் உலகில் எந்த நாட்டுப் பழைய இலக்கியங்களிலும் கிடையாது. இவை எல்லாம் இந்தியாவே உலகின் பழைய நாடு, இந்தியாவே உலகிற்கு நாகரீகத்தைப் பரப்பிய நாடு என்பதற்குச் சான்று பகரும். ரிக் வேதத்தின் கடைசி பாடல், இன்று ஐ.நா. முதலிய அமைப்புகளின் நோக்கமாக இருக்கின்றது. இத்தகைய உயர் சிந்தனை மலர, ஒரு சமுதாயம் பல்லாயிரம் ஆண்டுகள் வாழ்ந்த பின்னரே உதிக்கும்.

xxx

 

ஏட்டுச் சுரைக்காய் கறிக்கு உதவாது

ஒரு ஆசிரியரிடம் செல்லாது, புத்தகத்தில் இருந்து மட்டும் படித்தவன், ஒரு சபையில் சோபிக்க முடியாது; ஒரு பெண் கள்ளக் காதல் கொண்டால் எப்படியோ அப்படித்தான் இதுவும்!

 

புஸ்தகேஷு ச யா அதீதம் நாதீதம் குருஸந்நிதௌ

ஸபாமத்யே ந சோபந்தே ஜாரகர்பா இவ ஸ்த்ரியஹ

சாணக்கிய நீதி 17-1

ஒரு பெண், பெரிய பெரிய ஆட்களுடன் எல்லாம் படுத்து இருக்கலாம்; இருந்த போதிலும் அதை பொது இடங்களில் பேச முடியாது பேசினால் குட்டு வெளிப்பட்டுவிடும்; அது போலவே புத்தகத்தை மட்டும் படித்துப் பொருள் அறிபவன்; பொது சபைகளில் நாலு பேர் கேள்வி கேட்டால், திரு திருவென முழிப்பான்; அவன் குட்டு வெளிப்பட்டுவிடும்; ஆசிரியர் கற்பித்து இருந்தால், அவரே தடை எழுப்பி விடைகாணக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்து இருப்பார்.

 

ஆசிரியர்- மாணவர் உறவு பற்றி 2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் உலகில் இவ்வளவு தெளிவாக யாரும் சொல்லியிருக்க முடியாது.

அலெக்ஸாண்டரின் குரு அரிஸ்டாடில் (Aristotle)- அரிஸ்டாடிலின் குரு பிளாட்டோ (Plato) — பிளாட்டோவின் குரு சாக்ரடீஸ் (Socrates)- அவர் சாணக்கியனுக்கு ஒரு நூற்றாண்டு முன்னர் வாழ்ந்தார். அவருடைய கேள்வி கேட்டுப் பதில் காணும் முறையும் (Socratic Method) அவருக்கு 500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் உபநிடதத்தில் உள்ளது. அவரும் ஏசு கிறிஸ்துவும் உபநிடதங்களைக் கற்றது அவர்களின் உபதேசங்களில் வெள்ளிடை மலை என விளங்குகிறது.

 

(நல்லவர்களை எப்படி அறியலாம்? பிறர் எழுதியதை, பிறர் எடுத்த படங்களை அவர்களுடைய பெயர்களுடன் வெளியிடுவார்கள். கெட்டவர்களை எப்படிக் கண்டுபிடிக்கலாம்? பிறர் எழுதியதை,அது வெளியான பிளாக், பத்திரிக்கை பெயர்களை நீக்கிவிட்டு , தங்களுடையது போல வெளியிடுவார்கள்;  கெட்டவர்களைக் கண்டுபிடிப்பது மிகவும் எளிது))

Chanakya and Tamil Poetess Avvaiyar (Post No.4739)

Date: 13 FEBRUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-46

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Post No. 4739

 

PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources.

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

 

 

Who is Chanakya?

A Brahmin scholar, statesman, author of the first economics book in the world (Arthasastra), a king maker and author of several didactic works. He lived 2300 years ago.

 

Who is Avvaiyar?

There were at least three poetesses by the name Avvaiyar. Some people even say that there were six Avvaiyars. Most famous Avvaiyar lived 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu during Sangam age. But the Avvaiyar who wrote Muuthrai belonged to the middle ages. Her Athichudi is taught to the infants in the school.

 

Chanakya says,

If people make friends with a person of evil conduct, evil eye, evil habitation, the wicked one, the person doing so comes to naught quickly.

Duraacaariivca durdushtirduraavaasii ca durjanah

Yanmaitrii kriyate pumbirnarah siighram vinasyati

Chapter 2, sloka 19

Avoid contact with the wicked, associate with the good, engage in good deeds day in day out, keep in mind impermanence all the time.

Tyaja durjanasamsargam bhaja saadhusamaagamam

Kuru punya mahoraatram smara nityamanityataam

Chapter 14, sloka 20

 

Tamil Poetess Avvaiyar says,

To see the vicious is bad; to give ear to the words of the wicked is evil. To voice forth the base qualities of the evil or vulgar is wicked. To associate with them as friends is sinful.

Muuthurai 9

xxxxxx

 

Bull 5 metres, Horse 10 metres, elephant 1000 metres!

 

One should keep away from a cart to the distance of five hastas ( a measure of length equal to 24 angulas or about 18 inches) from a horse ten hastas, an elephant 100 hastas and for a wicked man even by leaving the country

Chapter 7, sloka 7

Sakatam pancahastena dasahastena vaajinam

Hastinam satahastena desatyaagena durjanam

 

This is in Tamil work ‘Neethi Venba:’ Keep away from horned animals to the distance of 5 hastas, from a horse ten hastas, for an elephant 1000 hastas and for a wicked man run away as long as he disappears from your sight.

Neethi Venba is by an anonymous author.

 

xxxxxx

 

Sandalwood and Sugar cane

Chanakya says,

The sandal wood tree, even when cut, does not give up its fragrance, a lordly elephant, even when old, does not give up its playfulness; sugarcane, even when inserted in machine, does not give up its sweetness. One born in a high family, even when reduced to poverty, does not give up the qualities going with good conduct.

Chapter 15, sloka 18

Chinnopi candanatarurna jahaati gandham

Vruddopi vaaranapatirna jahaati liilaam

Yantraarpito madhurataam  na jahaati  cekshuh

Kshiinopi na tyajanti siilagunaan kuliinah

 

Avvaiyar says,

Though the milk be boiled, it does not lose taste. Though enemies move sociably, they are enemies. The noble-hearted be reduced in circumstances, they are ever noble. The conch shell, though burnt is white nevertheless.

Muuthurai 4

The fragrance of the soft sandal wood, even when ground down, does not abate. Though wreathed kings suffer defeats and have less revenues, will they thereby become less generous or less resolute?

Muuthurai 28

 

xxxxxxxxxx

 

Can crow become an eagle?

Chankaya says,

 

One goes up by one’s qualities and not by occupying a high seat. Does a crow by sitting on top of a place turn into Garuda?

Gunairuttamataam yaati noccaira asanasamsthitah

Praasaadasikharasthopi kaakah kim garudaayate

Chapter 16, verse 6

Avvaiyar says,

The turkey cock, seeing the wild peacock dance, fancies itself to be and spreads its own unattractive wings and dances. So is the little learning of the ignorant man.

Muuthurai 14

 

xxxxxx

Good are always Good!

Meru may shake at the end of the Yuga, the seven oceans may turn rough at the end of the Kalpa. The good however, would not turn away from what they had undertaken.

Chapter 13, sloka 19

 

Yugaante calate meruh kalpaante sapta saagaraah

Saadhavah pratipannaarthaan na calanti kadaacana

 

Avvaiyar

The great, though fallen, are great and those who are not great, when they fall are non-entities. Though a precious gold pot breaks it is still god (valuable). What will be mud pot worth when it is broken? –

Muuthurai 18

 

—- Subham—

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4615)- Part 3

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 3

 

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 14 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  7-04 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4615

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

PART 1 AND PART 2 WERE PUBLISHED HERE IN THE PAST TWO DAYS.

 

 

14.Matavi and Manimekalai

Matavi having heard all the tragic news shaved her hair and entered the Buddha Vihara. These people died because they heard this news from me; therefore I come to bathe in the holy waters of Ganges ( in order to purify myself). Long live you, O king of kings!

When Matalan finished, Senkuttuvan asked what happened to the Pandya kingdom.

 

Thus Matalan was used to give all the news about all the important characters in the epic.

 

15.One Thousand Goldsmiths Executed!

Matalan continued, “O King, you destroyed  in a day the nine umbrellas of nine enemy kings who joined together in an alliance against your brother in law Killivalavan. Listen! The victorious Ver Celiyan residing at Korkai offered a human sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths in a day to the divine Pattini who had twisted off one off her breasts.

When Matalan gave all this information the sun set and then the court astrologer said, “ Long live the ruler of the earth. It is now thirty two months since we left Vanci.

 

  1. Fifty Tula Gold to the Brahmana!

When Senkuttuvan asked about the succession in the Cola kingdom, Matalan praised the Colas whose forefathers destroyed the three fortresses suspended in the sky (mythological story), who gave flesh to a kite to save a dove (mythological Sibi Story) would never move away from the righteous path , Senkuttuvan became very happy and said to the Brahmana,

“O Brahmana Matalan, please accept the gift of fifty Tulams of pure gold” equal to Senkuttuvan’s own weight (Tula Bharam).

 

17.BRAHMIN’S ADVICE TO SENKUTTUVAN!

Matalan in Natukar Katai

“Then a Cakkayan, a dancing expert from Paraiyur, which was famous for Brahmans versed in the four Vedas, exhibited for king’s pleasure, the dance known as Koticetam danced with Uma as part of Himself by the mighty Siva, while the anklet worn on his  beautiful feet tinkled.

In the Natukar Katai Matalan speaks:

“O King wearing a long garland of victory and possessing a huge army! O Lion of kings, who knows all that can be known from great men, dismiss your wrath! Ruler of the earth, may the days you have yet to live become more numerous than the particles of sand in the cool river An Porunai.

Pray do not dismiss my words! Even after passing through fifty years of your protection on this earth you do not perform religious sacrifice but continue to perform the sacrifice at the battle. Among your ancestors in this city one king distinguished himself by destroying the Katampu of the seas, another exhibited great prowess by carving the bow emblem on the Himalayas, another enabled a Vedic Brahmana in return for composing some poems, to ascend bodily to the higher world, another commanded the messenger of death not to take away lives indiscriminately but only in particular order; another Cera penetrated the golden region of the high mountain in the fertile kingdom of the Barbarous Yavanas. After adding two more ancestor king’s adventures Matalan says, “It is not necessary to point out to men of wisdom that youth will not last for ever. The goddess of wealth abides in your chest, for you see your own body covered with grey hairs. Even good souls in divine bodies may, it is just possible, enter human frames on earth. Souls of those who are born as men now may by chance be reborn as animals. Men are but actors on a stage, and will have no  enduring embody in only one fixed form. That life after death will depend upon deeds done in a previous birth is a significant statement which is not untrue”.

 

“O King of the powerful sword! I have chosen not to solicit rare gifts from you. I cannot suffer to see a good soul wrapped within a good body travel the path trodden by the common people of this vast world. O king who has crossed the limits of learning! you should therefore do that great and fruitful yajna with the help of sacrificial priests learned in the four Vedas in order you may gain that superior path which Gods extoll.

 

“If you say that good deed can be done tomorrow it may chance that your good soul trained in Vedic lore will leave your body even today.”

 

When the learned to tongue of the Vedic Brahmana, thus ploughed and sowed the seeds of divine wisdom in the kings’ ears, those seeds sprouted forth in right time.

 

With a desire to enjoy the fruits of the harvest of virtue, the king with the resounding anklets, commanded the presence of those sacrificial priests who had completed their studies by listening to teachers belonging to a group of traditional interpreters of the four Vedas. They were asked to commence the festival of sacrificial rituals in the manner instructed by Matalan.

 

 

18.Matalan’s Last appearance in Varantaru Katai

 

Brahmana Miracle!

In the chapter Varanataru Katai there is a long anecdote where Devanti gives the history of Manimekalai, daughter of Kovalan and courtesan Matavi. Then Devanti was possessed by Pasanatan Cattan.

It is said that there are three girls in the crowd—twin daughters of Arattan Cetti and a little daughter of Cetak Kutumpi, a temple priest. If Matalan sprinkled the water of a divine pool on those girls, they would reveal their past births. Devantikai gave that water to Matalan which kept in his string-bag (Uri).

 

Seeing all this Senkuttuvan was lost in wonder and turned towards Matalan when he said with good cheer: ‘Hear this O King! Let all your ills disappear.

 

Then Matalan sprinkled the water on the three girls. They recited their previous births. Senkuttuvan looked at the face of Matalan, wearing the sacred thread on his chest, he blessed him: O King of Kings! Long may you live. These three were, in previous births, attached to the devoted wife of Kovalan, who seized the mad elephant’s tusk to release a Brahmana from the clutches of the mad elephant.

 

Matalan finished his speech with a good advice:

“It is not strange that people who do good things attain heaven and people who have worldly minds are reborn and that good and bad deeds have their own reward and those born should die, and those dead should be re born. Those are ancient truths ( Bhagavad Gita echo: Jaatasya hi dhruvo mrtyuh dhruvam janma mrtasya ca)

 

Matalan continues:

You (Senkuttuvan) were born through the grace of Him who rides on the sacred bull (Lord Shiva) and have won distinction as a king in this wide world, saw, clear as an object held in the palm of your hand, the fruits of righteous deeds and the forms of holy people. Long live from eon to eon protecting the earth! Live long gracious monarch!

 

Pleased with what the Brahmana Matalan said, the king endowed grants to the temple of the ever youthful Pattini who had twisted off her breast and there by raised flames which enveloped the noisy Kutal (another name for Madurai) of the great Pandyan Kingdom, much celebrated in poetical themes. He further ordered the conduct of daily festivals by instructing Devantikai to offer flowers, perfume and incense.

The monarch of the world circumambulated the shrine thrice and stood proffering his respects. Many kings including the Gajabahu of sea girt Sri Lanka participated in the festival.

 

Kannaki too when she burnt Madurai down asked the Agni Deva (Fire God) to spare Brahmins, old people, cows, chaste women, invalids and all good people.

19.Chief Duties of the Lady of the House

The chief duties of the lady of the house were giving of gifts to the deserving, the serving of the Brahmins and the entertaining of the ascetics and guests, as evidenced by Kannaki’s own words in canto XVI.II 71-3 Kolaikkala Katai

 

  1. Brahmin Ambassador and Brahmin Actors

There are more references to Brahmins throughout the epic

A Brahmin ambassador by name Kausikan delivered the message of Matavi to Kovalan and took back his message to his parents – Purancheri Irutta Katai

Brahmin actors (Kuutta Chakkaiyar) staged a show in front of Senkuttuvan- Natukar Katai

Keeranthai, a Brahmin, told his wife that Pandyan king would protect her when he went out of the city and that led to Porkai Pandya Story (Pandya with a Golden Hand)—Katturai Katai

Ilango says that Pandyan kings always hear the Vedic recital but never the justice bell (katturai Katai)

A Brahmin poet by name Palaik Kautamanar going to heaven with his body- Natukar Katai

 

Madurai is full of smoke from the Vedic Fire altars—Naatu Kaan Katai

Conclusion:

Hundreds of lines were attributed to Brahmin Matalan and he gave us lot of information to fill the gaps in the epic. Miraculous incidents happen in front of the Brahmana and the king Senkuttuvan. He commands the king to do Yagas and yajnas and the king readily obeys. Kannaki lamented that she could not feed the Brahmins and saints. She spared Brahmins when she burnt down Madurai. Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy anecdote showed the condition of Vedic education in Tamil Nadu. Kovalan could read s Sanskrit manuscript. Brahmins are praised as great scholars in Tamil (Vandamiz Maraiyor in Katturaik Katai; it speaks of the Brahmin who composed a poem on Chera king in Patitrup Pattu and went to heaven with his wife in his human body).

Why did Ilango do it?

Why did Ilango do it? did he write a Brahmana Kavya? My opinion is that he did not exaggerate anything. He described the real condition of second century CE Tamil Nadu where Brahmins commanded great respect. They could command great and mighty kings like Senkuttuvan. They could guide them what to do for the welfare of the community. Through Parasran-Dakshinamurthy anecdote, Ilango not only showed that even a child in a remote village of Tamil Nadu could recite Vedas perfectly, but also Brahmins were unselfish and could donate their wealth for the Vedic children. Ilango was the first poet in Tamil to show the weddings conducted by the Brahmins in front of fire.

 

Silappadikaram was the most popular epic. It was the only epic which based its story on a pure Tamil theme.

Paranar and other poets of Patitrup Pattu, one of the 18 books of Sangam Tamil literature, confirmed all that was said by Ilango. There is no doubt that the history second century Tamil Nadu was a golden period in the history of Tamil Nadu.

 

References:

The Cilappatikaram,Prof. V R Ramachandra Dikshitar,The South India Saiavasiddhanta Works Publishing Society, Tinnelvelly Limited, Madras,600 001, 1978

Akananuru, Varthamanan Pathippakam, A Manikkanar,Chennai- 600 017,1999

Srimad Bhagavad Gita, Anna, Sri Ramakrishna Mutt, Chennai-600 004,1965

 

 

–Subahm–

 

 

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 2

KANNAKI COOKING, WORLD TAMIL CONFERENCE SOUVENIR PICTURE

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 13 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  6-16 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4612

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

 

PART 2 (PART 1 WAS PUBLISHED YESTERDAY)

6.Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy Anecdote in the Katturai Katai is equally interesting:

 

“An able Brahmana, Parasara, who belonged to the good and fertile Kingdom of the Lord of the highly reputed Pukar wielding a righteous sceptre and a triumphant sword – one of whose kings weighed (his flesh) to save a dove (Story of Sibi) and another awarded justice to a cow (story of Manu Niti Cholan) who had heard the peerless munificence of the Cera of the curved lance, by offering the heavens to a Tamil Brahmana poet, said to himself, “I shall see the Cera of great valour and long lance”. He then passed through jungles and country places and towns leaving behind him the tall Malaya Hills. There by the force of his dialectical skill which he had acquired in the traditional manner, from the twice born Brahmana—who with the thought of achieving oneness with the Infinite, kindled the three fires as ordained in the four Vedas and performed the five great sacrifices (Pancha Maha Yajna) and the six great duties- he defeated his rivals and earned the title of Parpana Vakai.

(A typical Brahmin’s profile!)

As he was returning home with great and valuable gifts, he reached the village of Tankal (Tirutankal near Sivakasi) of the righteous Pandyan and of Dharmic Brahmanas. In this village, on a platform beneath the Bodi tree, luxuriant with green leaves, the tired man stayed awhile with his staff, water bowl, white umbrella, fire stick, a small bundle of articles and slippers (the impedimenta of an orthodox Brahmana; white umbrellas can be used only by the Kings and Brahmins who did Soma yaga) and said,

“Long live the victor whose protecting white umbrella assures his certain success. Long live the protector who uprooted the Katampu from the sea (Marine attack on sea pirates)! Long live the king who engraved his bow on the Himalayas! Long live the Poraiyan, possessor of the cool and beautiful Porunai! Long live King Mantaran Ceral! (contemporary king of Ceran Senkuttuvan)

 

Surrounded by a group of playful youths, some with curly hair and some with tufts and some with lisping mouths and coral lips, toddling some distance from their homes, he addressed them,

“Young Brahmana boys, if you can recite the Veda after me you may go away taking this little bundle of jewels.” Then the son of famous Brahmana Vartikan, by name Aalamar Selvan (Dakshinamurthy) whose rose lisps still retained the fragrance of his mother’s milk, in the presence of his playmates, with prattling tongue and great inward pleasure, recited the Veda, faultlessly observing the correct rhythm. The elderly man was exceedingly pleased with young Dakshinan and presented him with a sacred thread of pearls and bright jewels, as well as with bangles and earrings before departed for his native place”.

7.VEDIC  TAMIL NADU

Here Ilango was so poetic that we are captivated by every word he said here. This gave the beautiful description of Vedic education in the second century Tamil Nadu. Every word of Ilango praised the Brahmins and Brahmin boys. A little boy could recite Vedas with a learned Pundit. He described the appearance of Vedic Brahmins in minute details

 

The translator adds a beautiful note here:

The Brahman’s love for the Veda and his magnanimity in giving away the valuable jewels to a child reciting Vedas according to established practice show how unselfish were the learned Brahmins of those golden days.

 

Through Matalan  and Parasaran and a little boy we know that Vedas were recited in nook and corner of Tamil Nadu.

 

8.A MIRACLE HAPPENED!

“When Vartikan’s child departed with the little bundle of jewels, Vartikan was accused of misappropriating treasure trove which belongs to the king. So Vartikan was imprisoned. His wife Kartikai grew frantic. She wept in grief. She threw herself on to the ground rolling and fulminating. Seeing this the Goddess Durga of untarnished glory refused to open the door of her temple for the conduct of daily worship. When the king of the mighty spear heard that the massive door remained shut and would not open, he was confounded, and inquired, “Has any injustice been done? Come and tell me if you have heard of any failure in the discharge of our duties to the Goddess of Victory”.

 

“Then his young messengers made obeisance to the protecting king and informed him the case of Vartikan. “This is not fair, burst forth the king in anger and addressed Vartikan, It is your duty to forgive me. My righteous rule still has life, though owing to the ignorance of my men, it has deviated from the ordained path”.

 

“The king granted him Tankal with its paddy fields watered by tanks and Vayalur of immeasurable yield and prostrated himself on the ground before Vartikan, the husband of Kartikai. Then the door of the Goddess who rode upon the stag, opened so loudly as to be heard throughout the long and broad streets of mountain like mansions of the ancient city.

Then he issued a proclamation to release all the prisoners and allowed everyone to enjoy the treasures they find!”

 

Such is the power of Brahmins. Even mighty kings fell at their feet!

 

9.In this chapter (Katturai Katai) , Brahmins are praised as Vandamil Maraiyor i.e people who speak chaste Tamil. This answered the question whether Brahmins are sons of the soil!

 

10.Matalan Again!

Matala Maraiyon, the influential Brahmin, appears again in the last three sections:

Nirppataik Katai

Natukar Katai

Varantaru katai

 

Matalan giving Important News!

Ilango uses Matalan to fill the gaps in the epic. Mighty Cera King Senkuttuvan brought the stone from the holy Himalayas and bathed it in the Holy Ganges and carved the stone into the Goddess Pattini.

Following is in the Nirppataik Katai

“While Senkuttuvan was sitting on his throne ( in North India), the Brahmana Matalan appeared before him and said, Long live our king! The seashore song of the lady Matavi made the crowns of Kanaka and Vijaya bear a weight (the implied meaning is that Kovalan left Matavi’s house and other events followed resulting in Kannaki becoming a goddess; Kanaka and Vijaya who challenged Senkuttuvan made to carry the stone on their heads).

 

The Brahmana Matalan then continued: “The maid Matavi, whilst sporting on the cool beach, had a lover’s quarrel with Kovalan. Then governed by fate she sang the seashore song appropriate to her dance. This not resulted in their reunion but in their separation, and necessitated his entry with his virtuous wife into the ancient towered city of Madura, whose reigning king with his wreath of leaves attained blissful heaven as a result of the murder of Kovalan, whose wife, O Lord of the Kutavar, entered your country. And now she is being borne upon the crowned heads of the northern kings”.

 

11.Matari commits suicide!

“Be good enough to listen also to the reason for my coming here, O king of kings holding the illustrious spear! After going round the Potiyil Hills sacred to the great sage (Agastya) and bathing in the famous ghat of Kumari, I was returning, when as if impelled by fate, I went into Madura belonging to far famed Tennavan of the sharp sword. There when Matari heard that the beautiful Kannaki had defeated the Pandyan king of the mighty army with her anklet, she proclaimed in the Taateru manrdram (common meeting point of the Yadava community), ‘O People of the cowherd community! Kovalan has done no wrong; it is the king who has erred; I have lost her to whom I gave refuge. Have the king’s umbrella and the sceptre fallen from the righteous path? With these words she threw herself into the burning flames in the dead of night!

12.Kavunti died of Starvation!

Kavunti, distinguished for her holy penance, waxed wroth; but when she heard of the death of the great king renowned for his righteous sceptre, her ire was appeased and she burst out: Was this the fate of those who joined my company? She took a vow to die of starvation and thus gave up her life.

 

13.Kovalan’s mother died of Depression!

I heard in full detail all this and also of the devastation that overtook the great city of Madura ruled by the Pandyan of the golden car. Overcome by great I went back to my native place, the ancient capital of the Colas, and informed the chief men there of this. Kovalan’s father heard what happened to his son and daughter in law and also to the righteous monarch of Madura and became deeply afflicted. He distributed all his wealth in charity, and entered Seven Indra Viharas (The Buddhist Temple) and began to practise self -denial like the three hundred monks who roam the sky, having renounced the world to obtain release from the cycle of births. The wife of him who thus renounced, unable to endure the sorrowful news of the death of her son under such tragic circumstances, died of pity.

 

Kannaki’s father also gave away his wealth in religious gifts and adopted Dharma in the presence of Ajivakas like sages engaged in penance of a high order. The noble wife of him who made these gifts gave up her good life within a few days.

 

TO BE CONTINUED……………………………………….

 

VALLUVAR’S TIRUKKURAL AND KAMA SASTRA COMPARED (Post No.4539)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 24 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-35 am

 

 

Post No. 4539

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 5 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar ; in this Kamasastra is compared with Tirukkural along with other books.

 

Please read first four parts posted in the past few days and continue here:–

 

So far we have seen the comparison between Tiru Valluvar’s Tirukkural with Bhagavad Gita, Manu Smrti, Arthasastra of Kautilya/Chanaya, Kamandaki, Ramayana and Mahabharata. In this section we will look at the Parnellism between the Kamasastra in Sanskrit with Tirukkural

 

Following is from the book Studies in Tamil Literature by V R Ramachandra Dikshitar:

 

Book III of Tirukkural- Kaamattuppaal

 

There are two views with regard to this particular section. One is that Valluvar gives expression to purely Tamil aspect of Kama (sexual desire). According to this whole can be conveniently divided into Kalaviyal and Karpiyal, and these again are based on the five tinais peculiar to the Tamils.

 

But the celebrated commentator of the Kural, Parimel azagarwould again find correspondences between this subject of the subject and that in Sanskrit literature. According to that authority, Kalaviyal and Karpiyal correspond to the Samyoga and Vipralambha of the KAMASUTRA treatises.

 

In the Karpiyal section again Parimelaalagar would find corresponding terms for the different incidents like

Selavu =Pravasa

Arraamai= Viraaga

Viduppu = Ayogam

and Pulavi= Maanam.

The Sanskritists add the fifth incident Saapa.

As this is quite uncommon , says the commentator, Valluvar did not include it in his treatment of the subject. While the Chapter 116 Pirivarraamai is devoted to selavu, the chapters (117-126) deal with the Arraamai.

 

Viduppu is dealt within three chapters (127-129), while the last four chapters (130-133) are devoted to the incident of Pulavi.

 

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Porutpaal continued…………………

Kural 586 to 589 ( Spies/ Detectives)

 

As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,

A spy whatever men do must watchful mind display.

 

A spy must search each hidden matter out

And full report must render, free from doubt.

 

Spying by spies, the things they tell,

To test by other spies is well.

 

One spy must not another see: contrive it so;

And things by three confirmed as truth you know

 

The Arthasastra has the following:

The king shall send fraudulent and ascetic spies who have been tried for their loyalty and skill.

The class of officers who went by the name of Tiiksanas ascertained their outward conduct. The satri spies carried this information to the district quarters. The residential officers therein made it known to the headquarters through signs and cipher writings. This is to be done without the knowledge of the respective samsthas. If the information is corroborated by three independent sources, it is taken to be confirmed.

(Book 1, Chap.11 and 12)

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Kural 581 (Spies)

These two: the code renowned, and spies

n these let king confide as eyes

 

Tha Kamandaki saysA king should get at the movements of the adversary through the medium of his cautious and secret spies. That king one of whose eyes is caara or the spy is awake even in sleep (13-29)

 

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Kural 602 and 604 (Sloth)

Let indolence, the death of effort, die,

If you’d uphold your household’s dignity.

His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,

Who, sunk in sloth,  for noble objects doth not strive

 

The Bhagavd Gita gives similar ideas:

Know, og Bharata, inertia born of ignorance and the deluder of all beings, is bound by sloth, indolence and sleep (BG 14-8)

 

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Kural 628 and 630 (Fortitude)

He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;

Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes

 

Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire

The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.

 

The Gita says similarly,

You grieve for things not fit to be grieved for and yet indulge in wise sayings. The wise never grieve either for the living or for the dead.

 

He who sees his self in everything and looks upon pleasure and pain equally, is a perfect Yogi

–BG 2-11 and 6-32

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Kural 631 (Ministers)

A minister is who grasps, with wisdom large,

Means ,time, work’s mode and functions rare he must discharge

 

The Arthasastra says,

The ministers shall engage in the following five duties: commencing a work, finding out resources, fixing it according to place and time, protecting against possible dangers, and final consummation Book 1-15

 

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Kural 645 and 646 (Eloquence)

Speaking out your speech, when once it is past dispute

That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.

 

Charming each hearer’s ear, of others words to seize the sense

Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.

 

A good illustration of this maxim is found in the Mahabharata. Here the kingdom is threatened with a invasion, the king goes to the country and begs for war loans and benevolences by speaking out in sweet, soft and convincing style.

–Santi Parva 88,26,34

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Kural 669, 670 (Firmness)

Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,

And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.

 

The world desires not men of every power possessed,

Who powers in act desires not, crown of all the rest

 

is expressed in other words by the Bhagavad Gita:

Do not get vexed. This is unbecoming of one like yourself. Give up the detestable weakness of the heart and gird up, oh slayer of foes –BG 2-3; 4-20

 

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Kural 681, 682, 683, 684 (AMBASSADOR)

 

Benevolence, high birth, the courtesy kings love

These qualities the envoy of a king approve

 

Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things

Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.

 

Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be

Midst javelin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory

Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite

Who hath these three for envoy’s task is fit.

 

similar ideas are expressed by the law giver Manu:

The king shall appoint him an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who can read the gestures and signs, pure, skilled, of noble family

That ambassador, who is loyal, honest, intelligent of excellent memory, who acts according to time and place, of good physique, bold and possessed of good powers of speech is applauded – Manu 7-63/64

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Kural 685, 686, 688, 689, 690 (AMBASSADOR)

In the Kural

In term, concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word

An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord

 

An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye

Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency

In the Athasastra,

The message is to be delivered in toto, even at the cost of life……….When questioned by the enemy king as to the strength of the lord’s forces, pretend ignorance and simply say, you know better! – Book 1-16

 

Again in the Kural,

Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness;

Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.

 

His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,

Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king

 

Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;

The envoy gains assured advantage for his king

 

The Rajaniti Rantnakara quotes Sukra,

The ambassador, though a mlechcha, shall not be killed

Hence the duta/ambassador is the king’s eye. Even when the arms are raised aloft in the act of striking him, he should faithfully deliver his message.

 

From the words of the duta/amabassador who would think of his own defects and of enemy’s strength? For the duta  speak always anything he thinks – page 46 of Rajanitiratnakara

 

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Kural 698, 699, 700 (On Serving the King)

Say not, ‘He is young, my kinsman’ despising thus your king;

But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.

The following may be parallel,

A king should not be despised even though a child. he is a great divinity in the form of a man Manu 7-8

In the Kural, we have gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do

So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.

 

Wh think we are ancient friends, and do unseemly things;

To these familiarity sure ruin brings.

 

Similar ideas are found in the following discussion in the Arthasastra,

says Bhardvaja,

The king shall appoint as his ministers his classmates as he would have understood their honesty and tact. They could be easily trusted. No says Visalaksha, ‘as playmates they would not respect him. He shall therefore appoint those whose secrets are well known to him. Possessed of conduct and defects in common with the king those do not entertain harm lest their secrets should be divulged. This is very common, says Parasara, for the king may follow them in their good and bad actions lest his own secrets be divulged Arthasastra Book 1, Chap.8

 

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Kural 731, 732 (A Prosperous Nation)

The Kural defines,

Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,

Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land.

 

That is a land which men desire for wealth’s abundant share,

Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare

Baudhayana says:

A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass and garlands are plentiful, access to which is easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people and where Aryans (noblemen) form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers—Baudhayana 2-3-51

S B E Volume 14 pages 243/4

Kural 737 (Nation)

What the Kural says,

Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;

These make a land with fortress sure defence

 

is also mentioned by Kautilya

The fortress of rivers and mountains are sources of defence to the country parts.

Arthasastra Book 2-3

Chapter 74 of Kural entitled Nation corresponds roughly to the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

Durga= Fortress

Chapter 75 of Kural entitled Fortification corresponds roughly to the the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

 

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Kural 751 (WEALTH)

Nothing exists, save wealth, that can

Change man of nought to worthy man

is tus explained in the Ramayana

To a man of wealth, there are friends, and relatives. He is the worthy man of the world, and becomes a Pandita. He is a man of prowess and wisdom. He is a great man of good qualities.

Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana chap.83-35/36

 

Kural 760

What the Kural says,

Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,

By them the other two are easily obtained

 

is explained thus by Vaatsyaayana,

Between wealth and kingdom, wealth is superior. Though the means of wealth, Lokayaatraa and Kaama are realised. This is the position of Trivarga.

–Kamasutra book 1-2-15/17

 

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Kural 861 (ENEMIES)

With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;

With weaker shun not, rather court the fray

Kautilya prescribes,

Court agreement of peace with equal and superior foes. Fight with the weaker.

–Book 7-3

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Kural 920 (PROSTITUTES)

According to the Kural:

Women of double minds, strong drink and dice;

to these given over,

Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.

 

In the Arthasastra,

Public censure and loss of wealth are due to Kama ( desire).

….Kama comprises hunting, gambling, women and drinking.

–Book 7-3

 

In the chapter on the Purusa vyasana varga, Kautilya referes to the four-fold vice under the category of Kama. These are hunting, gambling, women and drinking. The effects of these evil habits are discussed I detail. Tiruvalluvar, on the other hand devotes two chapters on the Vyasanas of women (91being ruled by the wife, 92 prostitutes) one chapter ( 93 ) on drinking and one chapter on (94) gambling. Apparently, the author of the Kural does not treat hunting as such a vice as the other three. In fact hunting is recognised as a valuable form of exercise to kings by Kalidasa in his Sakuntala. Nor is Kautilya unaware of its beneficial effects.

Arthasastra book 8-3

 

My comments:

V R R Dikshitar has done very good research in Tirukkural. I have not seen any such comparisons in any other book. One must be a good scholar in both Sanskrit and Tamil and well read. I have already given my comparisons of Dhammapada and Tirukkural, Panchatantra and Tirukkural in separate articles.

 

—SUBHAM–

Arthasastra,Ramayana and Tirukkural Compared (Post No.4534)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 23 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am

 

 

Post No. 4534

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 4 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4534).

 

In this fourth part, Arthasastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Kamandaka and Manu’s verses are compared.

 

 

In the first two parts Tirukkural, Bhagavad Gita and Manava Dharma Sastra are compared,

 

In the third part Kautilya’s Arthasastra is also compared with Kural

It is continued in the Fourth Part

 

Kural 471 (Forethought)

 

In the opinion of Valluvar,

 

The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,

The force of friends: these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.

 

On this Kautilya observes:

 

The conquering monarch shall acquaint himself with the comparative strength and weakness, of himself and of his enemy in regard to power, lace, time, season for march, season for recruiting the army, consequential advantages and difficulties arising from anger, diminution and loss and decide on expedition if he would feel assured of superiority in his force.

–Book 9, chapter 1

 

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KURALS 472, 476, 477 (Assessment of Relative Strength)

 

 

Who know what can he wrought, with the knowledge of means, on this

Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss (Kural 472)

 

Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise

Beyond the branch’s tip, with life the forfeit pays (476)

With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you, give!

That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live (477)

Kautilya says,

 

The power of mantra (counsel) is better. The king who possesses the eye of Sastraic knowledge can press his knowledge into service even with little effort. He can over reach the enemy with enthusiasm and power by means of conciliation, and application of strategic means. In this way success is due to enthusiasm, power, force of mantra/counsel of in the ascending order – Book 9, chapter 1

 

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Kural 481 and 482 (Right Time)

 

According to the author of Kural,

 

A crow will conquer owl in brad day light;

The king the foes would crush, need fitting time to fight.

 

The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made

Strictly observant still of favouring season’s aid.

 

Says the Kautilya, “That season is best which is suited to the manoeuvre of one’s own army and unsuited to ones enemny. The reverse is the worst. The ordinary season is the middling one. Book 9, Chap. 1

 

Time alone is better say some. For on this account the crow kills the owl in the day and the owl the crow in the night.

 

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Kural 493 and 494 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

Even weak ones mightily prevails, if place of strong defence

They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.

 

The foes who thought to trimph, find their thoughts in vain

If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain

 

According to Arthasastra, ‘one should endeavour the means to increase the strength of one’s own force. That desa is the best which is the ground for manoeuvre of one’s own army but disadvantageous to the enemy. Otherwise it is the worst. That which is common is neither best nor worst.- Book 9, chap.1)

 

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Kural 495, 497, 500 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide;

If this it leaves, it is slain by anything beside

 

Save their own fearless might they need no other aid, If in right place they fight, all due provision made

 

 

The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen

The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.

 

In the Arthasastra, it is said:

The ground is better, some say. On this account the dog on the ground can overreach even a crocodile, and the crocodile in the low ground the dog. –Book 9- Chapter 1

 

Thus we come across similar ideas both in the Arthasastra and Tirukkural. While the Arthasastra has dealt in one chapter all the three means of Sakti, Desa and Kala, the Kural devotes three separate chapters of the Kural Venbas each

 

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Kural 501(On choosing the right men)

 

How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life is at stake,

Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make

 

Says Kautilya:

 

The ministers shall be tested by the Upadhas which are in the nature of temptations. These are for kinds, the temptation of virtue, wealh, lust and fear- Book 1, chap.10

 

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Kural 510 On choosing the right men)

 

Trust where have you not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,

Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal

 

The Arthasastra says:

The Acaryas (teachers) have prescribed that the king should appoint government servants in their respective posts after the four-fold test according to the satisfaction afforded by such test.

–Book 1, Chapter 10

 

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Kural 518 and 520 (Employment of Chosen men)

 

As each man’s special aptitude is known

Bid each man make that special work his own

 

Let king search out his servants’ deeds each day;

When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way

 

is corroborated by the Arthasastra

 

Those who have come out successful from the Dharmopadhaa are to be appointed as judges and commissioners, from the Arthopadhaa to office of treasurer and he collector-general, from Kaamopadhaa to guarding frontiers, harem and sporting grounds and from the Bhayopadhaa in the king’s household.

 

Those who have gone through the four ordeals are to be chosen as ministers.

 

Having thus chosen his servants by the four fold tests, the king shall endeavour through his spies to get at their loyalty or otherwise –Book 1, Chapter 10

 

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Kural 517(Employment of Chosen men)

 

This man, this work halt thus work out, let thoughtful king command:

Then leave the matter wholly in his servant’s hand

 

Kamandaka says,

 

He whose capacity is too well known for a particular job is appointed to it, just like the different senses which are employed to perceive particular objects – Kamandaka 5-75

 

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Kural 541 (Just Rule)

 

Search out, to no one favour show, with heart that justice loves,

Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.

 

The Ramayana furnishes a parallel

If the punishment accorded to the offenders is meted out according to the laws of the land, it leads the monarch to heaven

–Ramayana 7-79-9

 

Kural 543 (Just Rule)

 

Learning and virtue of the sages spring

From all-controlling sceptre of the king

 

According to the Arthasastra,

That state which is disciplined by the established laws of the Aryas, which is rooted in the organisation of castes and orders, and which is protected by the three Vedas, progresses and never deteriorates – Book 1-3

 

Kural 545 (Just Rule)

 

Where king, who righteous law  regards, the sceptre wields,

There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields

 

A Parallel is furnished in the Ramayana,

The fields are rich with crops, the rains shower in proper seasons, and the soldiers are free from disease during Satrughna’s rule.

–Ramayana 7-70-10

 

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Kural 554 (On Tyranny, Oppression)

 

Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,

At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.

 

Manu rules,

 

The king who allows the kingdom to deteriorate owing to sheer neglect and lethargy will soon fall from his position and life with all his relatives -Manu 7-111

 

Kural 560 (Oppression, Tyranny)

 

Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry

And Brahmin’s sacred lore will all forgotten lie

 

 

The Mahabharata furnishes a parallel,

When Dandaniti is given the death blow and when the ancient Raja Dharma of the Kshatriyas become lost, the sacred lore gets extinct, as also all the dharmas including those dharmas pertaining to the asramas

–Santi Prava Chap.112-28

 

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Kural 562 and 569 (Penalties)

 

For length of days with still increasing joys on heaven who call

Should raise the rod with bow severe, but let it gently fall.

 

Manu furnishes a parallel,

The king should be harsh and mild according to the nature of the work. He endears himself to the people, being harsh and soft—Manu 7-140

 

Kural 569

 

Who builds no forth whence he may foe defy,

In time of war shall fear and swiftly die

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

The enemies do not wrong those resident in fortresses, as they do not attack the king who shelters under a fort – Manu7-73

 

 

to be continued……………………

 

–SUBHAM–