TAMIL POETESSES AVVAI, ANGAVAI AND SANGAVAI (Post No.7350)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 16 December 2019

Time in London – 18-10

Post No. 7350

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Tamil women are great poetesses, temple builders and social reformers. Andal ,a devotee of Vishnu, and Karaikkal Ammaiyar, a devotee of Shiva are known to many. Avvaiyar is a household name in Tamil Nadu; but many Avvais existed in various ages. Probably the word AVVAI was used for an old woman completely devoted to God; that is a full timer on public service, widowed OR not married . Scholars think that six women known as Avvai lived in Tamil Nadu. But linguistically speaking, we can see at least four Avvais clearly. One belong to Sangam age , another belongs to middle age and the third one is from our times. The language of the poems draws a clear cut line. Fourth one is in between them.

The most famous Avvai existed during Sangam age i.e. 2000 years ago. She was well versed in Tamil and bold enough to challenge and advise the mighty Tamil kings. But she was respected by one and all. The Tamils were fighting among themselves from the very beginning of history. The longest infighting race in the world. Avvai was bold enough to advise them to stop fighting.

A great Chola king Peru Narkilli did a Rajasuya Yagam like Yuthisthiraa of Mahabharata. Chera king and the Pandya king attended the Hindu fire ceremony. Grand old lady of Tamil country Avvaiyar came there and blessed them. She sang that they must be united like this for ever and live longer in years than the number of stars in the sky and the number of drops in the rain. She advised them to give a lot of gold to worthy Brahmins (See Purananuru verse 366).

She went to another inexperienced king and advised him not to fight with his enemy. She used very subtle language and said to him “your weapons are brand new and shining like silver whereas your enemy’s weapons are blunt, rusty and bloody. The message she hinted was ‘Oh, you idiot, you don’t know what a battle is like, where as your enemy is an experienced fighter.”

She was in the court of Neduman Anji, the Adigamaan Chief of Tagadur (Dharmapuri). He held her in high esteem and even gave her the Nelli (amla) with rare medical properties. He entrusted her an embassy to the Chief of Tondaimandalam. She composed many poems on the generosity of Adigaman. For vigour and depth of feeling her odes to Adigaman are second to none in the Purananuru collections.

After the death of Adigaman she visited several places in Tamil Nadu. Avvai took her themes from life in the palace and in the country farm. The simple pleasures and the daily cares of the lowly appealed to her even more than the chivalry of heroes and the magnificence of princes. Her odes which are included in the   Sangam collections Akananuru, Purananuu, Natrinai and Kuruntokai, are a true mirror of contemporary Tamil life.   With a rare economy of words she creates marvellous pen pictures , and some poetic imagery; she adds choice moral precepts. She is a great exponent of morality.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                   

We see one Avvai as most famous Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar’s sister (probably around fourth or fifth century CE) and another Avvai with Sundarar and Cheraman Perumal (probably ninth century) and another Avvai who composed Athichudi and other poems in simple Tamil during modern times. She is the one devoted to Lord Skanda/Muruga and author of Vinayakar Akaval. So one can easily see four different Avvais. Pithy aphorisms of later Avvai are lisped by Tamil children even today as introduction to Tamil poetry and a guide to a moral life.

Tradition ascribes to Avvai a strange parentage- a Brahmana father and a low caste mother brought up in a Brahmana family. She has six siblings along with Tiru Valluvar. This story is found in all books that were published 75 years ago. This Avvai came after Sangam age. Her poetic talents were first discovered by Buuda, a petty chieftain of Pulveluur on the River Pennaaru.

( Tamils killed each other continuously for 1200 years and then invited Muslim invaders to kill all the Tamils. For 150 years Tamils were ruled by Muslim invaders and then Telugus saved Tamil Nadu, Tamil Culture, Tamil temples and Hinduism. Kumara Kampannan came with his wife Ganga Devi to Madurai and sounded the death knell to Muslim Rule. Tamils are ever grateful to the Telugus. Without them Tamil Pakistan would have emerged 500 years before the actual Pakistan.)

Angavai and Sangavai


One of the great Tamil philanthropists is Chieftain Vel Pari. He had two daughters named Angavai and Sangavai. They were well educated and could compose poems. Paari was ruling a small area called Parampunaadu. Three great Tamil kings of Chera, Chola and Pandya wanted to marry those girls. When Pari refused they laid a siege around his small kingdom. Kabilar, a brahmin poet was his close friend . He helped him to break the siege by training thousands of parrots to bring grains from around the kingdom. But at the end Chieftain Pari was killed . Since Kabilar took care of Pari’s daughters, the three kings could not touch them . Kabilar contributed highest number poems to the Sangam corpus . He was the only poet sung and praised by other poets. He was praised as a  Brahmin of spotless character . He was a revolutionary who broke the barriers of caste 2000 years ago. He got them married and then entered fire like several Hindu saints. That place is called Kabilar Rock near Tirukkovalur in Tamil Nadu.

One of the Purananuru collections is sung by these two daughters.
An unconquerable hero, he fell a victim to foul treachery and his orphaned girls were exiled from their home . The hymn is an exquisite pen picture of their sufferings in exile, presented in sharp contrast to their past life of affluence and luxury in their palace at Parambu Naadu.
See Puram verse 112.

Xxx subham xxx

AVVAIYAR

KANNAKI’S PRAISE FOR SEVEN GREAT TAMIL WOMEN! (Post No.7337)

WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 13 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 17-

Post No. 7337

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Mighty Chera King Senkuttuvan with Kannaki Statue

Kannaki and Kovaalan
angry Kannaki proved to the king that her husband is innocent

Kannaki cooking

Great Tamil Poetess -Nappasalai (Post No.7330)

WRITTEN BY  LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 11 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 19-29

Post No. 7330

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Tamil laymen knew about great Tamil poetesses Avvaiyar, Andal and Karaikkal Ammaiyar. But many people do not know about Sangam age women poets.

Nappashalai was one of the Sangam Age (Sangam age – first three centuries of modern era) Tamil poetesses. Her seven verses are in Purananuru of Sangam Age.

She was a native of Marokkam in south Pandya country.  Her odes were admired by all the kings f the day. There is much art in the following ode praising Killi Valavan’s generosity justice and might; she mentions the Sibi Chakravarthy Story from the Puranas. Several poets have pointed out that Cholas belong to Solar Race and  Sibi, Mandhata and others of Surya Kula are their forefathers. Here is her poem:-

Descendant of him who to save a dove from grief entered the balance… giving in grace was born with you, and is not your peculiar praise!

And when one ponders how your forefathers of ancient days destroyed the mighty fort suspended in the sky which foes dreaded to approach – to slay your foes is not your peculiar praise!

And since the council of Uraiyur , impregnable city of the valiant Cholas is the home of equity; Justice is not your peculiar praise!

Oh Valavan! Swift horsemen , whose stout arms are like fortress bars , whose wreaths attract every eye, how then shall I sing your praise?”

— Purananuru verse 39

Xxx

Napashalai’s ode on the death of Killi is marked by a quaintness of conceit in her address to Death:-

If in his mind against you he were  wroth

Or if in outward act he showed his rage,

Or if he touched you with afflictive hand ,

You could not have escaped, O Death!

You took great Valavan, entreating him,

Like minstrels, bowing low, with suppliant hand

Praising you did bear off his life,

Leader of hosts that crowd the glorious field,

Crowned with gold wreath, Lord of the mighty car.

Purananuru verse 226

Xxx

There is another lyric where she expresses pathos. She expressed grief at the destruction of the fair city of Karur by the impetuous  Chola king Killi Valavan.

You scion of the Chola Lord who saved

The dove from woe- chief of the wrathful hosts

Armed with gleaming darts that work havoc

As when a fiery dragon , angry, fierce,

Bearing five heads, with gleaming poisonous tooth,

Has entered the vast mountainous cavern, where

The golden creepers twine, and from the sky

Fire issues forth and loudest thunderbolt

You saw the lordly city old, whose king

Was circled round by girdled elephants

There in deep dark moat alligators congregate

In the wide waters of guarded lake

Are crocodiles that fierce in fight

Dart forth to catch the shadows cast

By gleam of watchman’s torch at midnight hour.

Its walls like burnished copper shone.

This seemed not fair to your eyes; for you did

Work destruction mightily, glorious king!-

Purananuru verse 37

Translations of odes by  P T S Aiyangar, G U Pope and Kanakasabhai

–subham–

AINDRA GRAMMAR, PANINI AND TOLKAPPIAR (Post No.7266)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 26 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-48

Post No. 7266

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Tamils have a special interest in Aindra grammar system. The reason being Tolkappiar, the author of the oldest book in Tamil (Tolkappiam) was well versed in it. Panamparanar who introduces Tolkappiar in his prolegomenon says this. So people wonder whether AINDRA was prevalent before Panini or after Panini or many systems existed at the same time in different parts of India. Tolkappiar says Indra and Varuna are gods of two Tamil regions along with Vishnu, Skanda and Durga representing other three Tamil regions.

Great Tamil poet Kamban says Hanuman was well versed in Aindra grammar. He is also praised as Nava Vyakarana Panditha. (Nava may mean NEW or NINE)

Agrawala says,

“According to Vedic literature Brahma taught grammar to Brihaspati and he taught Indra and Indra taught Bharadwaja. He in turn taught other Rishis (seers). Now we know there was another system Bharadwaja grammar. Bhardwaja was a master of Aindra as well. Panini also mentioned several teachers before him.

Tamils believe that there was one grammar before Tolkappair, codified by Agastya as well. Agastya’s own disciple Tolkappiya did another grammar within a short time.Why? we don’t know. From all these things what we understand is several grammar systems existed simultaneously, because there can’t be more than 50 years difference between Agastya and Tolkappiyar if we believe the story of most famous Tamil commentator Nachinarkiniyar. Tamils also believe that Shiva sent Agastya to codify a grammar to Tamil language. It is in the old Tamil verses. Poet Kalidasa also links Pandya with Agastya in his Raghuvamsa. It is all 2000 year old belief.

Indra is a Vedic God who has the highest number of hymns in the oldest book The Rig Veda. The very construction of the word Aindra (derived from Indra) is also of Sanskrit origin.

But many Tamils do not know much about Panini or other systems of grammar that existed in India. Agrawala in his book ‘India as known to Panini’ gives interesting details:–

KAMBAN, HANUMAN AND AINDRA GRAMMAR

ஐந்திரம் நிறைந்த | Tamil and Vedas

8 May 2018 – அனுமனை நவ வியாகரண பண்டிதன் என்றும் ராமாயணம் வருணிக்கும். நவ என்றால் இரண்டு பொருள் உண்டு. புதிய மற்றும் ஒன்பது …

–SUBHAM–

More about Holy Seven! No.7 (Post No.6901)

WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com

 Date: 19 AUGUST 2019  

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-53

Post No. 6901

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

picture by Lalgudi Veda

Mystic No.7 in Music !! | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/…/mystic-no-7-in-music…

  1.  

13 Apr 2014 – It is no wonder 7 was considered a mystic number by our ancients. … Anandakalippu tune ‘ Nandavanathil Or Andi’ (all Tamil songs) are in this …

SACRED NUMBER SEVEN (Post No.6893) | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/sacred-number-seven-post-…

2 days ago – Mystic No.7 in Music! (posted on 13th April 2013) Numbers in the Rig Veda (posted on 3rd September2014) Hindus’ Magic Numbers 18,108 …

Sapta matas | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/sapta-matas/

  1.  
  2.  

Before going any further let me list my earlier posts on Numbers: Mystic No.7 in Music! (posted on 13th April 2013) Numbers in the Rig Veda (posted on 3rd …

Seven in Vedas | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/seven-in-vedas/

  1.  

Before going any further let me list my earlier posts on Numbers: Mystic No.7 in Music! (posted on 13th April 2013) Numbers in the Rig Veda (posted on 3rd …

Number Seven in Kalidasa and Kamba Ramayana! – Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/number-seven-in-kalidasa-…

  1.  

7 Feb 2017 – I have already explained the significance of Number 7 in my two articles as given in the … Mystic No.7 in Music!! posted on 13th April 2014. 2).

7 demons | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/7-demons/

  1.  
  2.  

Some people see Seven Matas (seven mothers) as in Hindu scriptures and others see Seven Demons as described in Babylonian clay tablets. But Hindus have …


CAN YOU FIND THE 7 HOLY RIVERS AND 7 HOLY CITIES IN INDIA …

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/can-you-fined-the-7-holy-r…

13 Nov 2018 – Post No5658. Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a …  To be continued

–subham–

NUMBER SIX IN THE OLDEST TAMIL BOOK! (Post No.6757)

Written by London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com

 Date: 10 AUGUST 2019  


British Summer Time uploaded in London –  16-0
7

Post No. 6757

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

Number Three in Sanskrit and Tamil Literature (Post No.6315)

WRITTEN  by London swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 27 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 9-35 am

Post No. 6315

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

TAMILS GAVE SO MUCH IMPORTANCE TO NUMBER THREE.

(SEE MORE TAMIL 3s IN MY TAMIL ARTICLE)

–SUBHAM—

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

CLASH BETWEEN THE FAMOUS TAMIL POET AND CHOZA KING (Post No.6155)

Written by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 5 March 2019


GMT Time uploaded in London – 15-58


Post No. 6155

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

GREEK PYTHIAS AND TAMIL PISIRANTHAIYAR – SYMBOLS OF FRIENDSHIP! (Post No.5777)

Research Article written by London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 13 December 2018


GMT Time uploaded in London – 20-56

Post No. 5777


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

GREEK PYTHIAS AND TAMIL PISIRANTHAIYAR – SYMBOLS OF FRIENDSHIP! (Post No.5777)

The story of Pythias and Damon is popular in the West. It has become an idiom in English. The two friends of Athens stand as the symbol of true friendship. It is said that they followed the friendship as propagated  by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras. That is what exactly the great Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda called Tirukkural said,

“Friendship requires neither common residence nor frequent meeting; spiritual kinship creates the right to friendship”-  Kural 785

“Friendship is not that which shines as a smile in the face; Friendship is that which shines as a joy in the soul within” – 786

Another translation of the same couplets runs like this,

“Identity of feelings alone count for close friendship for which,

Constant companionship is not really necessary”-785.

“A surface smile in the face is not friendship, genuine affection,

Springs from the heart and lights up the face”-786.

The story Of Pythias is as follows,

Pythias and Damon were great friends. Once they visited Syracuse where the tyrant Dionysius was ruling. The king suspected the intention of their visit and arrested Pythias for anti- state activities.  He passed a death sentence on him after rejecting all his arguments. His friend Damon felt very sad and tried to help him.

At the same time Pythias’ mother was suffering from serious illness. So Pythias asked permission to go and see her before he  dies. But Dionysius was not ready to believe him. He thought he would never come back. Damon, who was his true friend, told the king that he was ready to be a hostage in the place of Pythias. The tyrant agreed to that proposal. Damon was put in jail.

The days passed; now everyone was waiting anxiously from Pythias return. When the deadline was about to expire, Damon was taken to the execution platform. But Damon was dead sure that he would come back. At that time there was a great commotion when people saw Pythias running towards the place. He came in and asked for pardon for the delay and explained that untimely and unseasonal weather stopped his ship. He begged the king to release Damon and execute him as per the original order.

Whoever heard this started shedding tears and appreciated the great friendship between Pythias and Damon. It moved even the stony-hearted Dionysius and he ordered the release of both Pythias and Damon. From that time their name became proverbial for true friendship.

Similar Story in Tamil literature.

Pythias incident happened in the fifth century BCE. A few centuries later another story happened in Tamil Nadu in South India. There was a king by name Kopperum Chozan. He had problems with his sons about ruling the country. Sangam Tamil poets were honest and bold advisers. One of the poets advised the Choza king to hand over the kingdom to his wards and go to forest life—Vanaprastha—third stage in a Hindu’s life. The king said that he wanted to fast unto death. It is called ‘Prayopavesa’ in Sanskrit and found in the Kishkintha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana. Whoever dies that way goes directly to heaven. They face the holy Northern Direction and starve to death. Several people used to join such a venture because they knew it is a ‘direct flight ticket’ to Heaven. As was the custom lot of scholars and poets joined the Choza king in the fast. One poet by name Pothiar was refused a seat in the hall by the king. He told him that the poet should go back home and can join only after the birth of a male child, which is required to go to heaven according to Hindu Law Books. He went back and came back after the death of the group and lamented. All this information is in Purananuru (verses 213-223), part of 2000 year old Sangam literature.

Here is the interesting bit.

Choza king asked his colleagues to reserve a seat for a poet named Pisir Anthaiar of the neighbouring Pandya kingdom. All other poets in the hall were surprised because the king and the poet never met. They told the king not to get disappointed by expecting him.

Then the king told them in a verse,

“There in the distant Pandya country

A poet from the town of Pisir is a very close friend.

Even if he does not come when I had lot of money, he would definitely come to see me when I am in distress” – Purananuru verse 215

The king’s words did not go waste. Pisir Anthaiyar came there just on time and sat with the king fasting until death.

This is an example for true friendship like the Pythias- Damon story.

Greek story of Pythias and Damon was made into films in several languages. Like Pisir- Choza story we have stories of Kuchela/Sudama – Krishna friendship. The very first chapter of Panchatantra fables is about true friendship.

Ancient Greeks believed in several virtues like Hindus. Pythias story shows,

1.His love for his mother; Hindus say Matha, Pitha , Guru are goods.

2.Pythias also kept his words like Hindus. All ancient foreign visitors said, ‘in India there is no written legal document and all is done by word of mouth’. Hindu myths say they are like the legendary Harischandra.

3. We have umpteen examples about true friendship. When Karna was insulted that he being a commoner, should not participate in Royal Olympic Games, Duryodana made him a king in a second. Karna was loyal to Duryodana till his last minute.

So we see many similarities between the legends of Hindus and Greeks. One is also reminded of the great sacrifice of Sydney Carton in the novel of A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens.

Long Live True Friendship!!

–subham–

HISTORICAL ASSASSINATIONS UPTO RAJIV GANDHI’S DEATH (Post No.5772)

Written by London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 12 December 2018


GMT Time uploaded in London – 18-18

Post No. 5772


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

I am not giving a comprehensive list of assassinations that happened in Indian history. Just to compare the less known assassination that happened in Tamil Nadu I am giving some known attacks. As far as we know it started in 73 BCE and went up to 1991. Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar and Vishnusarman of Panchatantra also mentioned such assassinations.

Devabhuti, the last of the Sunga emperors, who was a weak, dissipated and debauched monarch was assassinated in his bed in dark by a slave girl dressed as his queen. He was killed in 73 BCE on the orders of his minister Vasudeva.

Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome around that time. And his own friend Brutus was part of the conspiracy. All of us know the ‘Et tu Brute?’ (You too Brutus!) exclamation of Julius Caesar.

Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by N Godse in 1948. In our own times Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own bodyguard on 31 October 1984. Later her own son Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by a LTTE girl from Si Lanka, near Chennai in 1991.

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda, Tirukkural says,

An enemy will twist his words as he bends his bow;

Neither will forbade any good- 827

The meaning is

Do not be misled by the politeness or courtesy of language on the part of enemies. The enemy bends his words as he bends his bow, which is not for your good.

In the next couplet the poet says,

The enemy’s hands raised in salutation may conceal a weapon,

So too, his tears of sympathy are not to be trusted.

This is what happened in the case of Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination.

In Periya Puranam written around 12th century CE by Sekkizar, we have a similar story. It is a sad and heart breaking story.

Here is a summary:

There was a king by name Meyporul Nayanar ruling Chedi country from Tirukkovalur. He was a just king and conquered the nearby territories. He was a great Shiva devotee and respected any one coming with the Saivite symbols such as Vibhuti (holy ash), Rudraksha (holy garland) in saffron or white cloths.

Muthanathan, a near by king who was defeated several times by Meyporul, realised that he would never be able to defeat Meyporul by honest means. So he conspired and took the guise of Shiva devotee. He hid a dagger in a bundle of palm leaf manuscripts and approached the palace.

As usual all the gates were wide open for the ‘great devotee’ and he entered the palace room where the king was lying in bed with his wife. Knowing a person coming in an untimely hour, king’s body guard Dattan prevented him from entering the bedroom. But yet Muthanathan introduced himself as a great Guru and he had come with a rare manuscript to show it to the king. Datta could not stop him any more. When the ‘devotee/guru’ entered the bed room, the queen was surprised and got up suddenly. But the king showed all the respect due to any Shiva’s follower. When he asked the reason for his visit at the dead of night, disguised Muthanathan told the king that he had some rare Agama manuscripts and wanted to teach the king.

He also insisted that he should be alone without the queen to listen to the secret doctrines. The king readily obliged and came back all alone. Muthanathan opened the bundle and took the dagger and stabbed the king.

Hearing the commotion, his body guard Datta rushed into the room and caught hold of the assassin. But Meyporul told his bodyguard,

‘Datta, He is our man’. Please take him out of the town with full security and leave him alone; make sure that no one harms him! Datta did as he was commanded.

All this happened  just because the respect for the external Saivite (religious)  symbols! But Meyporul was made a saint among the 63 Famous Saivite Saints and worshipped in all the Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu.

We hear lot of stories even today that terrorists come in different disguises, particularly abusing religious faith and symbols. Since Tiruvalluvar also sings about hidden arms, he might have heard such stories.

Sekkizar, author of Periya Puranam, describes the appearance of Muthanathan in Saivite gear. ‘He appeared white outside (with smeared holy ash) but inside he was black. His mind was full of bad things’.

The world has not changed much from the days of Devabhuti. Even before Devabhuti, Manu gives a list of kings who were dethroned or killed. Vena was one of them who met a violent death from the revolting general public. Something like French Revolution must have happened and Vena was ‘guillotined’.

Tags- Meyporul Nayanar, Muthanathan, Assassinations, Devabhuti

–subham–