IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4615)- Part 3

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 3

 

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 14 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  7-04 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4615

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

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PART 1 AND PART 2 WERE PUBLISHED HERE IN THE PAST TWO DAYS.

 

 

14.Matavi and Manimekalai

Matavi having heard all the tragic news shaved her hair and entered the Buddha Vihara. These people died because they heard this news from me; therefore I come to bathe in the holy waters of Ganges ( in order to purify myself). Long live you, O king of kings!

When Matalan finished, Senkuttuvan asked what happened to the Pandya kingdom.

 

Thus Matalan was used to give all the news about all the important characters in the epic.

 

15.One Thousand Goldsmiths Executed!

Matalan continued, “O King, you destroyed  in a day the nine umbrellas of nine enemy kings who joined together in an alliance against your brother in law Killivalavan. Listen! The victorious Ver Celiyan residing at Korkai offered a human sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths in a day to the divine Pattini who had twisted off one off her breasts.

When Matalan gave all this information the sun set and then the court astrologer said, “ Long live the ruler of the earth. It is now thirty two months since we left Vanci.

 

  1. Fifty Tula Gold to the Brahmana!

When Senkuttuvan asked about the succession in the Cola kingdom, Matalan praised the Colas whose forefathers destroyed the three fortresses suspended in the sky (mythological story), who gave flesh to a kite to save a dove (mythological Sibi Story) would never move away from the righteous path , Senkuttuvan became very happy and said to the Brahmana,

“O Brahmana Matalan, please accept the gift of fifty Tulams of pure gold” equal to Senkuttuvan’s own weight (Tula Bharam).

 

17.BRAHMIN’S ADVICE TO SENKUTTUVAN!

Matalan in Natukar Katai

“Then a Cakkayan, a dancing expert from Paraiyur, which was famous for Brahmans versed in the four Vedas, exhibited for king’s pleasure, the dance known as Koticetam danced with Uma as part of Himself by the mighty Siva, while the anklet worn on his  beautiful feet tinkled.

In the Natukar Katai Matalan speaks:

“O King wearing a long garland of victory and possessing a huge army! O Lion of kings, who knows all that can be known from great men, dismiss your wrath! Ruler of the earth, may the days you have yet to live become more numerous than the particles of sand in the cool river An Porunai.

Pray do not dismiss my words! Even after passing through fifty years of your protection on this earth you do not perform religious sacrifice but continue to perform the sacrifice at the battle. Among your ancestors in this city one king distinguished himself by destroying the Katampu of the seas, another exhibited great prowess by carving the bow emblem on the Himalayas, another enabled a Vedic Brahmana in return for composing some poems, to ascend bodily to the higher world, another commanded the messenger of death not to take away lives indiscriminately but only in particular order; another Cera penetrated the golden region of the high mountain in the fertile kingdom of the Barbarous Yavanas. After adding two more ancestor king’s adventures Matalan says, “It is not necessary to point out to men of wisdom that youth will not last for ever. The goddess of wealth abides in your chest, for you see your own body covered with grey hairs. Even good souls in divine bodies may, it is just possible, enter human frames on earth. Souls of those who are born as men now may by chance be reborn as animals. Men are but actors on a stage, and will have no  enduring embody in only one fixed form. That life after death will depend upon deeds done in a previous birth is a significant statement which is not untrue”.

 

“O King of the powerful sword! I have chosen not to solicit rare gifts from you. I cannot suffer to see a good soul wrapped within a good body travel the path trodden by the common people of this vast world. O king who has crossed the limits of learning! you should therefore do that great and fruitful yajna with the help of sacrificial priests learned in the four Vedas in order you may gain that superior path which Gods extoll.

 

“If you say that good deed can be done tomorrow it may chance that your good soul trained in Vedic lore will leave your body even today.”

 

When the learned to tongue of the Vedic Brahmana, thus ploughed and sowed the seeds of divine wisdom in the kings’ ears, those seeds sprouted forth in right time.

 

With a desire to enjoy the fruits of the harvest of virtue, the king with the resounding anklets, commanded the presence of those sacrificial priests who had completed their studies by listening to teachers belonging to a group of traditional interpreters of the four Vedas. They were asked to commence the festival of sacrificial rituals in the manner instructed by Matalan.

 

 

18.Matalan’s Last appearance in Varantaru Katai

 

Brahmana Miracle!

In the chapter Varanataru Katai there is a long anecdote where Devanti gives the history of Manimekalai, daughter of Kovalan and courtesan Matavi. Then Devanti was possessed by Pasanatan Cattan.

It is said that there are three girls in the crowd—twin daughters of Arattan Cetti and a little daughter of Cetak Kutumpi, a temple priest. If Matalan sprinkled the water of a divine pool on those girls, they would reveal their past births. Devantikai gave that water to Matalan which kept in his string-bag (Uri).

 

Seeing all this Senkuttuvan was lost in wonder and turned towards Matalan when he said with good cheer: ‘Hear this O King! Let all your ills disappear.

 

Then Matalan sprinkled the water on the three girls. They recited their previous births. Senkuttuvan looked at the face of Matalan, wearing the sacred thread on his chest, he blessed him: O King of Kings! Long may you live. These three were, in previous births, attached to the devoted wife of Kovalan, who seized the mad elephant’s tusk to release a Brahmana from the clutches of the mad elephant.

 

Matalan finished his speech with a good advice:

“It is not strange that people who do good things attain heaven and people who have worldly minds are reborn and that good and bad deeds have their own reward and those born should die, and those dead should be re born. Those are ancient truths ( Bhagavad Gita echo: Jaatasya hi dhruvo mrtyuh dhruvam janma mrtasya ca)

 

Matalan continues:

You (Senkuttuvan) were born through the grace of Him who rides on the sacred bull (Lord Shiva) and have won distinction as a king in this wide world, saw, clear as an object held in the palm of your hand, the fruits of righteous deeds and the forms of holy people. Long live from eon to eon protecting the earth! Live long gracious monarch!

 

Pleased with what the Brahmana Matalan said, the king endowed grants to the temple of the ever youthful Pattini who had twisted off her breast and there by raised flames which enveloped the noisy Kutal (another name for Madurai) of the great Pandyan Kingdom, much celebrated in poetical themes. He further ordered the conduct of daily festivals by instructing Devantikai to offer flowers, perfume and incense.

The monarch of the world circumambulated the shrine thrice and stood proffering his respects. Many kings including the Gajabahu of sea girt Sri Lanka participated in the festival.

 

Kannaki too when she burnt Madurai down asked the Agni Deva (Fire God) to spare Brahmins, old people, cows, chaste women, invalids and all good people.

19.Chief Duties of the Lady of the House

The chief duties of the lady of the house were giving of gifts to the deserving, the serving of the Brahmins and the entertaining of the ascetics and guests, as evidenced by Kannaki’s own words in canto XVI.II 71-3 Kolaikkala Katai

 

  1. Brahmin Ambassador and Brahmin Actors

There are more references to Brahmins throughout the epic

A Brahmin ambassador by name Kausikan delivered the message of Matavi to Kovalan and took back his message to his parents – Purancheri Irutta Katai

Brahmin actors (Kuutta Chakkaiyar) staged a show in front of Senkuttuvan- Natukar Katai

Keeranthai, a Brahmin, told his wife that Pandyan king would protect her when he went out of the city and that led to Porkai Pandya Story (Pandya with a Golden Hand)—Katturai Katai

Ilango says that Pandyan kings always hear the Vedic recital but never the justice bell (katturai Katai)

A Brahmin poet by name Palaik Kautamanar going to heaven with his body- Natukar Katai

 

Madurai is full of smoke from the Vedic Fire altars—Naatu Kaan Katai

Conclusion:

Hundreds of lines were attributed to Brahmin Matalan and he gave us lot of information to fill the gaps in the epic. Miraculous incidents happen in front of the Brahmana and the king Senkuttuvan. He commands the king to do Yagas and yajnas and the king readily obeys. Kannaki lamented that she could not feed the Brahmins and saints. She spared Brahmins when she burnt down Madurai. Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy anecdote showed the condition of Vedic education in Tamil Nadu. Kovalan could read s Sanskrit manuscript. Brahmins are praised as great scholars in Tamil (Vandamiz Maraiyor in Katturaik Katai; it speaks of the Brahmin who composed a poem on Chera king in Patitrup Pattu and went to heaven with his wife in his human body).

Why did Ilango do it?

Why did Ilango do it? did he write a Brahmana Kavya? My opinion is that he did not exaggerate anything. He described the real condition of second century CE Tamil Nadu where Brahmins commanded great respect. They could command great and mighty kings like Senkuttuvan. They could guide them what to do for the welfare of the community. Through Parasran-Dakshinamurthy anecdote, Ilango not only showed that even a child in a remote village of Tamil Nadu could recite Vedas perfectly, but also Brahmins were unselfish and could donate their wealth for the Vedic children. Ilango was the first poet in Tamil to show the weddings conducted by the Brahmins in front of fire.

 

Silappadikaram was the most popular epic. It was the only epic which based its story on a pure Tamil theme.

Paranar and other poets of Patitrup Pattu, one of the 18 books of Sangam Tamil literature, confirmed all that was said by Ilango. There is no doubt that the history second century Tamil Nadu was a golden period in the history of Tamil Nadu.

 

References:

The Cilappatikaram,Prof. V R Ramachandra Dikshitar,The South India Saiavasiddhanta Works Publishing Society, Tinnelvelly Limited, Madras,600 001, 1978

Akananuru, Varthamanan Pathippakam, A Manikkanar,Chennai- 600 017,1999

Srimad Bhagavad Gita, Anna, Sri Ramakrishna Mutt, Chennai-600 004,1965

 

 

–Subahm–

 

 

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 2

KANNAKI COOKING, WORLD TAMIL CONFERENCE SOUVENIR PICTURE

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 13 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  6-16 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4612

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

 

PART 2 (PART 1 WAS PUBLISHED YESTERDAY)

6.Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy Anecdote in the Katturai Katai is equally interesting:

 

“An able Brahmana, Parasara, who belonged to the good and fertile Kingdom of the Lord of the highly reputed Pukar wielding a righteous sceptre and a triumphant sword – one of whose kings weighed (his flesh) to save a dove (Story of Sibi) and another awarded justice to a cow (story of Manu Niti Cholan) who had heard the peerless munificence of the Cera of the curved lance, by offering the heavens to a Tamil Brahmana poet, said to himself, “I shall see the Cera of great valour and long lance”. He then passed through jungles and country places and towns leaving behind him the tall Malaya Hills. There by the force of his dialectical skill which he had acquired in the traditional manner, from the twice born Brahmana—who with the thought of achieving oneness with the Infinite, kindled the three fires as ordained in the four Vedas and performed the five great sacrifices (Pancha Maha Yajna) and the six great duties- he defeated his rivals and earned the title of Parpana Vakai.

(A typical Brahmin’s profile!)

As he was returning home with great and valuable gifts, he reached the village of Tankal (Tirutankal near Sivakasi) of the righteous Pandyan and of Dharmic Brahmanas. In this village, on a platform beneath the Bodi tree, luxuriant with green leaves, the tired man stayed awhile with his staff, water bowl, white umbrella, fire stick, a small bundle of articles and slippers (the impedimenta of an orthodox Brahmana; white umbrellas can be used only by the Kings and Brahmins who did Soma yaga) and said,

“Long live the victor whose protecting white umbrella assures his certain success. Long live the protector who uprooted the Katampu from the sea (Marine attack on sea pirates)! Long live the king who engraved his bow on the Himalayas! Long live the Poraiyan, possessor of the cool and beautiful Porunai! Long live King Mantaran Ceral! (contemporary king of Ceran Senkuttuvan)

 

Surrounded by a group of playful youths, some with curly hair and some with tufts and some with lisping mouths and coral lips, toddling some distance from their homes, he addressed them,

“Young Brahmana boys, if you can recite the Veda after me you may go away taking this little bundle of jewels.” Then the son of famous Brahmana Vartikan, by name Aalamar Selvan (Dakshinamurthy) whose rose lisps still retained the fragrance of his mother’s milk, in the presence of his playmates, with prattling tongue and great inward pleasure, recited the Veda, faultlessly observing the correct rhythm. The elderly man was exceedingly pleased with young Dakshinan and presented him with a sacred thread of pearls and bright jewels, as well as with bangles and earrings before departed for his native place”.

7.VEDIC  TAMIL NADU

Here Ilango was so poetic that we are captivated by every word he said here. This gave the beautiful description of Vedic education in the second century Tamil Nadu. Every word of Ilango praised the Brahmins and Brahmin boys. A little boy could recite Vedas with a learned Pundit. He described the appearance of Vedic Brahmins in minute details

 

The translator adds a beautiful note here:

The Brahman’s love for the Veda and his magnanimity in giving away the valuable jewels to a child reciting Vedas according to established practice show how unselfish were the learned Brahmins of those golden days.

 

Through Matalan  and Parasaran and a little boy we know that Vedas were recited in nook and corner of Tamil Nadu.

 

8.A MIRACLE HAPPENED!

“When Vartikan’s child departed with the little bundle of jewels, Vartikan was accused of misappropriating treasure trove which belongs to the king. So Vartikan was imprisoned. His wife Kartikai grew frantic. She wept in grief. She threw herself on to the ground rolling and fulminating. Seeing this the Goddess Durga of untarnished glory refused to open the door of her temple for the conduct of daily worship. When the king of the mighty spear heard that the massive door remained shut and would not open, he was confounded, and inquired, “Has any injustice been done? Come and tell me if you have heard of any failure in the discharge of our duties to the Goddess of Victory”.

 

“Then his young messengers made obeisance to the protecting king and informed him the case of Vartikan. “This is not fair, burst forth the king in anger and addressed Vartikan, It is your duty to forgive me. My righteous rule still has life, though owing to the ignorance of my men, it has deviated from the ordained path”.

 

“The king granted him Tankal with its paddy fields watered by tanks and Vayalur of immeasurable yield and prostrated himself on the ground before Vartikan, the husband of Kartikai. Then the door of the Goddess who rode upon the stag, opened so loudly as to be heard throughout the long and broad streets of mountain like mansions of the ancient city.

Then he issued a proclamation to release all the prisoners and allowed everyone to enjoy the treasures they find!”

 

Such is the power of Brahmins. Even mighty kings fell at their feet!

 

9.In this chapter (Katturai Katai) , Brahmins are praised as Vandamil Maraiyor i.e people who speak chaste Tamil. This answered the question whether Brahmins are sons of the soil!

 

10.Matalan Again!

Matala Maraiyon, the influential Brahmin, appears again in the last three sections:

Nirppataik Katai

Natukar Katai

Varantaru katai

 

Matalan giving Important News!

Ilango uses Matalan to fill the gaps in the epic. Mighty Cera King Senkuttuvan brought the stone from the holy Himalayas and bathed it in the Holy Ganges and carved the stone into the Goddess Pattini.

Following is in the Nirppataik Katai

“While Senkuttuvan was sitting on his throne ( in North India), the Brahmana Matalan appeared before him and said, Long live our king! The seashore song of the lady Matavi made the crowns of Kanaka and Vijaya bear a weight (the implied meaning is that Kovalan left Matavi’s house and other events followed resulting in Kannaki becoming a goddess; Kanaka and Vijaya who challenged Senkuttuvan made to carry the stone on their heads).

 

The Brahmana Matalan then continued: “The maid Matavi, whilst sporting on the cool beach, had a lover’s quarrel with Kovalan. Then governed by fate she sang the seashore song appropriate to her dance. This not resulted in their reunion but in their separation, and necessitated his entry with his virtuous wife into the ancient towered city of Madura, whose reigning king with his wreath of leaves attained blissful heaven as a result of the murder of Kovalan, whose wife, O Lord of the Kutavar, entered your country. And now she is being borne upon the crowned heads of the northern kings”.

 

11.Matari commits suicide!

“Be good enough to listen also to the reason for my coming here, O king of kings holding the illustrious spear! After going round the Potiyil Hills sacred to the great sage (Agastya) and bathing in the famous ghat of Kumari, I was returning, when as if impelled by fate, I went into Madura belonging to far famed Tennavan of the sharp sword. There when Matari heard that the beautiful Kannaki had defeated the Pandyan king of the mighty army with her anklet, she proclaimed in the Taateru manrdram (common meeting point of the Yadava community), ‘O People of the cowherd community! Kovalan has done no wrong; it is the king who has erred; I have lost her to whom I gave refuge. Have the king’s umbrella and the sceptre fallen from the righteous path? With these words she threw herself into the burning flames in the dead of night!

12.Kavunti died of Starvation!

Kavunti, distinguished for her holy penance, waxed wroth; but when she heard of the death of the great king renowned for his righteous sceptre, her ire was appeased and she burst out: Was this the fate of those who joined my company? She took a vow to die of starvation and thus gave up her life.

 

13.Kovalan’s mother died of Depression!

I heard in full detail all this and also of the devastation that overtook the great city of Madura ruled by the Pandyan of the golden car. Overcome by great I went back to my native place, the ancient capital of the Colas, and informed the chief men there of this. Kovalan’s father heard what happened to his son and daughter in law and also to the righteous monarch of Madura and became deeply afflicted. He distributed all his wealth in charity, and entered Seven Indra Viharas (The Buddhist Temple) and began to practise self -denial like the three hundred monks who roam the sky, having renounced the world to obtain release from the cycle of births. The wife of him who thus renounced, unable to endure the sorrowful news of the death of her son under such tragic circumstances, died of pity.

 

Kannaki’s father also gave away his wealth in religious gifts and adopted Dharma in the presence of Ajivakas like sages engaged in penance of a high order. The noble wife of him who made these gifts gave up her good life within a few days.

 

TO BE CONTINUED……………………………………….

 

VALLUVAR’S TIRUKKURAL AND KAMA SASTRA COMPARED (Post No.4539)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 24 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-35 am

 

 

Post No. 4539

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 5 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar ; in this Kamasastra is compared with Tirukkural along with other books.

 

Please read first four parts posted in the past few days and continue here:–

 

So far we have seen the comparison between Tiru Valluvar’s Tirukkural with Bhagavad Gita, Manu Smrti, Arthasastra of Kautilya/Chanaya, Kamandaki, Ramayana and Mahabharata. In this section we will look at the Parnellism between the Kamasastra in Sanskrit with Tirukkural

 

Following is from the book Studies in Tamil Literature by V R Ramachandra Dikshitar:

 

Book III of Tirukkural- Kaamattuppaal

 

There are two views with regard to this particular section. One is that Valluvar gives expression to purely Tamil aspect of Kama (sexual desire). According to this whole can be conveniently divided into Kalaviyal and Karpiyal, and these again are based on the five tinais peculiar to the Tamils.

 

But the celebrated commentator of the Kural, Parimel azagarwould again find correspondences between this subject of the subject and that in Sanskrit literature. According to that authority, Kalaviyal and Karpiyal correspond to the Samyoga and Vipralambha of the KAMASUTRA treatises.

 

In the Karpiyal section again Parimelaalagar would find corresponding terms for the different incidents like

Selavu =Pravasa

Arraamai= Viraaga

Viduppu = Ayogam

and Pulavi= Maanam.

The Sanskritists add the fifth incident Saapa.

As this is quite uncommon , says the commentator, Valluvar did not include it in his treatment of the subject. While the Chapter 116 Pirivarraamai is devoted to selavu, the chapters (117-126) deal with the Arraamai.

 

Viduppu is dealt within three chapters (127-129), while the last four chapters (130-133) are devoted to the incident of Pulavi.

 

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Porutpaal continued…………………

Kural 586 to 589 ( Spies/ Detectives)

 

As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,

A spy whatever men do must watchful mind display.

 

A spy must search each hidden matter out

And full report must render, free from doubt.

 

Spying by spies, the things they tell,

To test by other spies is well.

 

One spy must not another see: contrive it so;

And things by three confirmed as truth you know

 

The Arthasastra has the following:

The king shall send fraudulent and ascetic spies who have been tried for their loyalty and skill.

The class of officers who went by the name of Tiiksanas ascertained their outward conduct. The satri spies carried this information to the district quarters. The residential officers therein made it known to the headquarters through signs and cipher writings. This is to be done without the knowledge of the respective samsthas. If the information is corroborated by three independent sources, it is taken to be confirmed.

(Book 1, Chap.11 and 12)

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Kural 581 (Spies)

These two: the code renowned, and spies

n these let king confide as eyes

 

Tha Kamandaki saysA king should get at the movements of the adversary through the medium of his cautious and secret spies. That king one of whose eyes is caara or the spy is awake even in sleep (13-29)

 

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Kural 602 and 604 (Sloth)

Let indolence, the death of effort, die,

If you’d uphold your household’s dignity.

His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,

Who, sunk in sloth,  for noble objects doth not strive

 

The Bhagavd Gita gives similar ideas:

Know, og Bharata, inertia born of ignorance and the deluder of all beings, is bound by sloth, indolence and sleep (BG 14-8)

 

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Kural 628 and 630 (Fortitude)

He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;

Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes

 

Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire

The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.

 

The Gita says similarly,

You grieve for things not fit to be grieved for and yet indulge in wise sayings. The wise never grieve either for the living or for the dead.

 

He who sees his self in everything and looks upon pleasure and pain equally, is a perfect Yogi

–BG 2-11 and 6-32

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Kural 631 (Ministers)

A minister is who grasps, with wisdom large,

Means ,time, work’s mode and functions rare he must discharge

 

The Arthasastra says,

The ministers shall engage in the following five duties: commencing a work, finding out resources, fixing it according to place and time, protecting against possible dangers, and final consummation Book 1-15

 

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Kural 645 and 646 (Eloquence)

Speaking out your speech, when once it is past dispute

That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.

 

Charming each hearer’s ear, of others words to seize the sense

Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.

 

A good illustration of this maxim is found in the Mahabharata. Here the kingdom is threatened with a invasion, the king goes to the country and begs for war loans and benevolences by speaking out in sweet, soft and convincing style.

–Santi Parva 88,26,34

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Kural 669, 670 (Firmness)

Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,

And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.

 

The world desires not men of every power possessed,

Who powers in act desires not, crown of all the rest

 

is expressed in other words by the Bhagavad Gita:

Do not get vexed. This is unbecoming of one like yourself. Give up the detestable weakness of the heart and gird up, oh slayer of foes –BG 2-3; 4-20

 

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Kural 681, 682, 683, 684 (AMBASSADOR)

 

Benevolence, high birth, the courtesy kings love

These qualities the envoy of a king approve

 

Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things

Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.

 

Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be

Midst javelin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory

Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite

Who hath these three for envoy’s task is fit.

 

similar ideas are expressed by the law giver Manu:

The king shall appoint him an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who can read the gestures and signs, pure, skilled, of noble family

That ambassador, who is loyal, honest, intelligent of excellent memory, who acts according to time and place, of good physique, bold and possessed of good powers of speech is applauded – Manu 7-63/64

XXX

Kural 685, 686, 688, 689, 690 (AMBASSADOR)

In the Kural

In term, concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word

An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord

 

An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye

Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency

In the Athasastra,

The message is to be delivered in toto, even at the cost of life……….When questioned by the enemy king as to the strength of the lord’s forces, pretend ignorance and simply say, you know better! – Book 1-16

 

Again in the Kural,

Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness;

Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.

 

His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,

Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king

 

Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;

The envoy gains assured advantage for his king

 

The Rajaniti Rantnakara quotes Sukra,

The ambassador, though a mlechcha, shall not be killed

Hence the duta/ambassador is the king’s eye. Even when the arms are raised aloft in the act of striking him, he should faithfully deliver his message.

 

From the words of the duta/amabassador who would think of his own defects and of enemy’s strength? For the duta  speak always anything he thinks – page 46 of Rajanitiratnakara

 

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Kural 698, 699, 700 (On Serving the King)

Say not, ‘He is young, my kinsman’ despising thus your king;

But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.

The following may be parallel,

A king should not be despised even though a child. he is a great divinity in the form of a man Manu 7-8

In the Kural, we have gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do

So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.

 

Wh think we are ancient friends, and do unseemly things;

To these familiarity sure ruin brings.

 

Similar ideas are found in the following discussion in the Arthasastra,

says Bhardvaja,

The king shall appoint as his ministers his classmates as he would have understood their honesty and tact. They could be easily trusted. No says Visalaksha, ‘as playmates they would not respect him. He shall therefore appoint those whose secrets are well known to him. Possessed of conduct and defects in common with the king those do not entertain harm lest their secrets should be divulged. This is very common, says Parasara, for the king may follow them in their good and bad actions lest his own secrets be divulged Arthasastra Book 1, Chap.8

 

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Kural 731, 732 (A Prosperous Nation)

The Kural defines,

Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,

Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land.

 

That is a land which men desire for wealth’s abundant share,

Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare

Baudhayana says:

A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass and garlands are plentiful, access to which is easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people and where Aryans (noblemen) form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers—Baudhayana 2-3-51

S B E Volume 14 pages 243/4

Kural 737 (Nation)

What the Kural says,

Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;

These make a land with fortress sure defence

 

is also mentioned by Kautilya

The fortress of rivers and mountains are sources of defence to the country parts.

Arthasastra Book 2-3

Chapter 74 of Kural entitled Nation corresponds roughly to the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

Durga= Fortress

Chapter 75 of Kural entitled Fortification corresponds roughly to the the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

 

xxxx

 

Kural 751 (WEALTH)

Nothing exists, save wealth, that can

Change man of nought to worthy man

is tus explained in the Ramayana

To a man of wealth, there are friends, and relatives. He is the worthy man of the world, and becomes a Pandita. He is a man of prowess and wisdom. He is a great man of good qualities.

Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana chap.83-35/36

 

Kural 760

What the Kural says,

Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,

By them the other two are easily obtained

 

is explained thus by Vaatsyaayana,

Between wealth and kingdom, wealth is superior. Though the means of wealth, Lokayaatraa and Kaama are realised. This is the position of Trivarga.

–Kamasutra book 1-2-15/17

 

xxx

 

Kural 861 (ENEMIES)

With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;

With weaker shun not, rather court the fray

Kautilya prescribes,

Court agreement of peace with equal and superior foes. Fight with the weaker.

–Book 7-3

xxxx

 

Kural 920 (PROSTITUTES)

According to the Kural:

Women of double minds, strong drink and dice;

to these given over,

Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.

 

In the Arthasastra,

Public censure and loss of wealth are due to Kama ( desire).

….Kama comprises hunting, gambling, women and drinking.

–Book 7-3

 

In the chapter on the Purusa vyasana varga, Kautilya referes to the four-fold vice under the category of Kama. These are hunting, gambling, women and drinking. The effects of these evil habits are discussed I detail. Tiruvalluvar, on the other hand devotes two chapters on the Vyasanas of women (91being ruled by the wife, 92 prostitutes) one chapter ( 93 ) on drinking and one chapter on (94) gambling. Apparently, the author of the Kural does not treat hunting as such a vice as the other three. In fact hunting is recognised as a valuable form of exercise to kings by Kalidasa in his Sakuntala. Nor is Kautilya unaware of its beneficial effects.

Arthasastra book 8-3

 

My comments:

V R R Dikshitar has done very good research in Tirukkural. I have not seen any such comparisons in any other book. One must be a good scholar in both Sanskrit and Tamil and well read. I have already given my comparisons of Dhammapada and Tirukkural, Panchatantra and Tirukkural in separate articles.

 

—SUBHAM–

Arthasastra,Ramayana and Tirukkural Compared (Post No.4534)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 23 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am

 

 

Post No. 4534

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 4 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4534).

 

In this fourth part, Arthasastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Kamandaka and Manu’s verses are compared.

 

 

In the first two parts Tirukkural, Bhagavad Gita and Manava Dharma Sastra are compared,

 

In the third part Kautilya’s Arthasastra is also compared with Kural

It is continued in the Fourth Part

 

Kural 471 (Forethought)

 

In the opinion of Valluvar,

 

The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,

The force of friends: these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.

 

On this Kautilya observes:

 

The conquering monarch shall acquaint himself with the comparative strength and weakness, of himself and of his enemy in regard to power, lace, time, season for march, season for recruiting the army, consequential advantages and difficulties arising from anger, diminution and loss and decide on expedition if he would feel assured of superiority in his force.

–Book 9, chapter 1

 

xxx

 

KURALS 472, 476, 477 (Assessment of Relative Strength)

 

 

Who know what can he wrought, with the knowledge of means, on this

Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss (Kural 472)

 

Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise

Beyond the branch’s tip, with life the forfeit pays (476)

With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you, give!

That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live (477)

Kautilya says,

 

The power of mantra (counsel) is better. The king who possesses the eye of Sastraic knowledge can press his knowledge into service even with little effort. He can over reach the enemy with enthusiasm and power by means of conciliation, and application of strategic means. In this way success is due to enthusiasm, power, force of mantra/counsel of in the ascending order – Book 9, chapter 1

 

xxxx

Kural 481 and 482 (Right Time)

 

According to the author of Kural,

 

A crow will conquer owl in brad day light;

The king the foes would crush, need fitting time to fight.

 

The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made

Strictly observant still of favouring season’s aid.

 

Says the Kautilya, “That season is best which is suited to the manoeuvre of one’s own army and unsuited to ones enemny. The reverse is the worst. The ordinary season is the middling one. Book 9, Chap. 1

 

Time alone is better say some. For on this account the crow kills the owl in the day and the owl the crow in the night.

 

xxxxx

 

Kural 493 and 494 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

Even weak ones mightily prevails, if place of strong defence

They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.

 

The foes who thought to trimph, find their thoughts in vain

If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain

 

According to Arthasastra, ‘one should endeavour the means to increase the strength of one’s own force. That desa is the best which is the ground for manoeuvre of one’s own army but disadvantageous to the enemy. Otherwise it is the worst. That which is common is neither best nor worst.- Book 9, chap.1)

 

xxx

Kural 495, 497, 500 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide;

If this it leaves, it is slain by anything beside

 

Save their own fearless might they need no other aid, If in right place they fight, all due provision made

 

 

The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen

The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.

 

In the Arthasastra, it is said:

The ground is better, some say. On this account the dog on the ground can overreach even a crocodile, and the crocodile in the low ground the dog. –Book 9- Chapter 1

 

Thus we come across similar ideas both in the Arthasastra and Tirukkural. While the Arthasastra has dealt in one chapter all the three means of Sakti, Desa and Kala, the Kural devotes three separate chapters of the Kural Venbas each

 

xxx

 

Kural 501(On choosing the right men)

 

How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life is at stake,

Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make

 

Says Kautilya:

 

The ministers shall be tested by the Upadhas which are in the nature of temptations. These are for kinds, the temptation of virtue, wealh, lust and fear- Book 1, chap.10

 

xxx

 

Kural 510 On choosing the right men)

 

Trust where have you not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,

Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal

 

The Arthasastra says:

The Acaryas (teachers) have prescribed that the king should appoint government servants in their respective posts after the four-fold test according to the satisfaction afforded by such test.

–Book 1, Chapter 10

 

xxx

 

Kural 518 and 520 (Employment of Chosen men)

 

As each man’s special aptitude is known

Bid each man make that special work his own

 

Let king search out his servants’ deeds each day;

When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way

 

is corroborated by the Arthasastra

 

Those who have come out successful from the Dharmopadhaa are to be appointed as judges and commissioners, from the Arthopadhaa to office of treasurer and he collector-general, from Kaamopadhaa to guarding frontiers, harem and sporting grounds and from the Bhayopadhaa in the king’s household.

 

Those who have gone through the four ordeals are to be chosen as ministers.

 

Having thus chosen his servants by the four fold tests, the king shall endeavour through his spies to get at their loyalty or otherwise –Book 1, Chapter 10

 

xxx

 

Kural 517(Employment of Chosen men)

 

This man, this work halt thus work out, let thoughtful king command:

Then leave the matter wholly in his servant’s hand

 

Kamandaka says,

 

He whose capacity is too well known for a particular job is appointed to it, just like the different senses which are employed to perceive particular objects – Kamandaka 5-75

 

xxxx

Kural 541 (Just Rule)

 

Search out, to no one favour show, with heart that justice loves,

Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.

 

The Ramayana furnishes a parallel

If the punishment accorded to the offenders is meted out according to the laws of the land, it leads the monarch to heaven

–Ramayana 7-79-9

 

Kural 543 (Just Rule)

 

Learning and virtue of the sages spring

From all-controlling sceptre of the king

 

According to the Arthasastra,

That state which is disciplined by the established laws of the Aryas, which is rooted in the organisation of castes and orders, and which is protected by the three Vedas, progresses and never deteriorates – Book 1-3

 

Kural 545 (Just Rule)

 

Where king, who righteous law  regards, the sceptre wields,

There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields

 

A Parallel is furnished in the Ramayana,

The fields are rich with crops, the rains shower in proper seasons, and the soldiers are free from disease during Satrughna’s rule.

–Ramayana 7-70-10

 

xxxxx

 

Kural 554 (On Tyranny, Oppression)

 

Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,

At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.

 

Manu rules,

 

The king who allows the kingdom to deteriorate owing to sheer neglect and lethargy will soon fall from his position and life with all his relatives -Manu 7-111

 

Kural 560 (Oppression, Tyranny)

 

Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry

And Brahmin’s sacred lore will all forgotten lie

 

 

The Mahabharata furnishes a parallel,

When Dandaniti is given the death blow and when the ancient Raja Dharma of the Kshatriyas become lost, the sacred lore gets extinct, as also all the dharmas including those dharmas pertaining to the asramas

–Santi Prava Chap.112-28

 

xxxxxxxxxx

 

Kural 562 and 569 (Penalties)

 

For length of days with still increasing joys on heaven who call

Should raise the rod with bow severe, but let it gently fall.

 

Manu furnishes a parallel,

The king should be harsh and mild according to the nature of the work. He endears himself to the people, being harsh and soft—Manu 7-140

 

Kural 569

 

Who builds no forth whence he may foe defy,

In time of war shall fear and swiftly die

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

The enemies do not wrong those resident in fortresses, as they do not attack the king who shelters under a fort – Manu7-73

 

 

to be continued……………………

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

 

 

Chanakya and Valluvar (Post No.4530)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-09 am

 

 

Post No. 4530

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Part 3 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4530)

 

 

Please read the first two parts where the books are introduced. Here Dikshitar ompared Chanakya with Valluvar:—-

 

Kural 126 (Self Control)

Like tortoise, who the five restrains

In one, though seven worlds bliss obtains

The Bhagavad Gita says that as a tortoise will restrain all limbs into itself, he who would restrain his sense will attain wisdom 2-58

xxx

Kural 226 (Charity)

Let men relieve the wasting hunger men endure;

For treasure gained thus finds one treasure-house secure.

Manu rules to this effect: One must not eat oneself without feeding the guest first; feeding of guests leads to wealth, health, fame and heaven- Manu 3-106

xxx

Kural 256 (Vegetarianism)

We eat the slain you say, ‘by us no living creatures die;

Who’d kill and sell, I pray, if none came there the flesh to buy?

Manu says, “He who approves of the killing of an animal, who preserves the slaughtered body, who kills it, who buys and sells it, who cooks it and who serves it, and who makes a meal of it are to be termed Killers” Manu 5-51

xxx

Kural 257 (Vegetarianism)

With other beings ulcerous wounds their hunger may appease

If this they felt, desire to eat must surely ease

According to Manu, having learnt the origin of flesh (meat) and the killing of creatures, one will refrain from taking any kind of meat-5-49, 52 .

 

xxx

Kural 259 (Vegetarianism)

Than thousand rich oblations, with libations rare,

Better the flesh of slaughtered beings not to share.

Manu’s ruling is similar:

He who would perform a hundred Asvamedha sacrifices year after year and he who would refrain from flesh eating are equal so far the attainments of fruits is concerned– Manu 5-53

xxx

Kural 268 (Penance)

Who gains himself in utter self-control

Him worships every other living soul.

In Manu, one should endeavour day and night to conquer the senses; and one who conquer his senses is able to have all people under his control- Manu 7-44

xxx

Kural 299 (Truthfulness)

Every lamp is not a lamp in wise men’s sight:

That is the lamp with truth’s pure radiance bright

In the Bhagavad Gita, The Yogi controlled, self engaged, in meditation, is likened to a lamp that is still in a windless place Bhagavad Gita 6-19

xxx

Kural 330 (Violence)

Who had a loathed life, in bodies sorely pained,

Are men, the wise declare, by guilt of slaughter stained.

 

In the Laws of Manu, it is said that he who causes the killing of prohibited animals for his own happiness is considered to be dead, though living, for he never attains happiness- Manu 5-45

 

xxx

Kural 339 (Instability)

Death is sinking into slumbers deep; Birth again is waking out of sleep.

 

The Bhagavad Gita furnishes a parallel: There is certain death to one who is born, and there is certain birth to one dead –Bhagavad Gita6-63)

 

xxx Arattup paal finished xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

PORUTPAAL; CHANAKYA’S ARTHASASTRA COMPARED

Chanakya is also known as  Kautilya.

 

Kural 381 (Leader/ King)

 

An army, people, wealth, a minister, friends, fort;

six things—

Who owns them all, a lion lives amid the kings.

 

Kautilya’s Artha sastra prescribes:

The king, minister, territory, fort treasury, army friends constitute the elements of a state………….. He wh possesses these and who follows the righteous policy is able to conquer the whole earth and is never defeated.

—Book 6-1 cf.Kamandaka 1-18

xxx

Kural 385 (Leader- King)

A king is he who treasure gains, stores up, defends,

And duty for his kingdom’s weal expends

 

The Kamandaka Nitisastra furnishes a parallel:

The four fold functions of the king are to acquie wealth by equitable means, to preserv it, to augument it, and then expend it on the deserving.

Kamandaka 1-20

xxx

Kural 390 (King/ Leader)

Gifts, grace, right sceptre, care f people’s weal;

These four a light of dreaded king reveal

 

is corroborated by the Kamandaki

Pleasant speech, grace gifts, protection of the poor and the distressed, and association with men of character are recognised by the world as the right thing.

–kamandaki 3-2

xxx

Kural 391 (Study/ Learning)

So lean that you may full and faultless learning gain,

Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.

 

According to the Arthasastra, sciences should be studied under qualified teachers and their precepts duly followed……………Discipline is the fruit of learning.

–Book 1-5, Arthasastra.

xxx

 

Kural 411(Listening)

Wealth of wealth is wealth acquired by ear attent;

Wealth mid al wealth supremely excellent.

The Kautilya (Chanakya) says:

Hearing opens the door to knowledge, knowledge to right action, and right action to knowledge of one’s self. This is what constitutes vidyaa.

—Book 1- chapter 5 of Arthasastra.

 

xxx

Kural 427 (Knowledge)

The wise discern, the foolish fail to see,

And minds prepare for things about to be

In the Arthasastra, he who possesses the eye of knowledge and science, is able to discern the true thing with a little effort.

Arthasastra ,Book 9, chapter 1

xxx

Kural 441 (Great men)

As friends the men who virtue know, and riper wisdom share,

Their worth weighed well, the king should choose with care.

The prescription of Bhradwaja is that companions whose honesty and skill have been put to satisfactory tests shall be appointed ministers.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8

 

xxx

Kural 447 (Great men)

What power can work his fall, who faithful ministers,

Employs, that thunder out reproaches when he errs.

The Arthasastra prescribes that a king should select such ministers whose loyalty has been tried and who would protect him from risks involving danger to life.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8

xxx

Kural 462 and Kural 470 (Consideration/ On the right Forethought)

With chosen friends deliberate; next use they private thought;

Then act. By those who thus proceed all works with ease are wrought .

 

Plan and perform no work that others may despise;

What misbeseems a king the world will not aprroe as wise.

-The Arthasastra says

All undertakings are to be preceded by mantra or counsel………. Let the king review the works with the ministers present……….. That which gives fruition and is advocated by the best men must be done

–Arthasastra, Book 1-15

to be continued……………………

–Subham–

 

Part 2 of Tirukkural and Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar (Post No.4516)

 

Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar -Part 2

 

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 19 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  7-53 am

 

 

Post No. 4516

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Following is from the book STUDIES IN TAMIL LITERATURE, V R RAMACHANDRA DIKSHITAR, LECTURER IN INDIAN HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS, YEAR 1936)

 

KURAL 53

There is no lack within the house, where wife in worth excels;

There is no luck within the house, where wife dishonoured dwells

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

Where women are honoured, there the God dwells; in the houses where they are not honoured, everything done become fruitless- Manu 3-56 also 9-26

xxx

Kural 57

Of what avail is watch and ward?

Honour is a woman’s safest guard.

Similar ideas are found in Manava Dharma Sastra.

Those women who are bound by restraints by her won devoted kinsmen are not truly protected; those who guard themselves are well protected- Mnau 9-12

xxxx

Kural 58

If wife be wholly true to him who gained her as his bride,

Great glory gains she in the world where gods in bliss abide.

Manu furnishes a parallel:

She who will not abuse her rights either by mind, speech or body, attains the world of Pativratas (holy chaste women) and is styled Saadhvi or the good by the righteous- Manu5-165

xxx

Kural 82

Though food of immortality should crown the board,

Feasting alone, the guests without unfed, is thing abhorred.

Similar ides are found in the Dharmasastra:

A householder is to partake of the food remaining after he has fed the gods, sages, guests, manes, and household deities. He who prepares food for the sake of self, simply eats sin—Manu 3-117, also 118, 106

(Also in Bhagavad Gita 3-13)

xxx

Kural 91

Pleasant words are words with all pervading love that burn;

words from his guileless mouth who can the very truth discerns.

The same ideas occur in Manu Smrti:

Speak the Truth; speak pleasant things.

Do not speak unpleasant and false words; speak pleasant and truthful words- Manu 4-138

xxx

Kural 121

Self Control places a man among gods; the want of it sends him to the hideous darkness of hell.

Manu says that the indulgence of sense organs leads to evil without doubt; having controlled them, one attains salvation- Manu 2-93

xxx

Kural 134

Though he forget, the Brahmin may regain his Vedic lore;

Failing in ‘decorum due’, birthright is gone for evermore.

In the Laws of Manu, it is said that a Brahmin who is devoid of decorum will not attain the fruits of the study of the Vedas. On the other hand, one who observes decorum will reap the full reward—Manu 1-109

 

xxx

Kural 144

How great so’ver they be, what gain have they of life,

Who not a whit reflecting, seek a neighbour’s wife?

Manu’s remarks are appropriate:

There is no other thing which results in diminution of life than the fact of a person’s criminal intimacy with the neighbour’s wife- Manu 4-134

xxx

 

V R R Dikshitar gives 85 more comparisons. I will list all of them.

——to be continued

–SUBHAM–

 

GREATEST TAMIL POET OF MODERN ERA-SUBRAHMANYA BHARATI (Post No.4481)

GREATEST TAMIL POET OF MODERN ERA-SUBRAHMANYA BHARATI (Post No.4481)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 11 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  20-36

 

 

Post No. 4481

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

BHARATI was born on 11th December1882 in Ettayapuram in Tamil Nadu and died on 11th September in Chennai. He was the greatest of the Tamil poets of modern period. He composed patriotic and devotional poems. His other poems covered all the important issues facing the country. He lived well before his times and sang about women’s liberation and a casteless society. he predicted India would become independent, a quarter of a century before its actual independence in 1947. He was a great lover of Tamil language and the Vedas. He wanted to spread both Tamil and Vedas. He translated some of the hymns from the Rig Veda. He knew several languages including Sanskrit, French and English. He wrote  both in Tamil and English.

His poems inspired the freedom fighters including my father V santanam, who was the News Editor of Dinamani. He along with Kamaraj, Kakkan and other Congress leaders went to prison for fighting against the British Rule. My father and others sang Bharati’s famous patriotic song ‘Veera Swathanthram Vendi Nindraar…………’ through the main roads of Chennai. This is to emphasize that his poems inspired the freedom fighters and it would inspire generations to come.

 

 

Bharati was very kind towards all the living beings; he sang that the animate and inanimate beings of this land are his kith and kin. He was greatly influenced by Shelley, Byron, Milton, Browning, Francis Thompson and Thomas Moore. In the same way he was influenced by all the national leaders and poets. He sang about Guru Gobind Singh, the Sikh Guru, Veera Shivaji, the great Hindu King, Mahatma Gandhi, B G Tilak, Gokhale and others.

 

As a lover of Sanskrit he was influenced by the Upanishdic seers, Panini, Kalidas, Adi Shankara, doyen of Tamil literature U V Swaminatha Iyer to name a few.

He predicted that India would become a Super Power, a Super Guru and lead the world. He also predicted that there would be a bridge linking India with Sri Lanka along the Setu Bridge of Ramayana. His other predictions about Trip to Moon, Indian Independence etc. have already come true.

 

I will quote some of the tributes paid to Bharati by famous Tamil scholars:

 

“In Bharati there is a steady, ceaseless, unflagging spiritual evolution. His burning desire to shake off the yoke of an alien rule finds immortal expression in his soul-stirring national songs. The freedom from without is only a prelude to freedom from within. In the wailing of Panchali (Panchali sabatham), one hears the passionate cry of a down trodden nation for freedom. His love lyrics are nothing but an adumbration of the heavenward flight of his soul. His devotional songs in praise of Kali, mark a definite stage in his onward march to the faroff City of God, which he wants to found here on earth. His Cuckoo Song (Kuyil Paattu) is the crown of his achievement in the domain of poetry. Bharati’s ideal is that of Sri Aurobindo who strove to make our earth the very Kingdom of God”._- R S Desikan

 

“Poet Bharati has fulfilled the true mission of a poet. He has created Beauty not only through the medium of glowing and lovely words, but has kindled the souls of men and women by the million to a more passionate love of freedom and a richer dedication to the service of the country.

 

 

“Bharati was truly great and he was easily the greatest of the modern poets. With him came the flood-tide of renaissance, as a part of national upsurge for freedom. In his hands Tamil recovered its naturalness, clarity, vigour, vitality and flexibility. he turned to colloquial vocabulary and rhythms and brought the written Tamil closer to speech.

 

“His short life of thirty-nine years was full of trials and tribulations, which a freedom fighter had to face in the early  years of this century. His political Guru was the extremist Lokamanya Tilak. He had several spiritual Gurus including Sister Nivedita.

 

–Bharati Tamil Sangam , Calcutta, 1970

 

“Bharati was not only a poet who could rouse the patriotic feelings of his fellow-Tamils, but was also a literary artist of the highest order who could see the universal in particular. Although Bharati hails from Tamil Nadu, and occupies a front place in India’s regional literature, his impact will be felt wherever great literature is loved and read” – V K R V Rao

 

Bharati was not only a poet and a freedom fighter but also a humanist, journalist, Yogi, Siddha, Nature lover, Essayist, social reformer and linguist.

 

 

Subramanya Bharati | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/subramanya-bharati/

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Compiled by Santanam Swaminathan; Post No 742 dated 11th December 2013. 11th December is Bharati’s Birth Day. Bharathiyar was born on 11 December 1882; Died on 11th September 1921. Quotes about Bharati: “Bharati kindled the souls of men by million to a more passionate love of freedom and a richer dedication …

Bharati’s view of women | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/bharatis-view-of-women/

(The writer Bharatiyar (C.Subrahmanya Bharati) is the greatest of the modern Tamil poets. He died in 1921. He wrote articles in English in addition to his most famous Tamil poems. Following are his views on women:-swami). Compiled by London swaminathan. Post No.918 dated 19th March 2014. In the mystic symbolism …

THREE INTERESTING STORIES FROM THE … – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/three-interesting-stories-from-the-brahmanas-post-no-40…

1 Jul 2017 – Tag Cloud. anecdotes Appar Avvaiyar Bharati Book review Brahmins Buddha calendar Hindu Human Sacrifice Humility Indra in literature in Tamil Kalidasa Kamban Lincoln mahabharata Manu Mark Twain miracles Pattinathar proverbs Quotations quotes Rig Veda Sanskrit Quotations Satapata brahmana …

You visited this page on 12/11/17.

Bharati on women’s freedom | Tamil and Vedas

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Complied by London Swaminathan Post No.989; Date :— 19th April 2014. Also read an article on “The Place of Women by C.Subrahmanya Bharati(1882-1921) posted here on 19-3-14; Post No 918. This one is a new article he wrote in English on the same subject in 1915. It is amazing to readBharati’s views on women.

Books on Bharati | Tamil and Vedas

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1902-1904 Jul When the Maharajah of Ettayapuram visited Benares, on his way back from the Delhi Durbar (conducted by Lord Curzon) he invitedBharati to come back to Ettayapuram and work for him in his Samastana.Bharati agreed and came to his birth place to work for the Maharajah. His job was to read newspapers, …

harmonium | Tamil and Vedas

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(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com;. IMG_3519. There are very interesting anecdotes in the life of the great Tamil poet Subramanya Bharati. One of them was his fear of leprosy, which made him to consume a harmonium to fire! Once he was playing on harmonium; actually he was …

 

–Subham–

Valluvar and Manu agree on Violence, Non-Violence, Leadership and Householder (Post No.4477)

Valluvar and Manu agree on Violence, Non-Violence, Leadership and Householder (Post No.4477)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 10 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  15-13

 

 

Post No. 4477

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Rev. G U Pope in the Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar compared the Tirukkural with Manu and Bhagavad Gita; he gave it in the appendix of his book published in 1886. This is another article in the series.

 

Householder

Tiru Valluvar says,

He is the true householder who helps the three orders of the virtuous (Brahmachari, Vanaprastan, Sanyasin) in their home life is the fruit of love begotten by a harmonious, right path of life.- (Kural 41)

 

Manu says,

“3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order (Manu).”

 

Valluvar says,

The true house-holder gives succour to the forsaken, the poor and the departed (Kural 42)

The paramount duty of a house-holder is to cherish daily the manes, the gods, his guests, his relations and himself (43)

If a man acquires wealth by fair means and is charitable to whom charity is due his progeny will never become extinct (44)

 

Manu says,

3-71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders).

3-72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he breathes.

3-117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.

3-118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men.

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Ahimsa (non-killing)  chapter 33 of Tirukkural

Tiru Valluvar deals with Killing animals in the chapter Ten. He says,

Non-killing is a matchless virtue according to teachers of ethics. Truthfulness ranks as second in merit to non-killing (Kural 323)

Killing leads to all other sinful acts. Therefore non-killing is the highest virtue (321)

 

 Manu says on Ahimsa

5-43. A twice-born man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his own) house, with a teacher, or in the forest, must never, even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the Veda.

10-63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

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LEADERS and KINGS

 

Valluvar says,

He is a lion among leaders who has these six: an army, subjects, wealth, ministers, allies, fortification (Kural 381)

Courage, wisdom, liberality and zeal – these four qualities form royal features (382)

The three things alertness, learning and bravery should never be wanting in the ruler of a country (383)

A noble leader must be brave, virtuous, adventurous and free from vices and injustice (Kural 384)

An able leader makes and and earns wealth; guards and apportions it for people’s good (385)

Death Sentence:

The judge gives capital punishment to wicked killers like removing weeds from a flourishing field (Kural 550)

 

Manu says,

7-20. If the king did not, without tiring, inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would roast the weaker, like fish on a spit;

7-99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has gained let him carefully preserve; let him augment what he preserves, and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.

7-100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.

7-101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow (on worthy men).

7-102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.

7-103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.

Manu says in the Third Chapter,

 

xxx

 

Marriage Types in Manu and Tolkappiam

Manu says,

3-20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

3-21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).

3-32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

Oldest book Tolkappiam (Porul Adikaram ) refered to the eight types of marriages.

Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiyam refers to eight types of marriages which is already said by Manu and other Hindu law books/smrtis. Most famous Tamil commentator Nachinarkiniyar explained them in detail.

xxx

More articles on Manu and Tirukkural

MARRIAGE – TWO OPPOSSING TAMIL VIEWS (Post No.4462) | Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/marriage-two-oppossing-tamil-views-…

 

9 hours ago – Post No4462. Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. (Tamil Joke: Husband:While I read my love … Dr G U Pope compared couplet 41 with Manu’s 3-78 and showed Naladiyar, the poems of Jains were opposed to marriage.

 

 

Tamil Literature | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/category/tamil-literature/

 

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURALRev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459). MANU … RevG U Pope, a Tamil scholar and Christian preacher published The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in 1886 with his English translation. Throughout the book he had used his predecessors’ views. He had .

 

–Subham–

 

 

Manu in Tirukkural: More Couplets Compared by Rev.G U Pope (Post No.4467)

Manu in Tirukkural: More Couplets Compared by Rev.G U Pope (Post No.4467)


Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 7 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  8–33 am

 

 

Post No. 4467

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

I have given below the links for the first two articles in this series: Comparison of Manu Smrti with Tamil Veda Tirukkural by Rev G U Pope (Christian Priest and Tamil Scholar of the last century)

 

There are more couplets given below:

 

 

1.Offending Kings and Saints

 

Tiru Valluvar in the Tamil Veda Tirukkural says

If those of rigorous penance become enraged, even Indra will crash from power and position –(Kural 899)

(Nahusan- Agastya episode mentioned by both valluvar and Manu)

Should they who stand as high as the hills look with disfavour, even men of firm standing in the world perish with all their race (Kural 898)

Manu in his Manava Dharma Shastra says

 

7-39. Let him, though he may already be modest, constantly learn modesty from them; for a king who is modest never perishes.

7-40. Through a want of modesty many kings have perished, together with their belongings; through modesty even hermits in the forest have gained kingdoms.

7-41. Through a want of humility Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of Pigavana, Sumukha, and Nemi.

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2.Gambling

Tiruvalluvar has done 10 couplets on the evils of Gambling

Gambling ruins a man’s fortune, makes him resort to falsehood, deprives him of grace and lands him misery (Kural 938)

 

Manu says,

2-179. From gambling, idle disputes, backbiting, and lying, from looking at and touching women, and from hurting others.( these come under the list of whan man should avoid)

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar says ‘Suuthum vaathum vedhanai seyyum’ (Gaming and Disputation bring distress)

 

xxx

 

 

3.Ministers

 

Valluvar says,

The right minister judges the right means, season and method of action for a rare adventure (Kural 631)

The ideal minister is learned, manly,firm, resolute and zealous in guarding people’s welfare (Kural 632)

The able minister cherishes friends, disunites foes, and reunites those who had parted (633)

The minister comprehends a plan, reflects, selects the best method and gives one assuring fact (634)

Manu says

7-58. But with the most distinguished among them all, a learned Brahmana, let the king deliberate on the most important affairs which relate to the six measures of royal policy.- Manu 7-58

 

 

xxxx

 

4.Nation:-

Tiru Valluvar defines a good country in ten couplets (731-740)

 

That is a country which is desired for its great wealth and which yields rich produce free from blights (Kural 732)

 

That is a country which is free from starvation , from incurable diseases, and from enemies that are dangerous (734)

 

Five are the ornaments of a country: blooming health, wealth, rich yields, happiness, defensive forces (738)

 

7-69. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chiefly (inhabited) by cultured people, not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals are obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood Manu 7-69

 

5.Fortification

 

Tiru Valluvar says,

Even to the powerful, a fortress is of value; it is of value even to them that want to defend themselves in fear (Kural 741)

A good fort has crystal fountains, sandy plains,  a hill and a shade of thick woods. These make it impregnable (742)

Military science says that an unconquerable fort must be high, broad, strong and impregnable (743)

A fort must be so strong that foes cannot storm it. It must stock food and it must suit the garrison (745)

Valluvar adds six more couplets under this topic.

 

 

Manu says in the Seventh chapter of Manu Smrti

7-70. Let him build (there) a town, making for his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress built of (stone and) earth, or one protected by water or trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill-fort.

  1. Let him make every effort to secure a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill-fort is distinguished by many superior qualities.
  2. The first three of those (various kinds of fortresses) are inhabited by wild beasts, animals living in holes and aquatic animals, the last three by monkeys, men, and gods respectively.
  3. As enemies do not hurt these (beings, when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses, even so foes (can) not injure a king who has taken refuge in his fort.
  4. One bowman, placed on a rampart, is a match in battle for one hundred (foes), one hundred for ten thousand; hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that a king will possess) a fortress.
  5. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of burden, with Brahmanas, with artisans, with engines, with fodder, and with water.
  6. Let him cause to be built for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well) protected, habitable in every season, resplendent (with whitewash), supplied with water and trees.

Dr G U Pope compared this description with the fort of Shivaji Mharaj.

xxx

6.Bhagawan

G U Pope has even noticed the word Bhagavan (god) occurred in the very first couplet of Tiru Valluvar and the first six slokas of Manu!

More articles on Manu and Tirukkural

MARRIAGE – TWO OPPOSSING TAMIL VIEWS (Post No.4462) | Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/marriage-two-oppossing-tamil-views-…

 

9 hours ago – Post No4462. Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. (Tamil Joke: Husband:While I read my love … Dr G U Pope compared couplet 41 with Manu’s 3-78 and showed Naladiyar, the poems of Jains were opposed to marriage.

 

 

Tamil Literature | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/category/tamil-literature/

 

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURALRev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459). MANU … RevG U Pope, a Tamil scholar and Christian preacher published The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in 1886 with his English translation. Throughout the book he had used his predecessors’ views. He had .

 

 

xxx  SUBHAM xxx

MARRIAGE – TWO OPPOSSING TAMIL VIEWS (Post No.4462)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 5 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  7–49 am

 

 

Post No. 4462

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

(Tamil Joke: Husband:While I read my love letters now which i sent you before marriage, i feel they were nonsense/rubbish; Wife: Oh, for me they looked nonsense/rubbish even before marriage!)

Manu in his Manava Dhrama Shastra and Tiru Valluvar in his Tamil Veda Tirukkural support marriage; but Jain Munis who composed several hundred poems in Tamil in Naladiyar and Pazamozi had different views. Dr G U Pope, Christian priest and Tamil scholar, Father Constantine Beschi, Jesuit priest from Italy and a Tamil scholar had compared several couplets in Tirukkural and Manu’s Law book. Dr G U Popes puts forth several arguments in his translation of Tirukkural, published in 1886, to prove that Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural was not a Jain. One of the arguments is about marriage.

 

Tiruvalluvar, an ardent Hindu supports marrying. Dr G U Pope compared couplet 41 with Manu’s 3-78 and showed Naladiyar, the poems of Jains were opposed to marriage.

 

We know the views of the Greek philosopher Socrates:

“By all means marry; if you get good wife, you will become happy; if you get a bad one, you will become a philosopher.”

 

Tamil poet Valluvar says,

He is the true householder who helps the three orders of the virtuous (Brahmachari, Vanaprastan, Sanyasin) in their home life is the fruit of love begotten by a harmonious, right path of life.

 

Even before Valluvar, Manu said the same in Sanskrit:

“3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order (Manu).”

Marriage is throwing Stones at you!

Naladiyar, the didactic book has 400 verses composed by Jain saints of Tamil Nadu who were great Tamil scholars. Here are two poems opposing marriage:

“Since it is a hard thing for a husband to reject his wife though she may neither have borne children nor have a good disposition, the wise have, on account of the misery entailed by matrimony, called it a thing to be eschewed – Naladiyar verse 56.

“Though one is advised to eschew marriage, he eschews it not; though the sound of death-drum pierces his ear , he heeds it not. He moreover takes in another wife and indulges in the delusion of matrimonial pleasures. These the wise say ‘ like one stoning himself’ “- Naladiyar 364

 

‘to be or not to be’ is up to you!

–subham–