HINDU SPY IN THE SKY (Post No.4021)

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 21 June 2017
Time uploaded in London- 10-28 am
Post No. 4021
Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

“Light giving Varuna! Your piercing glance does scan

In quick succession, all this stirring active world

And penetrates, too the broad ethereal space,

Measuring our days and nights and SPYING OUT all creatures”—Rig Vedic Hymn on Varuna

 

Brahmins who do Sandhyavandanam thrice a day worship Varuna; He is the God of the coastal area according to the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam; Sangam Tamil verses say that Tamil fishermen worshiped Varuna on sea coast of Tamil Nadu. Varuna is in almost all European and Iranian languages.

 

Max Muller says,

“Varuna is one of the most interesting creations of Hindu mind, because, though we can still perceive the physical background from which he rises, the vast, starry, brilliant expanse above, his features more than those of any other Vedic God have been completely transfigured, and he stands before us as a god who watches over the world, punishes the evil doer, and even forgives the sins of those who implore his pardon”

 

In the Rig Veda an exceedingly high position is ascribed to Varuna. He is Chief of the Adityas – sons of Aditi. They are inviolable, imperishable, eternal beings.

 

Aditi, the great Mother Goddess has twelve sons including Varuna, Mitra, Daksha, Indra and Surya. Varuna is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘var “to cover”. He is therefore god of the heavens covering all things. A mysterious presence, a mysterious power and a mysterious knowledge were all ascribed to him.

He is the one who makes the sun to shine in the heavens; the winds that blow is but his breath; he has hollowed out the channels of the rivers which flow at his command, and he has made the depths of the sea.

 

His ordinances are fixed and unassailable; through their operation the moon walks in brightness, and the stars which appear in the night sky vanish in the day light.

 

The birds flying in the air, the rivers in their sleepless flow, cannot attain a knowledge of his power and wrath. But he knows the flight of the birds in the sky, the course of the far travelling wind, paths of ships on the ocean, and beholds all the secret things that have been, or shall be, done.

He witnesses man’s truth and falsehood.

 

In truth, omniscience is his outstanding attribute. The sun and the thousand stars are his eyes searching out all the passes on earth, from which even darkness cannot hide. When two are in the company, he is the third. He is the god of the serene distant heaven, yet he is not far from any one of us.

 

“His spies descending from the skies glide all this world around;

Their thousand eyes, all scanning, sweep to earth’s remotest bound

Whatever exits in heaven and earth, whatever beyond the skies.,

Before the eyes of Varuna the thing unfolded lies.

The secret winkings all he counts of every mortal eyes

And wields this universal frame as gamester throws his dice!

 

Tamil God

Varuna is one of the Gods mentioned in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam. He is portrayed a s a god of the coastal Tamils. Tamil Sangam literature also has a reference to fishermen worshipping Varuna.

 

Mitra and Varuna are always paired in the Vedic hymns. Some people see it as positive and negative forces in the universe. Mitra represents light and Varuna represents night. It is like Shiva and Sakti; both are required for the survival of the universe.

 

Rig Veda (7-86-3/6) has the following prayer:

Be gracious, O mighty God, be gracious. I have sinned through want of power; be gracious.

Seeking to perceive that sin, O Varuna, I inquire: I resort to the wise to ask. The sages will tell me the same; it is Varuna who is angry with you.

What great sin  is it, Varuna, for which you seek to slay your worshipper and friend?

Tell me, O unassailable and self dependent God; and, freed from sin, I shall speedily come to you for adoration.

Release us from the sins of our fathers, and from those which we have committed in our own persons.

O King, loose, like a thief who feeds the cattle, as from the cord a calf, set free Vasistha.

It was not our own will, Varuna, but some seduction which lead us astray – wine anger, dice or thoughtlessness. The stronger perverts the weaker. Even sleep occasions sin.”

 

It is the prayer from the bottom of the heart of a true devotee!

 

Hundreds of hymns in the Vedas praise the mighty Varuna. They all make very interesting reading. The ancient Hindu society knew the general weakness of the human beings.

Perun (Varun) in Slavish Countries.

 

INTERESTING STORY IN YAJUR VEDA

In the Yajur Veda, the following story is narrated of Varuna:_

Varuna is found instructing Bhrigu, one of the Seven Divine Rishis, as to the nature of Brahman, the Supreme Spirit.

Varuna tod the seer: Whence all beings are produced; by which they live when born, towards which they tend, and unto which they pass.

Bhrigu, after meditating in devout contemplation, recognised food to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from food; when born they live by food; towards food they tend, they pass into food.

Unsatisfied, however after further meditation, he discovered breath to be Brahman: for all things are indeed produced from breath; when born they live by breath; towards breath they tend; they pass into breath.

Again he sought Brahman in deep meditation, and discovered intellect to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from thought; when born they live by thought; towards thought they tend; they pass into thought.

 

Then he went to Varuna and requested him,

“Venerable Father, make known to me Brahman.

Varuna replied, “Inquire by devout contemplation, profound meditation”.

Bhrigu thought deeply and then he knew Ananda (bliss, joy, felicity) to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from desire; when born they live by joy; towards happiness they tend; they pass into happiness.

Such is the science taught by Varuna of the origin of things.

 

Hymns to Varuna reach a lofty poetic height because they are rather sombre and inspire reverence and awe in a manner few other Vedic Gods do. As an unwinking watcher of men’s conduct and as judge and punisher he inspires awe and fear- the god who evokes an ethical response.

 

These hymns show that the Vedic Hindus were highly intellectual and reached the pinnacle of civilization. They are not primitive as westerners described. Human psychology is fully reflected in these Vedic poems.

(Bhagavad Gita 3-14 to 3-17 also discuss it)

 

“He instructs the seer Vasistha in mysteries; but his secrets and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish”

 

(that is why Vedic seers speak in symbolic language; it has hidden meaning; only the enlightened people can read between the lines)

 

“he has a hundred thousand remedies, and is supplicated to show his wide and deep benevolence and drive away evil and sin, to unite sin like a rope and remove it. He is entreated not to steal away, but to prolong life, and to spare the life who daily transgresses his laws. In many places mention is made of the bonds or nooses with which he seizes and punishes transgressors.

 

Amazing Knowledge of the Seas!

“By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour out their waters into one ocean but never fill it”.

These lines are in the Vedas and Sangam Tamil Literature. Paranar, a Brahmin poet, quoted this in his Tamil Sangam verse.

This shows that the Vedic Hindus had amazing knowledge about the seas and oceans. They talk about thousands of rivers pouring into ocean and yet the seas never cross its shores. This is because of God’s order- Varuna’s orders.

 

All the Hindus use the simile every day at the end of their prayer “Akasat patitam toyam yathaa—– like the rain water that fall from the sky reaches the ocean , all my salutes/pranams go to Kesava”. They knew very well about the thousands of rivers and 7 oceans.

 

All the Tamil Sangam verses and earlier Sanskrit verses, whenever they mentioned earth, they say ‘sea clad earth’. Every second they remembered it. No literature in the world would mention it in all their verses that mentioned earth.

 

Vedic Hindus migrated from India to different parts of the world and spread Hindu values. All the famous rivers and seas around the world have Sanskrit names!

(I have dealt with this in my articles; so I am not going to repeat it)

 

If you get hold of the Vedas, just read the poems/hymns on Varuna! You will be wonderstruck!!!

In Mahabharata and Puranas, we see a different Varuna. ( I will deal with it separately)

 

Source Books:–  four different books on Vedas.

Vedic God Varuna in Oldest Tamil Book | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/2013/07/08/vedic-god-varuna-in-oldest-tamil-book/

8 Jul 2013 – Vedic God Varuna in Oldest Tamil Book. East European Slavs worshiped Varu as Perun. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappaiam dated to 1st century …

 

-Subham–

 

Buddha and Valluvar on Words and Deeds: Great Men Think Alike-3 (Post No.3997)

Buddha and Valluvar on Words and Deeds: Great Men Think Alike-3 (Post No.3997)

 

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 13 June 2017
Time uploaded in London- 18-06
Post No. 3997
Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.
contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

(Though I have posted upto part 7, part 3 is missing in the series. So I am posting it today)

 

Valluvar says in Tirukkural on Words and Deeds

It is harmful even to dream of association with friends, whose words and actions are disgracefully different (Kural 819)

Buddha says in Dhammapada

If a man speaks many holy words but he speaks and does not, this thoughtless man cannot enjoy the life of holiness; he is like a cowherd who counts the cows of his master –(Dhammapada 19)

 

All the Hindu scriptures insist if anyone has Tri Karana Suddhi—purity in three: Thoughts, Words and Deeds – then that person can do miracles. It is very easy to write about it or talk about it but very difficult to follow it.

 

Hindu ascetics became great when they practised what they preached and preached only what they practised.

xxxx

 

Valluvar says in Tirukkural on Giving Advice

To give advice is easy for all; but to act according to one’s advice is indeed difficult (Kural 664)

Buddha says in Dhammapada

Let him first find what is right and then he can teach it to others, avoiding thus useless pain.

If he makes himself as good as he tells others to be, then he is in truth can teach others. Difficult indeed is self-control  –(Dhammapada 158,159)

 

xxxx

Valluvar says in Tirukkural on Adultery and Lying

Valluvar deals with adultery in ten couplets in chapter 15. Buddha also deals with it in various places.

Valluvar insists speaking truth in ten couplets. Buddha also speaks about it in several couplets. Since they are considered part of FIVE GREAT SINS (Panca Maha Patakas), they repeat it as many times as possible. We will look at a few couplets:

The Ideal house-holder is who he will not be attracted by the feminine grace of another’s wife (Kural 147)

 

If a man could conduct himself true to his own self he would be in the heart of all in the world (Kural 294)

In all true scriptures, we have known, nothing is praised so highly as truthfulness (300)

(Eg. Harischandra, Rama, Gandhiji)

In the Hindu Gurukula education system, the first thing the child learns is Satyam Vada (speak the truth); Truth alone triumphs is also in the motto of Government of Tamil Nadu and Government of India. It is from the Mundakopanishad)

 

Buddha says in Dhammapada

He who destroy lives

who utters lies

who takes what is not given to him

who goes to the wife of another

who gets drunk with liquor

–he digs up the root of his life (Dhammapada 246,247).

—Subham–

Drought in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3953)

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 29 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-36

 

Post No. 3953

 

Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Our forefathers and writers gave a true account of the weather conditions prevailing in those days. These true accounts prove that they wrote genuine things and not concocted anything. We have reports of Tsunamis, earth quakes, accidents, shipwrecks, massive engineering works such as diverting River Ganga (by Bhageeratha) and River Kaveri (by Agastya), laying roads through the Vindhya Hills (Agastya ), population explosion in North India and migrating to South east Asia (Agastya drank sea) etc. Only thing is people could not understand their symbolic language. They though these are all mythological ‘stories’.

 

If we read through our literature, we can see many droughts which caused massive migrations. We even come to know the drying of Saraswati river ended the Indus Valley civilization and they migrated to different parts of India. These are very important events to know the history of the land.

Massive drought resulted in the migration of people from the Saraswati River Valley during Vedic days. Brahmins in India are generally divided into 10 groups: Pancha Goawda and Pancha Dravida. Gowda Brahmins lived in North India and Dravida Brahmins lived in South India. It is all in our literature. Many droughts caused the migration of Brahmins from one part of the country to the other.

 

Hindus believed that the 12 year orbit of Jupiter around the sun caused a drought every twelve years. Position of Venus was also considered to measure the amount of rain.

Tevaram sung by three Saivite saints mentioned the drought in different parts of Tamil Nadu. Lord Siva helped the saints by providing huge quantity of paddy and gold coins, which are considered great miracles by the Tamils. Those  1400 year old Tevaram verses are sung by all the Saivaite Tamils even today.

 

The word for drought in Sanskrit is Varkadam. In Tamil we have Varatchi and it is related to Varkata.

 

Tamil Tiruvilaiyaadal Purana talks about the drought in and around Madurai.

 

Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature

Kalidasa and other poets used drought followed by rains as similes in their poems.

रावणावग्रहक्लान्तमिति वागमृतेन सः।
अभिवृष्य मरुत्सस्यम् कृष्णमेघस्तिरोदधे॥ १०-४८

rāvaṇāvagrahaklāntamiti vāgamṛtena saḥ।
abhivṛṣya marutsasyam kṛṣṇameghastirodadhe || 10-48

rAvaNAvagrahaklAntamiti vAgamR^itena saH|
abhivR^iShya marutsasyam kR^iShNameghastirodadhe || 10-48

 

On showering ambrosian water called his speech on the desiccating crop called gods owing to the drought called Ravana, he that black cloud called Vishnu disappeared.

Rain=speech, dry crops=gods, drought caused by=Ravana, Black Cloud=Vishnu

 

Tamil poet Alankudi Vanganar used the same simile in Natrinai verse 230. A man came back to his wife after visiting a courtesan. She told that the very sight of him is like rain flooding the land affected by drought.

 

Raghuvamsa 10-48= Natrinai 230

 

Sangam Tamil poets (Pura nanauru 35, 383 and 397) say that even if the planet Venus is seen in the wrong direction there wont be any drought because of the just rule of the kings. This shows their belief n the position of Venus in the sky.

 

12 long Drought and Indus Valley Civilization

 

There is an interesting reference to the drying of River Saraswati, the mighty river which ran through Punjab, Uttapradesh and other states.

 

Sarasvata, son of Dadhichi and Sarasvata survived a twelve year long drought. But all other rishis had gone away  in search of food. They had forgotten the Vedas completely. Then Sarasvata rishi taught them the Vedas (Mahabharata 9-51). This gives credit to the story of Vedic Hindus migration from the Indus valley to other parts of India after a 12 year long drought. Story of Saraswata Brahmins’ origin also corroborates this.

 

During the reign of Ukra Kumara Pandya, a legendary king, there was a 12 year long drought. Then he went and prayed to Agastya. He showed them the way.

 

The reference to 12 year long drought and once in 12 year drought are plenty in our literature.

Two droughts during Tevaram days

 

Tevaram is a collection f hymns sung by three saints Sambadar, Appar and Sundarar.

 

Sambandar and Appar were contemporaries who lived during seventh century CE. Because of drought and famine they went to Siva temple and prayed for the sake of the people. They were given one coin each till they tided over the famine. They used the coins to buy food articles.

 

Sundarar, who lived later than Appar and Sambadar , was getting regular  supply of paddy  from a generous Shiva devotee.  Suddenly he stopped it due to a severe drought. When Sundara came to know about it, he was very much worried. Lord Shiva appeared in the dream of that philanthropist and promised him a good supply of paddy. The very next day he went to nearby Tiruvarur and informed Sundara about the miracle. When Sundara saw the huge hills of paddy I a village he was wondering ow to carry them. Shiva told him that the paddy would be in Tiruarur. His words came true and every house in Tiruarur had a heap of paddy in front of his/her house. Sundara was very happy to see the delivery at the doorstep.

–SUBHAM–

 

Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 27 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-57

 

Post No. 3946

 

Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)

 

Tiruvalluvar is the author of Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda. It has got 1330 couplets organised in 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject dealing with virtues, wealth and love (between man and woman). It expresses the highest and purest truths. It is very rare to see a secular work like this in any other language in the world. It has become very popular because of its brevity and universal appeal. Anyone will enjoy reading it.

 

Kalidasa is the most celebrated poet of India. His seven literary works are considered the best in classical Sanskrit literature. He is more famous for his over 1300 apt similes, imageries and analogies. All the similes in other Indian literatures are his imitations or adaptations. His influence over Indian literature is enormous. There is lot of scope for comparative studies.

 

Here are some amazing similarities in the above two books on two subjects: Laughter and Friendship.

 

Tamil poet Thiru Valluvar is so obsessed with friendship, that he deals with it in 70 to 80 couplets under different headings.

 

Kalidasa says that the relationship with bad friends should be cut off like a poisoned finger affected by a snake bite. Tiruvalluvar says the bad friends are like harlots and thieves.

 

“Cunning friends whose motive is gaining money, are like harlots who sell their body for gold and thieves who plunder” (Kural 813)

“It is better to leave than have the friendship of mean, low minded people that are useless and unhelpful” (Kural 815)

Kalidasa says,

“A friend who is part and parcel of life should be discarded if wicked as a finger which is part of body is cut down if it is bitten by a snake. But a good man, though unfriendly should be accepted, as a medicine though distasteful is acceptable to the sick” (Raghuvamsa 1-28)

द्वेष्योऽपि सम्मतः शिष्टस्तस्यार्तस्य यथौषधम्।
त्याज्यो दुष्टः प्रियोऽप्यासीदङ्गुलीवोरगक्षता॥ १-२८

dveṣyo’pi sammataḥ śiṣṭastasyārtasya yathauṣadham |
tyājyo duṣṭaḥ priyo’pyāsīdaṅgulīvoragakṣatā || 1-28

dveSyo.api sammataH shiSTastasyaartasya yathauSadham |
tyaajyo duSTaH priyo.apyaasiida~NguliivoragakShataa || 1-28

 

Even if someone is despicable he becomes agreeable to King DilIpa, in case if he were to be a principled person, as with a pungent medicine somehow agreeable to a patient; and even if someone is dearer to him he becomes discardable to him in case if he were to be an unprincipled person, as with a finger fanged by a snake, severable for anyone. [1-28]

A friend indeed is a friend in need!

In the Rtu Samhara Kalidasa says,

“The bodies of elephants, lions and oxen were scorched by the fire due to the excessive heat in summer season. They quickly emerged from the grass where they were burnt by fire and they all rested on the banks of a river together, forgetting their natural enmity. They behaved like friends. The image suggests that a real friend is helpful, particularly during distress. Rtu Samhara 1-27

 

Valluvan defines a good friend more beautifully:

“Genuine friendship hastens to redress distress even like the hand which picks up quickly that garment that slips (Kural 788)

“Friendship with worthy men is like the taste in the good books; the more we study the more we know” (Kural 783)

Laughter

There are two words for laughter in Tamil : one with good and another with bad connotations. Strictly speaking both are interchangeable. Only the context determines its meaning. Valluvar deals with laughter in over 16 couplets whereas Kalidasa used it in lesser places. But Kalidasas’ three plays have the Vidushaka (comedian, Jester) which gives good scope for creating mirth. All the ancient Sanskrit dramas have this Vidushaka/ jester character.

 

Let us look at one or two couplets from Tirukkural:

“Laugh when trials and troubles confront you, for there is no other way to overcome grief” (Kural 621)

It is very difficult to laugh when troubles come to us; one must be a saint like Tiruvalluvar to act that way. But most of us laugh at others’ troubles; particularly the troubles encountered by our enemies.

Valluvar echoed what Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita in the following couplets:

He does not suffer sorrow in sorrow, who does not look for pleasure in pleasure (Kural 629)

He is never afflicted by sorrow who knows the grief is natural and seeks no pleasure” (628)

Kalidasa says,

The lovely gardens resplendent with white jasmine flowers are imagined to be as bright as the sportive laugh f ladies, which is also considered white in colour—(Rtu Samhara 6-23)

 

In Hindu literature White is used for laughter, red is used for anger, Yellow is used for auspiciousness and Black for sorrow or wickedness. They have colour coded the emotions and feelings.

In the Raghu Vamsa (5-70) Kalidasa says,

“The dew drops fallen on the tender leaves with their interiors red resemble the sportive smile fallen on Aja’s lip brightened by the splendour of teeth”

Dew drops = smile; tender leaves = lips

ताम्रोदरेषु पतितं तरुपल्लवेषु

निर्धौतहारगुलिकाविशदं हिमाम्भः

आभाति लब्धपरभागतयाधरोष्ठे

लीलास्मितं सदशनार्चिरिव त्वदीयम्॥ ५-७०

tāmrodareṣu patitaṁ tarupallaveṣu

nirdhautahāragulikāviśadaṁ himāmbhaḥ

ābhāti labdhaparabhāgatayādharoṣṭhe

līlāsmitaṁ sadaśanārciriva tvadīyam || 5-70

taamrodareShu patita.n tarupallaveShu
nirdhautahaaragulikaavishada.n himaambhaH
aabhaati labdhaparabhaagatayaadharoShThe
liilaasmita.n sadashanaarciriva tvadiiyam || 5-70

“Like the thoroughly cleansed pearls in a necklace the dewdrops are now stringing on the surfaces of tender coppery leaflets only to expropriate their ochreish magnificence onto their whitely white bodies, in which process they look like your pleasing smiles occasionally gleaming with the sparkle of your teeth radiating onto your lower lip… [5-70]

 

Kalidasa uses tears of joy to express happiness:

The stream of the Himalayan snow melting under the rays of the sun is compared to the tears of joy shed by a woman when her  lover returns to her after a long absence (Raghu vamsa 16-44)

 

अगस्त्यचिह्नादयनात्समीपम् दिगुत्तरा भास्वति संनिवृत्ते।
आनन्दशीतामिव बाष्पवृष्टिम् हिमस्रुतिम् हैमवतीम् ससर्ज ॥ १६-४४

agastyacihnādayanātsamīpam
diguttarā bhāsvati saṁnivṛtte |
ānandaśītāmiva bāṣpavṛṣṭim
himasrutim haimavatīm sasarja  || 16-44

agastyacihnAdayanAtsamIpam diguttarA bhAsvati sa.nnivR^itte |
AnandashItAmiva bAShpavR^iShTim himasrutim haimavatIm sasarja  || 16-44

 

On the return of the Sun from her co-wife South (indicated by the star Canopus) after his southern solstice to the proximity of North, she that northerly quarter another wife of that Sun shed tears of joy duly dampened with her happiness to which the flow of melted snow from the Himalayas is hypothetical. [16-44]

(Agastya’s direction is South where the star Canopus is known as Agastya Nakshatra)

 

In the fourth act of famous drama Sakuntala Kanva, the foster father of Sakuntala, sheds tears of joy when she departs to join her husband King Dushyanta.

These are just some examples to show how great poets think alike and use forceful similes to bring out the emotions.

Sources: Raghuvamsa from sanskritdocuments.com

Tirukkural by A Aranganatha Mudaliyar, Trplicane, Madras, 1949

The Imagery of Kalidasa, Dr Vinod Aggarwal, Delhi, 1985

 

–Subham–

 

Karma Theory-Buddha and Valluvar Think Alike -Part 6 (Post No.3935)

Research article written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 23 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 21-19

 

Post No. 3935

 

Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, google and newspapers; thanks.

 

contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Thiruvalluvar , the author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural has confirmed his belief in Karma Theory in hundreds of his couplets. There is one chapter on Fate as well; here are two important couplets from Tirukkural:

Toil not through sacred books to what the fruits of virtue/Dharma are; but pause and look at the palanquin bearer, and him that proudly rides in it Kural 37).

Loss and gain come about because of one’s own previous actions;

But an unswerving rectitude of mind is the ornament of the great (Kural 115)

 

By oneself the evil is done, and it is oneself who suffers; by oneself the evil is not done, and by one’s Self one becomes pure The pure and the impure come from oneself: no man can purify another (Dhammapada 165)

Only a man himself can be master of himself; who else from outside  could be his master. When the Master and the servant are one, then there is true help and self possession (Dhammapada 160)

 

The most famous poem of Sangam Tamil Literature verse 192 of Purananuru explains Karma Theory beautifully well:

“Every town our home town; everyman a kinsman.
Good and evil do not come
From others
Pain and relief of pain
Come of themselves.
Dying is nothing new.
We do not rejoice
That life is sweet
Nor in anger
Call it bitter.
Our lives, however dear,
Follow their own course,
(like) Rafts drifting
In the rapids of a great river
Sounding and dashing over the rocks
After a downpour
From skies slashed by lightning’s
We know this
From the vision
Of men who see
So,
We are not amazed by the great
And we do not scorn the little”
————————-Kaniyan punkundran (Pura Nanuru, verse 192)

 

Another translation of the same poem:

To us all towns are one, all men our kin,
Life’s good comes not from others’ gifts, nor ill,
Man’s pains and pain’s relief are from within,
Death’s no new thing, nor do our bosoms thrill
When joyous life seems like a luscious draught.
When grieved, we patient suffer; for, we deem
This much-praised life of ours a fragile raft
Borne down the waters of some mountain stream
That o’er huge boulders roaring seeks the plain
Tho’ storms with lightning’s flash from darkened skies.
Descend, the raft goes on as fates ordain.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !
We marvel not at the greatness of the great;
Still less despise we men of low estate.
Kaniyan Poongundran, Purananuru – 192
(Translated by G.U.Pope, 1906)

xxxxx

Refraining from eating Meat

All living beings will raise their hands in worship to him who has never taken a living being’s life and has abstained from eating meat (Kural 260)

How can a man be compassionate who, for the purpose of increasing his own flesh, etas the flesh of other animals (Kural 251)

All beings tremble before danger, and fear death. When a man considers this, he does not kill or cause to kill (Dhamma 129)

Also see Vegetarianism in earlier post of Buddha and Valluvar thnk alike.

xxx

 

Friendship with Great men

Weigh the worth of the men of ripe wisdom and seek their fellowship (Kural 441)

Cherish with ardour the friendship of those who remedy your present ills and guard you against future ones. (Kural 442)

 

Cling to men of heroic mould and make them your kin; verily there is no greater blessing to you on earth (Kural 443)

Is there any force mightier to the sovereign than the alliance of the men of superior wisdom? (Kural 444)

 

If you find a man who is constant, awake to the inner light, learned, long suffering, endowed with devotion, a noble man – follow this good and great man ever as moon follows the path of the stars  (Dhammapada 208)

 

He who has to walk with fools has a long journey of sorrow, because to be with a fool is  as painful as to be with an enemy; but the joy of being with the wise is like the joy of meeting a beloved kinsman  (Dhammapada 207)

 

Adi Shankara’s Satsangatve nissangatvam…………

Greatest philosopher of India, Adi Shankara, says,
“ Satsangatve nissangatvam
Nissangatve nirmohatvam
Nirmohatve nischalatattvam
Nischalatattve jeevanmuktih” –Bhajagovindam (9)

“Through the company of the good, there arises non-attachment; through non-attachment there arises freedom from delusion; through freedom from delusion there arises steadfastness; through steadfastness, there arises liberation in life”- Bhajagovindam

He who knows not and knows not………………………

An ancient saying from the Middle East says:

He who knows not, and knows not that he knows not, is a fool. Shun him.
He who knows not, and knows that he knows not, is simple. Teach him.
He who knows, and knows not he knows , is asleep. Wake him.
He who knows, and knows that he knows is wise. Follow him.

 

–Subham–

 

 

London-Capital of the Tamil Speaking World (Post No.3907)

Picture taken twenty years ago at SOAS. I am at the right extreme.

Left extreme Dr Singvi, High commissioner of India.

 

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 14 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-47

 

Post No. 3907

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Talk by London Swaminathan (Santanam Swaminathan)  at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London on 13th May 2017. It was organised to celebrate the 20th anniversary of installation of Thiruvalluvar statue at the SOAS. I was there twenty years ago and yesterday as well. They invited me to give a talk on the development of Tamil Studies in London. Here is my speech delivered yesterday.

Thiruvalluvar Statue on 13-5-2017 (Twenty years later)

Dear Friends

Good Afternoon and Vanakkam.

Thanks for giving us an opportunity to express our views on the development of Tamil Studies at SOAS.

 

The very fact that Government of India approached SOAS to get some space for the installation of THIRUVALLUVAR statue ( twenty years ago) and the very fact that you readily agreed show us the importance of Tamil .

 

What are the advantages SOAS got over other places?

This is a prestigious institution with a long history of supporting South Asian culture.

It has a huge library with very old Tamil books.

Very near we have got the world famous British Library with a treasure trove of old Tamil books. I have been posting on face book all the 100 year old books for the past two years. And yet I have covered only a fraction of the treasure trove.

This has got a tremendous potential for research.

If a one-eyed person starts describing the beauty of nature and arts, we know that person hasn’t got the full view of the thing he describes.

 

Mother India- Bharat Mata- has got two eyes TAMIL AND SANSKRIT. Sanskrit is available here. We have got a big department. But if Tamil is not taught here SOAS will like a handicapped institution —  a one eyed giant!

 

Tamil is not taught anywhere in the UK universities; it is a black mark on the country which boasts of a multicultural society. But we have Tamil at Cambridge University holding A level O level exams only.

And as I mentioned earlier SOAS is the best place for teaching TAMIL

 

Great Tamil poet Valluvar has inspired generations of Tamil scholars. He is here to inspire us and guide us.

 

(Picture taken by Mrs Manian)

TAMIL CAPITAL OF THE WORLD

We know that London is the financial capital of the world. It is in such a time zone it can cover the early morning Hong Kong Tokyo share markets and late evening NY markets. No need to say that it covers all the European markets

Friends,

Let me tell you that London can be the capital of the Tamil speaking world. Now there are over a 100,000 Tamils in the country. Plane loads of Tamil personnel are coming every week to work in computer and other industries. There are over 25 Tamil Hindu Temples, over 130 Tamil organisations and 100 Dance and Music schools in London.

 

They all need help to learn the language. Particularly foreigners who are attracted towards Tamil culture are very keen to learn the language. Everyday British tourists are landing in the airports of Tamil speaking countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Seychelles, South Africa and far away Mauritius, Fiji and Guyana. If we conduct Tamil crash courses or summer school, there will be a good response. In the past they tried without much success because they lacked our support—I mean the community support. If we come together and help SOAS, they can help us in supporting our language.

 

I told you that there are over 30 Tamil week end schools in London alone. last week a Tamil organisation was launched at Chelmsford. The teachers need good training. They need a uniform syllabus. They need a structure and a certificate from a good institution like ours. Here we can play big role

 

london swaminathan now (20 year later)

Do we need a Separate Country?

I used to meet my Sri Lankan solicitor friend for a friendly chat. He was for a separate country for the Tamils. I am against it. One day our conversation turned towards Teaching Tamil. When I told him even languages spoken by lesser number of people have a lecturer and a department here, he asked me why.

I told him  “Are you asking me Why? You they are representing a country”.

Before I finished the sentence, he said, “ Look, that is why are fighting for a separate country”. I was shocked and surprised. I quickly change the topic.

Now my question is, “will Britain and SOAS teach Tamil and honour Tamil only when we divide a country? Doesn’t it look ridiculous?” I don’t want that situation to come.

 

Last week the BBC TamiI Service stopped broadcasting. They recruited me thirty years ago and brought me here on 1st January 1987. Why did they stop? Because there is no more political struggle there.

For them it is politics!

 

Thank You.

B V Bhavan students TIRUKKURAL recitation

 

During Question Time, I told them:

WAY FORWARD!

1.Restart the courses that were stopped.

2.Get teachers from India on secondment like the BBC world service do with the broadcasters.

3.Meet every third month to celebrate some Tamil event to gather and maintain the momentum.

4.Start a movement like Harvard University Tamil Chair movement here.

5.Involve all the Tamils by collecting donation. During the installation of Swami Vivekananda Statue in Kanyakumari, India we took the picture of Swami Vivekananda in Madurai and collected just one rupee to get them involved. We can do that here by distributing Tirukkural or Tiruvalluvar picture and get them involved.

 

Unhelpful attitude and Poaching

When I answered another question, I mentioned, “We have funding available at SOAS. Tamil was taught for over twenty years. I had been teaching here for 20 years. That funding is still there. Only because of the unhelpful attitude of the people at SOAS, Tamil is dead. Nepalese, Singhalese, Burmese are spoken by half of the population of Tamils in the world. But because they had lecturers appointed with big fat salary they pushed all the students toward learning those languages. It is called poaching (only when my Professor mentioned it after he left the SOAS, I came to know about it). Last four or five students were sent to me at the last minute and they were struggling like rudderless ships because they must sign the papers and give that evening. I told them to do what they think right because I did not want to spoil the future of the students. Unless we get five students we cant run the course. And I was not able to give them assurance because there were only four students and that too at the last minute. That is how the Tamil language was made to die.

Following points were in my speech but I read them the topics and I couldn’t deliver it for lack of time. Along with me three others spoke about Tamil teaching

Praticipants:-

Dr Meera Sabaratnam, SOAS (Chair)

Prof.Michael Hutt,SOAS

Mr Suresh Kumar, Tamil Reading Group, Ealing Rd Library

Mr Kuttiandysamy, London Tamil Sangam

Mr Santanam Swaminathan, formerly BBC Tamil Service and SOAS

Dr Chandramohan Balasubramaniam, SOAS, presented a Video. He was the main organiser of the event.

 

Tamil Training

My friend Dr Kalyanasundram of Project Madurai, based in Switzerland conducted a training course for the European Tamil Teachers. He asked me to organise a training course for UK based Tamil teachers. We can do that here.

Tamils are more in number than the Nepalese Singhalese and Burmese taught here. History wise it is one of the oldest and richest languages. If we don’t teach Tamil here it there will be a big vacuum.

—Subham–

 

Why did a Tamil King Kill 1000 Goldsmiths? (Post No.3821)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 15 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 15-59

 

Post No. 3821

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com 

 

Silappadikaram, the Tamil epic, is the story about Kannaki and Kovalan (The details of the story are given at the end of this post).

Matalan, the Brahmin, is a link in the story. He plays a key role and fills the gaps in the story. He advised the mighty king Cheran Senguttuvan about the good things in life (Dharma).

 

In the Nirpataik (Chapter) Kaathai of the epic he gives some important details:-

While King Senguttuvan was sitting on the throne, the Brahmana Matalan appeared before him and said:

“Long live the King! After going around the Potiyil Hills, sacred to the great sage (Agastya) and bathing in the famous ghat of Kumari, I was returning, when, as if impelled by fate, I went into Madura belonging to far-famed Tennavan (Pandya King) of the sharp sword.

 

There when Matari heard that beautiful (Kannaki) had defeated the Pandyan king of the mighty army with her anklet, she proclaimed in the Taateru manram (common meeting place of the cowherds and cowherdesses, and was generally under a tree):-

“O people of the cowherd community! Kovalan had done no wrong; it is the king who has erred; I have lost her to whom I gave refuge. Have the king’s umbrella and the sceptre fallen from the righteous path?”  With these words, she (Matari) threw herself into the burning flames in the dead of night.

Kavunti, distinguished for her penance, took a vow to die of starvation and thus gave up her life.

I heard in full detail all this and also of the devastation that over took the great city of Madurai ruled by the Pandyan of the golden car. Overcome by this I went back to my native place (KaveriPumpattinam, Port city of Chozas) and leant that Kovalan’s father distributed all his wealth in charity and entered Indra Viharas/Buddhist temple and practised penance. Kovalan’s mother died of pity. Kannaki’s father also gave away his wealth in religious gifts and adopted Dharma in the presence of Ajhivakas. His wife gave up her good life within a few days ( of Kovalan’s execution , followed by the death of Pandya King and Queen and Kannaki burning Madurai city).

 

The lady Matavi (courtesan), shorn of her hair with the flower wreaths therein, entered the Buddha Vihara and received the holy instruction. She told her mother that her daughter should not become a courtesan.

 

Brahmin Matalan continued………….

“These people died because, they heard this news from me, therefore I come to bathe in the holy waters of the Ganges (In order to purify myself). Long live you, O King of Kings!

 

When Matalan gave the king the tragic news about Kannaki’s parents, Kovalan’s parents, Cowherd woman Matari, Jain woman saint Kavunti and courtesan Matavi, the mighty lord of the Cheras, asked Matalan:

 

“May I hear what happened in the highly flourishing Pandya Kingdom after the king’s death?”

Matalan said,

“May you long live, King of the great world! You destroyed in a single day nine umbrellas of nine kings, who joined together in an alliance against your brother in law Killi valavan.

Human Sacrifice of 1000 people!

 

“The victorious (Pandya king) Ver Chezian residing at Korkai (Port City of the Pandyas), offered a human sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths in a day to divine Pattini (chaste woman) who had twisted off one of her breasts (with which Kannaki burnt Madurai city).

“And when ancient Maduria lost her glory and was chafing in untold trouble owing to royal injustice, this Pandyan prince of the lunar line (Chandra vamsa) which was celebrated for the exemplary way in which it gave protection to the people of the southern regions, mounted in succession the royal throne of Madura, like the (sun) mounting in the morning, with his rays crimson, the divine chariot with the single wheel, yoked to seven horses with tiny bells attached to its necks. May the king of our land live for all time protecting the world from aeon to aeon; live he in fame.”

 

Thus, from the Brahmin Matalan we come to know the fate of cowherdess Matari, Jain woman saint Kavunti, Courtesan Matavi, Parents of Kannaki and Kovlan and the human sacrifice of 1000 goldsmiths.

 

Silappadikaram Story:–

 

Silappathikaram is the earliest among the available Tamil epics. It was written by a poet cum prince Ilango. The story of the epic is as follows:-

Kannaki and Kovalan were the daughter and son of wealthy merchants of the port city Kaveri Pumpattinam of Choza kingdom . Both of them were married  and before long Kovalan fell into the spell of courtesan Matavi. But Kannaki was a faithful wife and received Kovalan wholeheartedly when he came back to her. They wanted to start a new life away from their home town and so they travelled to the renowned city of the Pandyas, Madurai.

 

Kannaki came to Madurai along with her husband Kovalan to sell her anklet and start a new life. But, her husband was unjustly accused of stealing the anklet of the Queen by a GOLDSMITH and was killed under the orders of the Pandya King. To prove the innocence of her husband, and expose the heinous crime of the Great Pandya King, Kannaki went to his court with one of her anklets. She accused the Pandya King of having ordered the death of her husband without conducting proper trial. The Pandya Queen’s anklet had pearls whereas the anklet of Kannaki had gems inside. She broke her anklet in the presence of the king and proved that her husband Kovalan was not guilty. Immediately Pandya King and Queen died, probably of massive heart attack.

Image of Kannaki and Kovalan

Afterwards Kannaki burnt the city by twisting one off her breasts and throwing it in the streets of Madurai City , Capital of the Pandya Kingdom, sparing the elderly, invalids, children, Brahmins and women. In other words, all the bad people were burnt alive. Later she went to Chera Nadu (present Kerala in South India) and ascended to Heaven in the Pushpaka Vimana/ pilotless airplane, that came from the Heaven. When the Chera King Senguttuvan heard about it from the forest tribes who witnessed her ascension, he decided to go to Holy Himalayas to take a stone and bathe it in the holy Ganges and then carve a statue out of it for Kannaki. King Senguttuvan’s brother Ilango composed the Silappadikaram giving all the details about the chaste woman/Patni Kannaki. Though the incidents happened in the second century CE, the epic in its current form is from the fourth or fifth century CE (Post Sangam Period).

–Subham–

 

Water Images in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3793)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 6 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 18-09

 

Post No. 3793

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Great men think alike. Kalidasa, the most famous poet of India and a Sangam Tamil poet Sempulapeyarnirar use the water image in a beautiful way.

 

Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa says,

 

Water from the sky which is originally of one taste gains diversity of flavours in different regions. Similarly, Hari, being immutable assumes different conditions in different qualities (RV 10-17). The image gives the idea of monism.

 

Sempulap peyal nirar, Tamil poet who lived nearly 2000 years ago, says in Kuruntokai (verse 40):

 

“What are my mother and your mother to each other?

What is the relationship between my father and your father?

How did we come to know each other?

Like the (rain) water which falls on a field with red soil,

(mingle with it and becomes red)

the loving hearts have blended with each other.

 

Kalidasa used it illustrate monism; Tamil poet used it to illustrate the union of hearts.

 

(I have been emphasizing through several articles that Kalidasa lived before the Sangam age, probably around 1st century BCE. I am using 250 plus similes of Sangam poets to illustrate my point and those similes are already in Kalidasa’s seven works).

In the Kumara sambhava (2-25), he says that “the speed of the Wind Gods Maruts can be guessed from their faltering motion as is the stoppage of their current from the refulgence of waters.

 

As the sprouting of a seed requires water before it can make its appearance, similarly, the work of gods can be accomplished by the Cupid in diverting the mind of Siva from meditation towards Parvati (K.S.3-18)

 

Siva, on account of suspension of the vital airs is imagined to be a reservoir of water unruffled with ripples, a cloud not blustering up to burst into a shower, or like a lamp steady in a place free from wind (K.S.3-48)

 

Cupid who died leaving Rati whose very life depends upon him, is imagined as the torrent of water abandoning a lotus after breaking down a dam (K.S. 4-6)

 

The mind already firmly resolute and bent on its desired object cannot be diverted and is so imagined to be like downward flowing water which cannot be drawn back (K S 5-5). So Menaka’s advice to Parvati whose mind already leaned to Siva went amiss.

 

 

Seeing the moon-like face of Parvati, Siva had the water of his mind rendered clear (K S 7-74).

Water is always cool; seers are always kind!

 

In the Raghuvamsa (RV 5-54) Matanga cursed Pri yamvada to turn into an elephant. He fell at his feet and the sage relented afterwards. The hotness of water is due to its contact with the fire or the solar heat; what is coolness is but the natural property of water. This indicates that abut is the sage was kind-hearted.

 

स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चान्मया महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत्|
उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगाच्छैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य॥ ५-५४

sa cānunītaḥ praṇatena paścānmayā maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat
uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṁprayogācchaityaṁ hi yatsā prakṛtirjalasya || 5-54

“But, when I prostrated before his feet and importuned that great sage matanga relented to modify the curse as above… for the heat of water is owing to its contact with either fire or solar heat… what is coolness is but the natural property of water… isn’t it… [5-54]

 

 

The Sanskrit poets describe navel as a mark of beauty and it therefore, compared to the watery eddy (RV 6-52)

नृपम् तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः सा व्यत्यगादन्यवधूर्भवित्री|
महीधरम् मार्गवशादुपेतम् स्रोतोवहा सागरगामिनीव॥ ६-५२

nṛpam tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ sā vyatyagādanyavadhūrbhavitrī |

mahīdharam mārgavaśādupetam srotovahā sāgaragāminīva || 6-52

She who has a navel as beautiful as an eddy, and who is scheduled to become another man’s wife, that princess indumati moved past that prince susheNa of shUrasena kingdom, just as an ocean bound river moves past a mountain met by chance on its way. [6-52]

 

 

 

The family of Raghu with the child King comparable to the water with a lotus in the condition of a bud in it (RV 18-37). This indicates the tender and lovely heart of King Sudarsana.

 

नवेन्दुना तन्नभसोपमेयम्
शाबैकसिंहेन च काननेन।
रघोः कुलम् कुट्मलपुष्करेण
तोयेन चाप्रौढनरेन्द्रमासीत्॥ १८-३७

navendunā tannabhasopameyam
śābaikasiṁhena ca kānanena |
raghoḥ kulam kuṭmalapuṣkareṇa
toyena cāprauḍhanarendramāsīt || 18-37

 

That dynasty of Raghu with this young king sudarshana obtained similitude to the sky with new moon, a forest with a single lion-cub, and a lake with solitary bud of lotus. [18-37]

 

Thus Raghu’s line, whose chief was now a child,/Showed like the night while still the Moon is young,/Or like a forest where one Lion-cub/Alone doth range, or as a silent lake/Before its lilies bloom.

 

 

In the Malavikagnimitram (M.M.1-6), the skill of teacher which when communicated to a worthy student, attains greater excellence, is likened to the water of a cloud, which when dropped into a sea-shell, acquires the nature of a pearl.

 

Just as a stupid person becomes wise by association with the wise, similarly, the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree (M M 2—7)

 

(Rain drops falling on the day of Swati star becoming pearl in the oysters and the Kataka seed purifying water are used by Tamil poets as well; I have written about it already).

 

Source books :–Kuruntokai

Raghuvamsa.sansrit documents.com

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Mrs Vinod Aggarwal

xxx

My Old articles on the same subject:

1.Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775); posted on 31 March 2017

2. Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature; posted on 10 November 2014
3. Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st century BC. Posted on 22 January 2012
4. Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489); 27 December 2016
5. Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature

Posted on Post No. 1048 ; dated 17th May 2014.

  1. Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (13 February 2012)

 

–Subham–

 

 

Husband is God!!! Who will believe Valmiki, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Poets? (Post No.3717)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 12 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 19-37

 

Post No. 3717

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

There is a saying in all old Sanskrit and Tamil books that ‘Husband is God’; I don’t know how many modern Hindu women would agree with this ‘old fashioned’ thought. When I was a school by there was, a film titled ‘Kanavane Kankanda Deivam’ i.e. Husband is the visible God! Now people may laugh at this idea, leave alone believing it!

 

The second idea repeated very often in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature and Sanskrit literature is that the ‘same husband must come as her husband in future births’!! How many women would dare to say this to her husband in private or in public? How many women can tolerate such a thing if it happens!! Is in it horrible?

 

My mother had never said my father’s name in public! This is the third old fashioned idea that Hindu women had in the past. Now, my wife says my name loud and clear ten times in public when there was an opportunity to say it. But I myself had the difficulty of finding a gentleman’s’ name in a village, when I was working as the secretary of Madurai District RSS (Jilla Karyavah). The woman refused to say her husband’s name when I asked her and she gave me lot of tips and clues! It was like a puzzle I had to solve!

 

For instance if her husband’s name is Rama chandran, she would say her husband’s name is Sita’s husband name. If I say just Rama , then she will say ‘yes’ and add the moon with that name! Then I have to derive Rama Chandra from that! (Chandran is the Sanskrit word for moon)!

 

I don’t know how many Hindu women still believe in these ‘’old fashioned’’ views.

 

If you dare to put these views to any woman and ask her opinion, she may say ‘NO’ or a conditional YES (if my husband is like Rama, ‘YES’, if he is like Krishna ‘NO’)!

 

Let me give examples from Tamil and Sanskrit books:-

“Supressing his sobs, Rama replied to his mother, who was weeping, and said:- As long as sge lives, a woman’s god and her master is her husband; further the king is thine absolute lord as well as mine.”

 

This is a conversation between Rama and Kausalya about Kaikeyi and Dasaratha.

 

“By obedience to her husband, a woman attains the highest heaven, even if she has failed to render due homage to the Gods.”

 

–Ayodhya kanda, chapter 24, Vlmiki Ramayana

Tamil Poet supports Valmiki

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda, Tirukkural says

“A wife who may not worship God but wakes up with worshipful devotion to her husband has the power to make rainfall at her bidding”- Kural 55

 

In fact Tiruvalluvar’s wife Vasuki is attributed with so many miracles because of her devotion to her husband.

 

Valmiki has repeated this in many places; one more instance from the same Ayodhya kanda:

“O, son of an illustrious monarch! a father, a mother, a brother, a son or a daughter-in-law enjoy the fruit of their merits and receive what is their due, a wife alone follows the destiny of her husband. For a woman it is not her father or her son nor her mother friends nor her own self, but the husband who in this world and the next is ever her sole means of salvation.”

Sita said this to her husband Rama.

In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa Kavya, Sita says that she would do penance to get Rama as her husband in her next birth!

साहम् तपः सूर्यनिविष्टदृष्टिः
ऊर्ध्वम् प्रसूतेश्चरितुम् यतिष्ये।
भूयो यथा मे जननान्तरेऽपि
त्वमेव भर्ता न च विप्रयोगः ॥ १४-६६

sāham tapaḥ sūryaniviṣṭadṛṣṭiḥ
ūrdhvam prasūteścaritum yatiṣye |
bhūyo yathā me jananāntare’pi
tvameva bhartā na ca viprayogaḥ  || 14-66

 

Thus situated, I shall, after the birth of the child, endeavour to practise penance with my eyes fixed on the sun in such a manner that I may gain you as my unseparated husband. [14-66]

But, once Thy son is born,/Unswerving I shall fix my weary eyes/On yon bright Sun, and by severest modes/Of penance strive that in some future life/Thou only be my Lord, my Lord for aye!

(It is called Panchagni penance, i.e. Five Fire Penance. Uma did this type of penance to get Siva s her husband in Kalidasa’s Kumara sambhava. On four sides there will be fire and one would stand in the sun which is the fifth fire. And in this heat the penance would be done).

 

Tamil Epic Silappadikaram has the following passage:

 

In a divine chariot at the side of Kovalan, Kannnaki went up to heaven.. Because it is a fact that Gods will worship her who worships not God but worships her husband, Kannaki, that jewel among women of the earth, became a goddess and the guest of the ladies of heaven (Katturai Kaathai, Silappadikaram)

Manimekalai, another Tamil epic, has a similar passage.

Sangam Poets

 

Tamil work Kuruntokai (49) of Sangam Period has a similar poem:

A man left the courtesan and returned to his lady love. Immediately the lady was over the moon and said, “ O , My Lord, even in the next birth you must be my lord and I must be your lover.—Poet Ammuvanar.

A wife cried because…………………………..

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkura says,

“The moment I said we will not part IN THIS LIFE

Her eyes were filled with tears” – Kural 1315

 

the idea is that when her husband stated that they will not part in the PRESENT LIFE, she immediately held, that he was envisaging the possibility of their parting in the next life, which she did not kindly take to. Hence the tears.

 

Kalidasa says Aja and Indumati became husband and wife again in this birth. (Raghuvamsa 7-15)

 

रतिस्मरौ नूनमिमावभूताम् राज्ञाम् सहस्रेषु तथा हि बाला।
गतेयमात्मप्रतिरूपमेव मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम्॥ ७-१५

ratismarau nūnamimāvabhūtām
rājñām sahasreṣu tathā hi bālā |
gateyamātmapratirūpameva
mano hi janmāntarasaṁgatijñam || 7-15

“These two are undoubtedly Rati Devi and Manmatha in human form… that is why this maiden has chosen Prince Aja as her own match from among thousands of kings… after all, it is heart that cognises connubial tie-ups existing in all lifecycles… [ raghu vamsa 7-15]

 

Natrinai  (Verse 397 by Poet Ammuvanar) is another book in the Sangam literature. A woman laments: I am not worried about death; whoever is born must die. But if I am born as a non-human being in my next birth I may not get this man as my husband. That is what worries me much”.

There are lot of such examples in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is a common thought reflected in Manu Smrti and other Sanskrit works. It is amazing to see the same though from land’s southernmost end to the Northern Himalayas. The absence of such a view in other cultures explode the Aryan Dravidian divisions. India is one and there is no different culture. There is only one culture which is unique in the world.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Father in Sanskrit and Tamil Literature (Post No 3690)

Picture of Tiruvalluvar

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 4 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 15-20

 

Post No. 3690

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

In the Atharva Veda (3-30):-

“The union of hearts and minds

and freedom from hate I will bring you

Love one another as the cow

loves the calf that she has borne.

 

Let son be loyal to father

and of one mind with his mother;

let wife speak to husband words

that are honey-sweet and gentle.

 

Let not a brother hate a brother,

nor a sister hate a sister

unanimous, united in aims

speak you words with friendliness

 

I will make the prayer for that

concord among men at home

by which Devas do not separate,

nor ever hate one another”.

–Atharva Veda 3-30

 

Hindus consider Mother, Father and Teacher as Gods:

Mata, Pita, Guru (Teacher), Deivam

Linguists know that the English words Mother, Father, Teacher and Deity came from these Sanskrit words.

There is another interpretation for the above Sanskrit quote. Respect is given to in the following order; mother, father, teacher and god.

 

All the saints have praised god as Mother and Father. So they knew that no one else can excel their love and affection. I have given below some similes and verses about father in Sanskrit and Tamil literature.

 

Tamil Veda Tirukkural says:

What a father is expected to do his son is to make him fit to hold the foremost pace among the learned (Kural 67)

The duty of the son to the father is to make others exclaim “ what penance has he done to be blessed with such a worthy son.”

 

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural knew about the penance domne by the parents of Adi Shankara and Markandeya.

 

Picture of Agastya

In the Rig Veda

Several passages in the Rig Veda show father as a standard of affection. The Vedic seers implore the fire god to be of easy access as a father is to his son

sa nah pite’va suunave agne suupaayano bhava RV 1-1-9

 

Vyusitaasva protects all the castes as a father protects his own sons:apaalayat sarvavarnaan pitaa putraan ivau rasaan –Mahabharata 1-112-13;1-110-11; 3-3-5

 

Yudhisthira going into exile into the forest is described as abandoning his subjects like a father abandoning his sons:

pite’vaputraan apahaaya caa smaan. Mbh 3-24-9

 

Sometimes, paternal affection takes the shape of advice, e.g. like a father instructing his sons, Matali instructs the Pandavas and goes away:

pite’va putraan anusisya cai’naan.Mbh 3-161-25

 

Arjuna implores Lord Krishna to pardon his faults as a father pardons those of a son, a friend those of a friend, a lover those of his beloved:

pite’va putrasya sakhe’va sakhyh priyah priyaayaa rhasi deva sodhum.Mbh 6-33-44

 

as a father lifts his fallen son, so does the minister lift the fallen king Samvarana who is unable to bear his beloved Tapati’s sudden disappearance:

tam samutthaapayaam aasa .. pite’va patitam sutam.Mbh 1-162-5

 

Bhisma embraces Karna by one arm as a father embraces his son:

pite’va putram gaangeyah parisvajyai ‘kabaahunaa.6-117-7

 

Damayanti, lamenting, accuses the Himalaya of not consoling her with its voice as a father consoles his distressed daughter:

giraa naasvaasayasy adya svaam sutaam iva duhkhitaam. 3-61-52

from very childhood, Parasara, the grandson treats vasistha as his father:

janmaprabhri tasmims ca pitarii’va

vyavartata. Mbh 1-169-4; 3-24-7

Picture of Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar

 

In Kalidasa:-

In the Raghu Vamsa by reason of his protecting and maintaining the subjects, he was virtually their father. Their real fathers were merely the source of their birth.

Raghuvamsa 1-24

Vasistha blesses Dilipa, “May you stand like your father, at the head of those who are blessed with worthy sons”. RV 1-91

 

Again, the great sage Kautsa blesses Raghu, “May you obtain a son wothy of your excellence as your father obtained yourpraiseworthy self”

Raghuvamsa 5-34

 

Just as King Pundarika was the father with an excellent son Devanika, who was ready to please his father, similarly, the son had an excellent father by reason of loving his son. The image suggests the perennial affection between the father and son. Raghuvamsa 18-11; 17-2

 

Also read my previous article:

 

Ruler is Father and Mother: Hindu Concept in Tamil … – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/ruler-is-father-and-mother-hindu-con…

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11 Feb 2017 – Hindus considered the Rulers as their father and mother. Generally, Guru and God are praised as father and mother by the Hindus in their …

 

–Subham–