Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 2 October 2018


Time uploaded in London –18-37  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5499


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




We continue with the fourth chapter of Manu Niti from sloka 101.


1.It is interesting to note that Manu talks about natural catastrophes such as earth quakes and cloud bursts and natural phenomena like meteorite showers and ask the Hindus to stop the study of Vedas for 24 hours.

2.Weekly Holiday:-Manu was the first person in the world who asked the schools to close six days a month. He banned Vedic teaching on at least six days :-


Two ashtamis :– 8th day after new moon and eighth day after full moon.

Two Chaturdasis: one day before full moon; one day before new moon;

Full Moon Day and New Moon Day (two days)

Even today Vedic schools follow this rule

3.He is very keen about the ‘pollution’ from visiting crematoriums etc. So he asked us to stop Vedic recitation


  1. He asked us to stop Vedic recitation during travel (horse ride, camel ride, sea travel); this shows that Vedic Pundits were great travellers.

(But elsewhere he bans Brahmins going abroad by sea like Tamils ban women travelling abroad- See my article on Tolkappiam)

  1. In one of the slokas he talks about stopping Vedic studies on meat eating days. In the olden days, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas were learning basic Vedas. That is why he talks about meat eating and Vedic studies.

6.In sloka 124, he explains  the special role of three Vedas.

7.Sloka 126 is very interesting which gives the superstitious beliefs in the olden times.

8.Sloka 135 warns about offending Brahmana, Kshatria and a snake.


9.Sloka 146 says what Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita- Good Person never comes to grief ( BG 6-40)


Manu was a great educationist, great planner and a well- informed scientist.

The amazing thing is that he talks about meteorite showers which is given in all astronomical magazines nowadays. He bans the teaching of Vedas for 24 hours on those days.

(Note the slokas in bold letters)





4-101. Let him who studies always avoid reading on the following occasions when the Veda-study is forbidden, and let him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule do it likewise.

  1. Those who know the rules of recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped on these two occasions, when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time.
  2. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain are observed together, or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, counting from the occurrence of the event.
  3. When one perceives these phenomena all together in the twilight, after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season.
  4. On the occasion of a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that the Veda-study must be stopped until the same hour on the next day, even if these phenomena happen in the rainy season.
  5. But when lightning and the roar of thunder are observed after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, the stoppage shall last as long as the light of the sun or of the stars is visible; if the remaining above-named phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease, both in the day-time and at night.
  6. For those who wish to acquire exceedingly great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study is prescribed in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must always cease when any kind of foul smell is perceptible.



  1. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a man who lives as unrighteously , while the sound of weeping is heard, and in a crowd of men the recitation of the Veda must be stopped.
  2. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart of the sacred texts.
  3. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a funeral rite in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure.
  4. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda.


  1. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death,



  1. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth days of each half-month, nor on the full-moon day.
  2. The new-moon day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth day the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days destroy all remembrance of the Veda; let him therefore avoid reading on those days.



  1. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels is heard, nor while he is seated in a company.
  2. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice.
  3. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth.



  1. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that the Veda-study must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, and on the occurrence of all portents.
  2. On the occasion of the Upakarman and of the Vedotsarga an omission of the Veda-study for three days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night.



  1. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat or ship, nor on a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage,
  2. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructation’s,
  3. Nor without receiving permission from a guest who stays in his house, nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon.
  4. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the YaJur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka.



  1. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the YaJur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure as it were.
  2. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three Vedas and afterwards the text of the Veda.


  1. Know that the Veda-study must be interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between the teacher and his pupil.
  2. Let a twice-born man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two occasions, viz. when the place where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified.
  3. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse).
  4. Let him not bathe immediately after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.
  5. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Dikshita).
  6. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road.
  7. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited.
  8. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, or to the wife of another man.
  9. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man’s wife.



  1. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they ever so feeble.
  2. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never despise them.
  3. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it.
  4. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law.
  5. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say ‘well’ only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody.

Journey Timings

  1. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday heat, nor with an unknown companion, nor alone, nor with Sudras.
  2. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.
  3. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure.
  4. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel.
  5. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid to touch the hair on the secret (parts).
  6. Let him eagerly follow the customs which are auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire.
  7. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter sacred texts and offer burnt-oblations.


Daily Recital

  1. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one’s highest duty; all other observances are called secondary duties.
  2. By daily reciting the Veda, by the observance of the rules of purification, by (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births.
  3. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda.
  4. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes.

–to be continued………………..





Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 17  September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 15-31 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5441

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




I have already finished three chapters. Now we look at the fourth chpater


Fourteen interesting Points


1.Note slokas 4 and 7. Five ways of food gathering; no saving for more than three days. If Brahmins follow these rules no one would feel jealousy towards Brahmins. That is the reason Brahmins were given donations by the kings and others. Manu made these rules so that Brahmins would be dependent upon others for ever. They have to do Pujas and sacrifices to earn their livelihood.


  1. Read a beautiful quotation in sloka 12. ‘for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).


3.Read sloka 29;’Guests must be honoured’ which we can find only in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is purely a Vedic Hindu concept which is not found in any other ancient culture as a daily duty. This explodes the Aryan invasion theory.

4.Sloka 11 ; please do agnihotram. Nowadays very few Brahmins do it.

5.sloka 21- pancha yajna (Five Types of sacrifice done everyday)

6.sloka 29 exploded Aryan invasion theory; customs like this found only in Sanskrit and Tamil as a meritorious daily duty; you cant find this anywhere in the world

  1. Sloka 40-lying in bed with wife rules

8.Slokas 44 and 52 Interesting rules regarding looking at women, and urinating etc

  1. Slokas 64 and 74- No singing, No dancing and No gambling

10.Sloka 76- Must have wet feet while eating, dry feet while sleeping

11.Sloka.84- No presents from kings

12.Sloka 86- Kings are butchers

13.Slokas 88-90- Twenty One types of Hell.

14.Sloka 92- Importance of getting up at 4 am (Brahma Muhurta)




  1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man’s) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife.
  2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain to others, and live by that except in times of distress.
  3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by following those irreproachable occupations which are prescribed for his caste, without unduly fatiguing his body.
  4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a dog’s mode of life).
  5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita.
  6. But trade and money-lending are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service (LIKE A SLAVE) is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.
  7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.
  8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely.
  9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra.



  1. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices.
  2. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana.
  3. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).
  4. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame.
  5. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those according to his ability, attains to the highest state.
  6. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be).
  7. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart.
  8. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims.
  9. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race.
  10. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda.
  11. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and his great learning shines brightly.



  1. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifices to the sages, to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.
  2. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifices in their organs (of sensation), without any (external) effort.
  3. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath.
  4. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root, always perform them through knowledge alone.
  5. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month,
  6. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifices, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice), at the end of the year Soma-offerings.
  7. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice).
  8. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh.


  1. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, water, or roots and fruits.
  2. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.
  3. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid those who are different.
  4. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one’s own interest).
  5. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifices, and of a pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule.
  6. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes, if he possesses property.


  1. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare.
  2. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden ear-rings.
  3. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the middle of the sky.
  4. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at his own image in water; that is a settled rule.
  5. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them.



  1. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with her in the same bed.
  2. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish.
  3. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will increase.
  4. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease.




  1. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at a woman who applies collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth a child.
  2. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen,
  3. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill,
  4. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.
  5. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.
  6. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.
  7. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.
  8. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.


  1. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes.
  2. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it.
  3. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures.
  4. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take off his garland.
  5. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things.
  6. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice, if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest).
  7. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals.
  8. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody.
  9. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain.


  1. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes.
  2. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning.
  3. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity.


  1. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion.
  2. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled.
  3. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been used by others.
  4. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured.
  5. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad.
  6. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth.
  7. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.
  8. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification.
  9. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act.
  10. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees.


  1. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat.
  2. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).



  1. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life.
  2. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms.
  3. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life.
  4. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Candalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins.
  5. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance.
  6. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.
  7. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe without (submerging) it.
  8. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men’s) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil.



  1. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes.
  2. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels.


  1. A king is declared to be equal in wickedness to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible crime.
  2. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells:



  1. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka,
  2. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika,
  3. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka.
  4. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents from a king.


  1. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman (BRAHMA MUHURTA= STARTING FROM 4-30 AM), and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda.
  2. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion).
  3. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence in Vedic knowledge.
  4. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half.
  5. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.
  6. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night.
  7. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.
  8. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.
  9. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita.










Written by London SWAMINATHAN

Date: 11 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20-34 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5311


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




This part of Third Chapter of Manu Smrti contains several Interesting and Mysterious things:

What is Mysterious?

See 231 (departed souls like riddles) and

274 (solar eclipse)

194-202 Strange Names for different types of Manes and Origin of Manes

Invisible Presence of departed souls- See 189

What is interesting?

This part gives severe blow to Aryan Immigration theory for two reasons: all the ingredients used are from tropical regions. No where else in the world we see such ceremonies.

It gives a severe blow to Aryan- Dravidian division; there is no such cultures as Dravidian; even in funeral ceremonies we see similar customs from south to north of the country.

Most Interesting Point

The Four Blessings sought from the departed souls:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)

What a Great Genius Manu is!

Four Types of Questions (see 254)

Brahmins are fire ! (See 212)

Departed souls are Nature Lovers (see 207)

Three Best People (see 185)

Manes are more important than Gods! (see 203)




  1. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by the presence of unworthy guests is purified, and the full description of the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.


Best People

  1. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
  2. A Trinaciketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Jyeshthasaman,

Tri naciketa= The Story of Naciketas in Katha Upanishad

Tri Suparna = Three Bird passage in Rig Veda 10-114-3

Jyeshta Saman= Excellent Chants in the Tandya Brahmana 21-2-3


  1. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand cows (as donation or gift), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Giving and receiving up to 20000 cows as gift is in the Rig veda and Mulavarman Yupa inscription of Indonesia (4th Century CE).

It is found in several Indian Inscriptions as well .

At least Three Brahmanas for the Srardha

  1. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.
  2. A Brahmana who has been invited to a rite in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha must act in the same manner.


  1. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them when they walk like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

(The departed souls come at the speed of wind and sit near the Brahmins.)


Brahmin becomes Pig!

  1. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks the appointment, becomes guilty of a crime, and in his next birth a hog/Pig.
  2. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver of the feast committed.
  3. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
  4. Now learn fully from whom all these manes derive their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.


  1. The various classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Marici and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
  2. The Somasads (soma drinkers) , the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas (Tasted by Fire), the children of Marici, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
  3. The Barhishads (Seated on the Sacrificial Grass) , born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,

Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

  1. The Somapas (Soma drinkers) those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs (Oblation Eaters) those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
  2. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
  3. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas (Fire Burnt) , the Anagnidagdhas (Non Fire Burnt) , the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas (Connected with Soma) , are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.



  1. But know also that there exist in this world countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
  2. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
  3. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).



  1. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes the Sraddhas, has been declared to be a means of fortifying the latter.
  2. Let him first invite a Brahmana in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.


  1. Let him make the Sraddha begin and end with a rite in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a rite in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.
  2. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cow dung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.



  1. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.
  2. The sacrificer shall make the invited Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
  3. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with those who are invited in honour of the gods.
  4. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana sacrificer shall offer oblations in the sacred fire, after having received permission to do so from all the Brahmana guests conjointly.


  1. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting the Sraddha, oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.


  1. But if no sacred fire is available, he shall place the offerings into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ‘What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’


  1. They also call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.
  2. After he has performed the oblations in the fire, and the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot where the cakes are to be placed.
  3. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which he poured out the libations of water.


  1. Having offered those cakes (PINDA) according to the prescribed rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with the roots of those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the three ancestors who partake of the wipings (lepa).




  1. Having next sipped water, turned round towards the north, and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, the sacrificer who knows the sacred texts shall worship the guardian deities of the six seasons and the manes.
  2. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).
  3. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).
  4. But if the sacrificer’s father is living, he must offer the cakes to three remoter ancestors; or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as one of the Brahmana guests.
  5. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.
  6. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha as a guest, or the grandson having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.



  1. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the guests, he shall give to each that above-mentioned portion of the cake, saying, ‘To those, Svadha!’
  2. But carrying the vessel filled with food with both hands, the sacrificer himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.
  3. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.
  4. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,
  5. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.
  6. All this he shall present to his guests, being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each dish, proclaiming its qualities.



  1. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.
  2. A tear sends the food to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.
  3. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.
  4. At a sacrifice in honour of the manes, he must let his guests hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.
  5. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly of each dish, and repeatedly invite them to eat by offering the food and (praising) its qualities.
  6. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.
  7. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.
  8. All the food must be very hot, and the guests shall eat in silence; even though asked by the giver of the feast, the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.



  1. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake of it.
  2. What a guest eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on his feet, that the Rakshasas consume.



  1. A Candala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.
  2. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.
  3. A boar makes the rite useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).
  4. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).
  5. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.
  6. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.
  7. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.
  8. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.
  9. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.
  10. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)
  11. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
  12. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.
  13. Having addressed the question, ‘Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ‘Rest either (here or at home)!’
  14. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ‘Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.
  15. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.



  1. At a Sraddha in honour of the manes one must use in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word


; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam= WAS IT COOKED WELL?

; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam = WAS IT PERFECT;

and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam= WAS IT SPLENDID?.

  1. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices.
  2. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods.
  3. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.
  4. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)


  1. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.
  2. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.
  3. The sacrificer’s first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, if she be desirous of bearing a son.
  4. Thus she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with the quality of goodness, and righteous.
  5. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.
  6. But the remnants shall be left where they lie until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the daily domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.




  1. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.
  2. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,
  3. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,
  4. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,
  5. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,
  6. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.
  7. The vegetable called Kalasaka, the fish called Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.
  8. Whatever food, mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless satisfaction.



  1. ‘May such a man the manes say be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and in the afternoon when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'(SOLAR ECLIPSE)
  2. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.



  1. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others.
  2. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.


  1. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon.
  2. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).
  3. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.
  4. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day.
  5. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day.
  6. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the daily Sraddha.


  1. They call the manes of fathers Vasus, those of grandfathers Rudras, and those of great-grandfathers Adityas; thus speaks the eternal Veda.
  2. Let him daily partake of the vighasa (LEFTOVER OFFERINGS) and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal of Brahmana guests and the remainder of a sacrifice is called amrita.
  3. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five daily great sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.





முஸ்லீம் நாட்டில் துர்கை, அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகள்! (Post No.5242)

WRITTEN by London swaminathan

Date: 21 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 9-24 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5242


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



உலகிலேயே மிகப்பெரிய முஸ்லீம் நாடு இந்தோநேஷியா. இங்கே 1500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு இந்துக்களின் ஆட்சி நடந்தது. இப்பொழுது இது பற்றி நிறைய புதிய தகவல்கள் வெளியாகி வருகின்றன. நான் மூன்று புஸ்தகங்களில் இருந்து தொகுத்து ஆங்கிலத்தில் எழுதிய நீண்ட கட்டுரையின் முக்கிய அம்சங்களை மற்றும் குறிப்பிடுகிறேன்.


இந்தோ நேஷியாவின் ஜாவா, சுமத்ரா, போர்னியோ, பாலி தீவுகள் நான்கிலும் ஏராளமான ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகள், ஜாவனிய கல்வெட்டுகள் உள்ளன. அவற்றிலிருந்து பல தகவல்கள் கிடைக்கின்றன.

சண்டி என்று துவங்கும் ஊர்ப்பெயர்கள் அனைத்தும் துர்க்கையின் பெயரில் அமைந்தவை. இங்குள்ள துர்க்கை இரு வடிவங்களில் காணப்படுகின்றன. எருமை அசுரனை வதைக்கும் மஹிஷாசுர மர்தினி கோலம்,  சோழர் கோவிலில் சாதாரணமாக நிற்பது போன்ற கோலம்.


துர்க்கை பற்றிப் பல கல்வெட்டுகள் உள; அவைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். பழங்கால கல்வெட்டுகளில் துர்க்கையின் சாபம் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. யாரேனும் அரசன் கொடுத்த தானத்தை கபளீகரம் செய்தாலோ ஊறு விளைவித்தாலோ துர்க்கா தேவி அவனைத் தண்டிப்பாள் என்று பொருள்படும் கல்வெட்டுகள் உள.


பிற்காலத்தில் வெற்றி வரம் தரும் தேவி என்று போற்றப்படுகிறாள்.

இதே போல அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். ஒன்று ரிஷி முனிவர்கள் போல ஜடாமுடியுடன் காட்சி தரும் கோலம்; மற்றொன்று தலைப்பாகை கட்டிய கோலம்.


மற்றொரு விநோதம்- பிரம்மாண்டமான பீமன் சிலைகளாகும். பஞ்ச பாண்டவர்களில் மல்யுத்த வீரனான பீமனின் பெரிய சிலைகள் உள. இவைகளில் சிலவற்றைப் பைரவன் என்று கருதுவோரும் உண்டு. பெரிய ஆண் உறுப்புகளைச் சொருகி வைக்கும்படி சிலைகள் வடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன. இதுவும் ஒரு தனி அம்சம்.


பிராஹ்மணர் ஆதிக்கம்

மிகப் பழங் காலத்திலேயே தமிழ் நாட்டுப் பிராஹ்மனணர்கள் யாக யக்ஞங்களுக்கு அழைக்கப்பட்டதும் தெரிகிறது. பழைய  கல்வெட்டுகள் பல்லவ கிரந்தம் போன்ற எழுத்துக்களில் உள்ளன. ஆரம்ப கால மன்னர்களின் பெயர்களும் பல்லவர் போல வர்மன் பெயரிலேயே உள்ளன.


மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டு முதல் தகவல் கிடைக்கிறது. மூல வர்மன் என்ற மன்னன் பஹு சுவர்ணக யாகம் செய்து பிராஹணர்களுக்குத் தங்கம் மற்றும் 20,000 பசு மாடுகள் தானம் செய்த செய்தி ஏழு ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகளில் உள்ளன. அவர்கள் தானம் பெற்ற பின்னர் யூப ஸ்தம்பங்களில் இதைப் பொறித்துள்ளனர்.


யூபம் என்ற ரிக் வேத ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத சொல் புறநானூற்றில் இரண்டு பாடல்களிலும் அதன் தமிழ் ஆக்கமான வேள்வித்தூணம் என்பது வேறு இரண்டு சங்கப் பாடல்களிலும் வருவதை ஏற்கனவே எழுதிவிட்டேன்.

மூல வர்மனின் தந்தை பெயர் அஸ்வ வர்மன். மற்றொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் பெயர் பூர்ண வர்மன்.


மூலவர்மன் யாகம் நடத்திய புனித பூமியின் பெயர் வப்ரகெசவ. இது போர்னியோவின் அடர்ந்த காட்டுக்குள் இருந்தது; 70 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் மனிதர்களின் காலடி படாத கன்னி பூமிக்குள் நுழைகிறோம் என்று ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள் உள்ளே நுழைந்த போது அதிசயமான பிராஹ்மண வேள்வித் தூண்களைக் கண்டு அசந்து போனார்கள்.


பூர்ணவர்மனின் பெயர் பொறித்த கற்கள் நிறைய கிடைக்கின்றன. ஒரு கல் ஆற்றோடையில் கிடந்தது. மற்றொரு பெரிய பாறையில் அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகள் பொறிகப்பட்டுள்ளன. பெரியோர்களின் காலடிச் சுவடுகளைப் பதித்து வணங்குவது இந்து மரபு. அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகளை விஷ்ணு பதம் என்று போற்றும் கல்வெட்டுக ளும் கிடைத்தன. அவனை உலகத்துக்கே ஆதாரம் என்றும் கல்வெட்டுகள் போற்றுகின்றன.

பூர்ண வர்மனின் தலைநகருக்குப் பெயர் தர்ம நகரம்; இது இப்போதைய இந்தோநேஷிய தலை நகரம் ஜாகர்த்தாவுக்கு அருகில் இருந்தது.



சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்திலும் மன்னனை, மநு சொன்னது போல, தெய்வமாகவே பார்த்தனர். இறைவன் என்பது மன்னனுக்கும் கடவுளுக்கும் கோயில் என்பது அரண்மனைக்கும் கடவுளின் இருப்பிடத்துக்கும் பயிலப்பட்டன.


சீன யாத்ரீகன் பாஹியான் பல சுவையான செய்திகளை அள்ளித் தெளிக்கிறான். “நான்  பொது ஆண்டு 414 ஆம் ஆண்டில் கப்பலைத் தள்ளும் காற்று துவங்கும் நாளுக்காக ஜாவாவில் தங்கியிருந்தேன்; இங்கு பிராஹ்மண மதம் கொடிகட்டிப் பறக்கிறது. புத்த மதம் பரிதாப நிலையில் உள்ளது” என்று பௌத்தன் (பாஹியான்) எழுதியுள்ளான். சீனாவுக்கு விரைந்து செல்ல காற்றின் திசைக்காக பாஹியான் காத்திருந்த போது கொடுத்த செய்தி இது.


தமிழர்களுக்கு பருவக் காற்றின் ரஹஸியம் தெரியும்; அந்தக் காற்று வீசத்துவங்கும் நாளில் புறப்பட்டால் இலங்கையிலிருந்து பாட்னா (பீஹார்) வந்து சேர ஏழே நாட்கள் போதும் அசோக மாமன்னனின் தூதுக்குழு இப்படி வந்த செய்தி மஹாவம்ஸத்தில் உளது ( எனது முந்தைய ஆராய்ச்சிக் கட்டுரைகளில் விவரம் காண்க)


இன்னொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் உதயணனுக்கும் மஹேந்திர தத்தாவுக்கும் பிறந்த மகன் ஐர்லங்கா ஆவான். ஆனக வாஞ்சன் என்பவன் காலத்தில் 27 கல்வெட்டுகள் வெளியாகின.


தமிழைப் பொறுத்த வரையில் சுமத்ராவில் ஒன்றும் மலேசியாவில் இரண்டுமாக மூன்று கல்வெட்டுகள் கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்டன. இவை 1000 ஆண்டுப் பழமை உடையவை. ஆனால் ஸம்ஸ்க்ருதக் கல்வெட்டுகள் ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேலாக (தென் கிழக்காஸிய நாடுகளில்) கிடைத்திருக்கின்றன.


தமிழ் சொற்களின் ரஹஸிய அர்த்தம்

வியட்நாம் நாட்டில் (சம்பா) கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்ட மிகப் பழைய கல்வெட்டு பாண்டியன் திருமாறன் என்பவனின் கல்வெட்டு ஆகும் ( நான் 1990-களில் லண்டன் “மேகம்” பத்திரிக்கையில் எழுதிய “வியட்நாமை ஆண்ட பாண்டியன்” என்ற கட்டுரையில் முழு விவரம் உளது; கண்டு மகிழக)


கடலுள் மாய்ந்த இளம்பெரும் வழுதி என்ற புறநானூற்றுப் பாண்டிய மன்னன் இந்திரன் அமுதம் பற்றி எழுதிய பாடல் ( 182) மிகவும் பிரஸித்தம். அவன் ஏன் கடலில் செத்தான்? தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளுக்குக் கப்பலில் செல்லும் போது புயலில் மாண்டான். அதை மறக்காமல் தமிழனின் பெருமையை உலகிற்குப் பறைசாற்ற புறநானூற்றைத் தொகுத்தளித்த மஹாதேவன் என்ற புலவனும் (தமிழில் பெருந்தேவன்) அப்படியே நமக்குக் “கடலுள் மாய்ந்த” என்ற பெயரைக் கொடுத்துச் சென்றார்.


கடல் சுவற வேல் விட்ட பாண்டியன் என்று திருவிளையாடல் புராணத்தில் ஒரு கதை உண்டு. கடலில் இருந்து நிலத்தை மீட்ட ‘நிலம் தரு வில் பாண்டியன்’ , பரஸுராமர் பற்றிய குறிப்புகளும் உண்டு. இதன் தாத்பர்யம்- அவர்கள் எல்லாம் கடலின் சீற்றத்துக்கு அஞ்சாது வில் தாங்கிய படைகளுடன் சென்று, தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளில் இந்து தர்மத்தை நிலை நாட்டினர் என்பதாகும்.


பொது ஆண்டு 385-ல் போர்னியோ காட்டுக்குள் தமிழ் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் யாகம் செய்ய, மூலவர்மன் அழைப்பில் சென்றிருந்தால் அதற்கு முன்னதாகவே தமிழ் மன்னர் ஆட்சி அங்கு இருந்திருக்க வேண்டும். அது மட்டுமல்ல. சாதவாஹனர் என்ற பிராஹ்மண மன்னர்களின் காசுகளில் கப்பல் படமும் உள்ளது இவர்கள் 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் ஆண்டவர்கள்.

மேலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷி என்ற தமிழ் பிராஹ்மண ரிஷியின் சிலைகள் பல நாடுகளில் கிடைப்பதும் திருஞான சம்பந்தரின் கோத்ரமான கௌண்டின்ய கோத்ரப் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் நாக ராணியைக் கல்யாணம் செய்துகொண்ட தென்கிழக்காஸிய நாட்டுக் கதைகளும் இதற்குச் சான்று பகரும்.


ஆக, தென்னக மன்னர்களும் பிராஹ்மணர்களும் முதலில் அங்கே காலடி எடுத்து வைத்தற்கு பல்லவர் எழுத்துக்களும் தமிழ் இலக்கியமும் உறுதுணையாய் நிற்கின்றன.


கட்டுரையில் காணப்படாத விஷயங்களை ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரையிலும் , இணைக்கப்பட்ட படங்களிலும் கண்டு மகிழ்க. 1920 ஆம் ஆண்டு டச்சு மொழி நூலில் இருந்து எடுக்கப்பட்ட அரிய புகைப்படங்களும் அடக்கம்.


அகஸ்தியர் கடலைக் குடித்தார் என்று புராணங்கள் சொல்லும். அகத்ஸ்யர் கடலைத் தாண்டி தென் கிழக்காஸியாவுக்குப் போனார் என்று அர்த்தம்.


இந்தோநேஷியாவில் துர்க்கை சிலையை வட புற சந்நிதிகளிலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷியின் சிலையைத் தென்புறங்களிலும் வைத்துள்ளனர் வடக்கில் இமய மலையில் இருந்த அகஸ்த்யரை தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் உருவாக்க சிவ பெருமான் அனுப்பிய கதை புராணங்கள் முதல் பாரதியார் பாடல் வரை உள்ளது அவர் தென் புறத்துக்கு வந்ததைச் சிறப்பிக்கும் முகத்தான் தென் வானத்தில் ஒளிரும் மிகப் ப்ரகாஸமான நக்ஷத்ரத்துக்கு அகஸ்த்ய நக்ஷத்ரம் என்றும் பெயர் சூட்டினர். அதன் அருகில் த்ரிஸங்கு சொர்கம் எனப்படும் நக்ஷத்ரத் தொகுதியைக் காணலாம்.




Ganesh and Navagraha in Japan!! (Post No.5125)



Date: 18 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-26  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5125


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Those who are interested in the ancient history of India and Japan must buy Lokesh Chandra’s book

‘Cultural Interflow Between Indian and Japan’ (published by International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi, 2014) It is in A 4 size with lots of pictures an diagrams. It contains lot of information which is not known to the outside world. Mr Lokesh Chandra and his father Dr Raghuvira are renowned scholars and authority on Indo- Japanese relations of ancient periods.


I am going to give you some interesting information only in bullet points; for full information one must read the book.

Mahbaharata in the Kabuki Theatre

The well known kabuki drama Naru-kami is derived from the legend of Rsyasrnga known in Japanese as Ikkaku Sennin, that is Ekasrnga. The whole legend has been translated from Chinese into French by Edouard Chavanes. Hsuan tsang mentions a hermitage in Gandhara where Ekasrnga lived near the foot hills of Swat mountains

Homa and Homa Kundas in Japan

Goma (homa in Sanskrit) is lit in metallic vessel on a wooden altar. A ninth century scroll in the Toji monastery has different homa altars for the worship of planets (Nava Graha) and 28 constellations (naksatra- isti). This Goma- ro – dan -yo scroll has coloured illustrations of the planets, constellations and their altars. Goma is the esoteric fire, the calm and the fury of the ritual rhythms in the cosmic counterpoint of invocations with Sanskrit mantras.

Gigantic Rock with Sanskrit hieronym

Along a road stands an oval rock about ten feet high on flat roundish base of another rock, with the Sanskrit monogram RO. Sanskrit letters implying deeper levels. A modern Japanese girl in mini, her hair dyed blonde and perhaps with a styrene injection for a round feminine form, stops by, graciously puts a tangerine on a piece of paper, as an offering to the planets. RO is the symbolic syllable of the Biijaakshara for Nava Graha Puja (Nava Graha= Nine Planets). Such are the frozen levels of culture ever echoing at different strata of existence and consciousness.

Bugaku and Gigaku

Bugaku and Gigaku dances are performed on the occasion of the Great Consecration ceremony at the Todaiji temple. Indian cultural influence is very easily recognised in bugaku’s structure. For instance one of the popular stories of Bugaku is the Bali Dance, which reproduces Ramayana’s famous story of the fight between Vali and Sugriva in the Kishkinda forest.

Gigaku, introduced twelve centuries ago, reproduces Indian legendary stories. Gigaku was also performed at the Great Buddha Consecration ceremony and moved spectators to laughter. Gikaku, masked comical dance, was believed to have been very popularly performed at the Todaji and other temples in Nara in those times.


Biwa= Veena

The largest lake in Japan, Lake Biwa,  is named after its close resemblance to the shape of a biwa. Thus, the Indian Viina, became the origin of Japan’s largest lake.

Buddhism in Japan

In 552 CE, the monarch of Paekche (Kudara/Korea) presented a gilt bronze image of Saakyamuni, Sutras, banners and umbrellas to the Japanese emperor Kimmei. The emperor replied that, “never from former days until now have we had the opportunity of listening to so wonderful a doctrine”.

Korea sent monks, a nun, a Buddhist image maker and an architect to the Japanese emperor in 577.

In 584, a stone image of Maitreya was brought from Paekche.


Indian monk Dharmabodhi (Hoodoo) came via China and settled in Hokkezan.

The Brahmin Archbishop

Floating in a sea of verdant woods in the golden ornament of the imposing roof of the Daibutsu-den “Hall of the Great Buddha” of the Todaiji temple. It enshrines the Viraat Rupa of Rocana, in the form of a gigantic statue, in the national temple eighth century Japan. Emperor Shomu had vowed to raise this statue to a height of 48 feet to symbolise the power of the profane and profound. Twelve years and immense materials were spent in casting the Daibutsu.


on 9th April 752 it was consecrated in a sumptuous ceremony, which was presided over by Bodhisena, the first historic Indian to have visited Japan. He was a Brahmin of Bharadvaja Gotra. Inspired by Manju Sri, he went to China to Wutai shan mountains sacred to Manju sri. At Imperial invitation, he arrived in Japan in 736 CE where he was warmly welcomed. The people knew him as the Baramon(Brahmin) Archbishop. He attained Samadhi on 25 February 760.


In Todaiji temple consecrated by the Brahmin Archbishop, we can view an expressive range of Nara sculptures of Brahma, Indra, Four Lokapaalass, Surya, Candra, Sarasvati and Sri Mahaadevi. Among them is a Krishna like figure playing the flute.


In front of the Great Hall of Buddha stands the eighth century octagonal bronze lantern adorned with musicians.


Largest Buddha statue in the largest wooden building is found here.


Bodhisena had rescued a  monk shipwrecked in the ocean on his way to China. This monk came to Japan along with him where he received a cordial welcome from monk Gyogi and was taken to the capital Nara in 736. His name was Buttestu (Buddhasthira??) He introduced music from his native land of Champa. He introduced Hindu- Buddhist music dances and dramas in Sanskrit.


Indian Cotton

Praajnaa (born 744 CE) was a monk from Kapisa who had studied at Nalanda University. In 781 he went to China and translated several Sutras. His writings in palm leaves were brought to Japan


In 799 an Indian was washed ashore somewhere in the Makawa province. A young man of twenty years, with nothing to cover his body except a straw coat and short drawers, he was stranded in a country where none understood him. Years later when he became conversant with Japanese, he said that he had come from India. He had seeds of cotton with him. He lived at the Kawadera temple at Nara. Two ancient chronicles Nihon -koki, and Ruiju-kokushi mention that he introduced the cultivation of cotton which became the most important clothing material. The Japanese words WATA or HATA for cotton are derived from Sanskrit ‘Pata’.

Ka, ka, ki, ki, ko, ku


India and Japan drink from common springs of culture. I go to children’s school and hear the Goju-on

a i u e o

ka ki ke, ke ko

It reminds me of my childhood when I recited, in like manner, the syllabary

Ka, Kaa, Ki, Kii, Ku, Kuu, Ke Kai …..

The Japanese language is written in the kana syllabary along with Kanji or Chinese characters. The kanji unites India and Japan at the deepest levels.

A Japanese child recites the IROHA poem, which has all the fifty sounds of the alphabet and every syllable occurs only once It is called Citrakaavya in  Sanskrit.

When many decades have passed, the child now matured, realises that he had sung impermanence in the IROHA, as he saw the cherry blossoms fade and fly away. It is a free translation of the Sanskrit poem.


One of the greatest poems in Japanese language, it was inspired by the Sanskrit work, Mahapari nirvana Sutra. To this day every Japanese child begins his education with this IROHA poem. Japan has preserved this stanza in original Sanskrit. It has been lost in India.

Ganesh Temples in Edo

The German doctor Phillip Franz von Siebold lived in Edo, Japan during he years 1823-28. He wrote Pantheon von Nippon (1832). He notes that Ganapati was popular among the masses in the Edo period, and there were several temples. The area is known as  Shoten Choo, Ganapati Township, to this day. I visited the Ganapati Temple Shotengu in the frequented area of Asakusa.  In 1970 I saw a huge gathering of young boys and girls who had come to pray for success in their courtship as he is Nandikesvara (Kangiten). Senior people too thronged for all kinds success.

There were 131 shrines to Sarasvati. The German text deserved to be translated into English to get vivid picture of vibrant Buddhism in Edo. In 1836 a shrine to Varuna was consecrated to prevent typhoons. The Japanese worshipped Indra for long life, Brahma to succeed in Imperial service, Varuna for rain, Garuda to cure poisoning and Mahaa  kaala (Good Time) for good business and for victory in war. Japan has the oldest functioning temple of Ganapati in the world.



My comments

The book by Lokesh Chandra has about 400 pages. It is an encyclopaedia on Indo-Japanese Cultural Links. If I give all the information in the book, it will be a gross violation of copyright rules. Everyone must buy the book and read it.


After reading the book, I feel Japan is a fertile field for spreading Hinduism. There we see a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.





Enku made 100,000 Chip Buddhas (see my article posted yesterday)




Brahmin Power in South East Asian Countries- (Post No 5095)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 10 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  9-46 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5095


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


Brahmin Power in Cambodia ,Thailand Burma and Vietnam

(Campa)- Post No 5095


n Cambodia, Brahmins maintained powerful hierarchy for many centuries. They were well organised. They came there around fifth century and increased in number due to a constant flow of immigrants from India. During the reign of Yasovarman 889 CE, Saivism was predominant. We learn from the following inscription that they enjoyed a position similar to that which was theirs in India.


The king,well versed in kingly duties, performed Koti Homa and Yajnas, for which he gave the priest s magnificent presents of jewels, gold etc.


The cult of the Royal God, though founded by Jayavarman II, 802 CE, did not reach the heights of its development until two centuries after wards, and was especially associated with Vaishnavism and the temple of Angkor Wat. This cult led Brahmins enjoying even more exalted position . The priest hood became hereditary in the family of Sivakaivalya, who enjoyed immense power. This sacerdotal dynasty almost threw the royal dynasty into the shade. Brahmins were depicted on the reliefs of Angkor Wat and Coedes has identified Drona and Visvamitra amongst them. In one of the relief s which illustrates a royal procession, it is interesting that the Brahmins were the only onlookers who do not prostrate before the king, as was also the case in India. In the reliefs aristocracy wear the chignon and the lower castes short hair.

One remarkable sign of the power of the Brahmins was that they had even marriage alliances with the princesses. Bakus, the descendants of ancient Brahmins, chose one from them to succeed if the royal family failed.


As early as the reign of Jayavarman V, Buddhism and Hinduism got mixed and the Brahmin purohitas were expected to be well versed in Buddhist prayers and rites. But the Brahmin s of Cambodia never sank so low as did those of Campa (modern Vietnam). In the Po Nagar inscription of Campa, we read that the feet of the king were worshiped,even by Brahmins and priests.



In Thailand


Though the religion of Thailand was Buddhism the royalty recruited Brahmin s from Cambodia. For centuries Brahmin s enjoyed quite an important position.

The famous inscription dated about 1361 CE of King Dharma Raja mentioned the kings knowledge of the Vedas and of astronomy. The inscription on the Siva statue found at Kamben bejra recorded the desire of King Dharmasokaraja,(1510 CE), to exalt both Hinduism and Buddhism.


Brahmins had access to sacred books and law books and so they served the royal s in various capacities. The epigraph ic records demonstrate the powerful influence of purohitas in Burma and Cambodia, where they often served under successive rulers and provided continuity to the government in troubled times. In ninth century Angkor, for instance, Indravarman I had the service of Sivasoma, who studied VedantA under Shankara.


Indian Brahmins are occasionally mentioned in the south East Asian inscription s and one wondered how Brahmins travelled abroad when Manu and other lawmakers ban foreign travel for Brahmins. These prohibitions may have had little practical effect, and would n of have deterred ambitious men lured by the hope of honour and fortune in a distant land. In fact they were invited by some rulers.


Not only in the Hindu courts in Cambodia but also in the courts of Pagan in Burma and Sukothai in Thailand, the Brahmins conducted great ceremonies,such as the Royal Consecration and-functioned as ministers and counsellors . The grand ceremony in Pagan required the services of numerous Brahmins.


In Cambodia Jayavarman VIII built a temple for the scholar priest Jayamangalaartha and likewise for the Brahmin Vidyesavid. Who became Royal sacrificial Priest. The Chinese visitor Chou Ta kuan refers to the presence of Brahmins wearing sacred thread.


We have evidence of use of Sanskrit even in Sri Lanka. Thirteenth century work Kundamala was composed in Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, according to some scholars.


Source: Source books- From Turfan to Ajanta, Edited by Eli Franco and Monika Zin, Lumbini International Research Institute, Nepal;2010




Written by London Swaminathan 



Date: 6 JUNE 2018



Time uploaded in London – 16-31


Post No. 5081


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.







Let us continue our study of Manu Smrti; We have already finished first two chapters out of the 12 chapters. Now look at the salient features of first 44 slokas/couplets in the Third chapter.


My Comments

The interesting points are….

1.Brahmins studied the Vedas for 36 years or 18 or 9 years; If it is three Vedas it took 36 years. Now we know the surnames such as Trivedi, Chaturvedi, Dwivedi mean study of three Vedas, or four Vedas or two Vedas. Those who are born in those families still keep those surnames. In Tamil Nakkirar, author of Tiru Murugatrup Padai said to have mastered the Vedas in 48 years. Indra advised one sage that he cant even finish the Vedas in three lifetime.’ what we learnt is of the size of a stone and what we have not learnt is the size of earth’ is a saying that came of the story. Each one studied only one ‘shaka’ i.e. branch from each Veda. Vedas has over thousand shakas/branches in the ancient days.


2.Coming to marriages, Manu wants one to choose a girl with good name, good body marks (samudrika Lakshnam). It is strange Manu bans girls with Nakshatra/Stars and Rivers’ names. Now a days it is common to see Ganga, Narmada, Sindhu, Kavei Swati, Krithika, Asvini, Bharani etc.

3.Gait of Hamsa or Elephant for a girl is typical Indian. It is found through out Tamil and Sanskrit literature. All these show our culture is indigenous not imported from outside the country.


4.Eight Types of marriages is also found in oldest Tamil book Tolkaappiam and other books. We see plenty of examples in Mahabharata, Ramayana and other scriptures for these types of marraiges.

5.Love marriage is known as Gandharva marriage.

  1. Manu discusses second marriage and so it was in practice in the ancient times. The inter-caste marriages also were in vogue from the days of epics.


7.Another interesting point is neither Swayamvaram marriage of Kshatriays nor eight different types of marriages were practised in any other culture ouside India. This is another proof that the Hindu culture originated and developed in this country. No one came from outside.


8.The study of Vedas or study of any other subject under Gurukula for 48 years also unique to Hindus. This is also another proof that the sons of the soil developed the culture here. No one came from outside. The use of water for marriages, boons, curses, rituals also show that this is a tropical culture.

9.Talking about 100 years life (decimal number) is also typical Vedic and not found in any other culture. One more proof to show that this culture evolved here in Bharat.Decimal system is found in every chapter of the Vedas.


  1. There is a reference to other Smrtis. If it is not an interpolation, we come to know Manu Smrti is not the only smrti that was followed in his times. If it is true one cannot blame the society only on the basis of Manu Smrti. When people were given choices, no one can find fault with Manu for certain slokas or rules.

11.Some of the rites (see 44) were not followed anywhere in India as far as we know. So Manu Smrti must be very ancient and later enlarged with more couplets. Particularly the slokas about the fourth caste- Shudra might have been later interpolations.

  1. The Hindu society was very health conscious. Manu warns about some diseases and advised people not to marry form those families.




3-1. The vow of studying the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time (18 YEARS), or for a quarter (9 YEARS), or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them.

  1. A student who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the rules of studentship, shall enter the order of householders.
  2. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with the present of a cow and the honey-mixture/MADHUPARKA.


3-4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana the rite on returning home, a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious bodily marks.

  1. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, is recommended to twice-born men for wedlock and conjugal union.
  2. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,



3-7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.

  1. Let him not marry a maiden with reddish hair, nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair on the bod) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red eyes,



3-9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.


3-10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.

  1. But a prudent man should not marry a maiden who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter and in the latter lest he should commit sin.



3-12. For the first marriage of twice-born men wives of equal caste are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed to marry again the following females, chosen according to the direct order of the castes, are most approved.

  1. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone can be)the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste the wives of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste the wives of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste the wives of a Brahmana.
  2. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any ancient story as the first wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the greatest distress.
  3. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.



3-16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).

  1. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will ( after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.
  2. The manes and the gods will not eat the offerings of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a LOW CASTE wife’s assistance, and such a ma) will not go to heaven.
  3. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.



3-20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

  1. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).
  2. Which is lawful for each caste/ varna and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.
  3. One may know that the first six according to the order followed above are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.
  4. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa rite in the case of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.
  5. But in these Institutes of the sacred law three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.
  6. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.
  7. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.


3-28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

  1. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.
  2. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, ‘May both of you perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.
  3. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.


3-32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

  1. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.
  2. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.



3-35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by a libation of water; but in the case of other castes it may be performed by the expression of mutual consent.

  1. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.

TEN GENERATIONS (decimal system)

3-37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.

  1. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).
  2. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).

100 YEARS LIFE! (Decimal System)

3-40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.

  1. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.
  2. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).
  3. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).


3-44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the bridegroom’s garment.


to be continued…………



COMPILED by London Swaminathan 


Date: 25 May 2018


Time uploaded in London –  15-29


Post No. 5046


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




Manu was a great genius; he thought of possible loopholes which may be used for sex abuse. He says respect your teacher’s son but don’t touch him. You can do massaging or shampooing to your aged Guru and but not to his son even if he sits in the teacher’s seat.

The amazing thing about Manu Smrti is that he knww the human psychology thoroughly and discusses it in a very refined way; not using vulgar words.

You can respect your mother and sister, but never ever sit alone with the women. He knows that one in a million can go wrong. Apart from that, sister may be cousins; mothers may be step mothers or sisters of mothers.

Durga Sapta Sati says ‘Jnaninaam api chetami Devi Bhagavati hi sa balad aksrushya mohaya’……………. (Even saints will be falter if Goddess decides to attract one into illusionary pleasures)


ॐ ज्ञानिनामपि चेतांसि देवी भगवती हि सा।
बलादाकृष्य मोहाय महामाया प्रयच्छति॥१॥

He talks about Guru Dakshina (Fees to Guru during convocation) and advised to do it according to one’s ability. Manu was a practical man. With the original gems of Manu Smrti lot of gem like stones are also mixed up. So one must be careful to get rid of the chaff from the grains.

Since Manu talks about Sarasvati River and not saying anting about some later customs like Sati, he must have live during the Vedic times. Later many things were added for good or bad.


In the continuation of second chapter please see the highlights:-

Showing respect to Low caste women (2-210)

Learning from Low cate people (2-241)

Treating Teacher’s son (2-209)

Spending time with women (2-215)

Students’ Hair Style (2-219)

What is good?  (2-224)

Respect three people (2-225)



Manu Smrti Second Chapter (about Vedic School Students)



2-206. This is likewise ordained as his constant behaviour towards other instructors in science, towards his relatives to whom honour is due, towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.

2-207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher’s relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.

  1. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father’s stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of the science of sacrifices or of other branches/Angas, deserves the same honour as the teacher.



2-209. A student must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher’s son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.

  1. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation.
  2. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.
  3. A pupil who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet.
  4. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.
  5. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.



2-215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.

  1. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, ‘I, N. N., (worship thee, O lady).’
  2. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher’s wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.
  3. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher.



2–219. A student may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he lies asleep in the village.

  1. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it that he offended intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the next day, muttering (the Savitri).
  2. For he who lies sleeping, while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform that penance, is tainted by great guilt.
  3. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.



2-223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything leading to happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as any other permitted act in which his heart finds pleasure.

  1. Some declare that the chief good consists in the acquisition of spiritual merit and wealth, others place it in the gratification of desire and(the acquisition of wealth, others in the acquisition of spiritual merit alone, and others say that the acquisition of wealth alone is the chief good here below; but the correct decision is that it consists of the aggregate of those three.



2-225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).

  1. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.
  2. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.
  3. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield).
  4. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.
  5. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.



  1. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.

(These three fires are 3 different fire places in a Brahmin’s House; 2000 year old Tamil Sangam literature praises Brahmins as the Worshipers of Three Fires)

  1. He who neglects not those three, even after he has become a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.
  2. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.
  3. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.
  4. As long as those three live, so long let him not independently perform any other meritorious acts; let him always serve them, rejoicing to do what is agreeable and beneficial to them.
  5. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.
  6. By honouring these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other act is a subordinate duty.
  7. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family.
  8. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe a lesson in good conduct, and even from an impure substance gold.
  9. Excellent wives, learning, the knowledge of the law, the rules of purity, good advice, and various arts may be acquired from anybody.


2-241. It is prescribed that in times of distress a student may learn the Veda from one who is not a Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve such a teacher, as long as the instruction lasts.

  1. He who desires incomparable bliss in heaven shall not dwell during his whole life in the house of a non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas.
  2. But if a student)desires to pass his whole life in the teacher’s house, he must diligently serve him, until he is freed from this body.
  3. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman.

GURU DAKSHINA (Student’s Fees)

2-245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before the Samavartana/ convocation; but when, with the permission of his teacher, he is about to take the final bath, let him procure a present for the venerable man according to his ability,

  1. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, even vegetables, and thus give pleasure to his teacher.
  2. A perpetual student must, if his teacher dies, serve his son provided he be endowed with good qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher.
  3. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing by day and sitting during the night, and thus finish his life.
  4. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world.






Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 12 May 2018


Time uploaded in London – 13-0 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5004


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.






Satya Vrat Shastri of Delhi University gives very interesting details of Tamil Brahmins settled in Thailand, probably 1000 years ago. They still recite the famous Tiruppavai of Andal and Tiruvempavai of Manikka vasagar, the Tamil saints who lived 1500 years ago. Though the Brahmins  speak only Thai language now, they still do the Tamil poems. Buddhism is the main religion of Thailand now; but Hinduism and Sanskrit are at all levels of the society.


Now I give below some facts about the Brahmins in Thailand from Shastri’s book ‘Sanskrit and Indian culture in Thailand’:-

Thailand Rajaguru with Kanchi Shankaracharya


Not everyone born in a Brahmin family is called a Brahmin. Those who are initiated i.e. those who have Diksha are called  Brahmins.

Raja guru gives the initiation and he is selected from among the Brahmins. Next to him is Huana Phram. They get a very meagre grant from the king.


Annual Worship

It is of two kinds. One is Triyampavaaya and another is Tripavaaya (The first is Thiruvempavai on Lord Shiva and the second Thiruppaavai is on Lord Vishnu; both are popular in Tamil Nadu)


Tiruvempavai is celebrated in three stages: Invoking the god, placing the idol in the swing and the third is bathing the idol. Prasad offered to the deities is distributed to the public. An annual festival is held in December. At the time those who want initiation takes a vow. They stay inside the temple, eat vegetarian food and lie on the floor.

During Tiruvempava festival, they worship Ganesh, Uma and Shiva for ten days.


Tamil Brahmins wear only white clothes head to foot. Some wear dhotis.

During the Swing ceremony Lord Siva is placed in between two pillars with a cup of water. There is a story behind it. Brahma who created the world asked Isvara (Shiva) to protect it. Siva thought that the earth was not strong enough to support the living beings. To test its strength, he just set one of His feet on it. He then asked the Nagas to shake the mountain at the ends of the oceans. The Nagas did shake it but nothing untoward happened. Siva was pleased. Here the two pillars stand for the two mountains and the cup of water represents the ocean.


Tiruppavai in praise of Lord Vishnu is also celebrated in the similar way. People wear new clothes and decorate their houses during the festival period. In Tamil Nadu it is celebrated for 30 days during the Tamil month Markazi corresponding to December/ January.



The Ploughing rite is an ancient Hindu rite practised from the  Vedic days. Tamil literature also has references to this rite. Sita Devi was discovered and received by Emperor Janaka during such a rite. Brahmins play a main role in it.

Brahmins fix a date after consulting the almanac (Panchang). They do the Puja after the Buddhists start it in the Temple of Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Keao). The king comes at the appointed time and he sends his deputy to act on his behalf. The priest worships Gauri, Ganga and Dharani (earth). Brahmins sprinkle water with the grains. Auspicious things are carried by the women. Bulls are also brought with the plough. The king’s nominee does the symbolic ploughing after worshipping the bulls. When all the ploughing finished, the bulls are sent to its place. In front of them seven things are placed: Paddy, Pulses, Corn, Sesame seeds, Water, Wine and Grass. When they show them to the bulls, naturally they run towards them ; the priests watch what they eat first.

If the bulls eat the corn or paddy or the pulses first, it is believed that the crops would be good the year round. If they eat grass or sesame seeds first, it is said that the crops (harvest) world be moderate. If, however, the bulls take to water first, the belief is that there would be floods and the crops would be damaged. If by chance, the bulls take to wine the belief is that drought conditions would prevail leading o unrest everywhere. After the announcement of the future position of the crops, the ceremony comes to an end.

Temple of Emerald Buddha

There are many more rites the Brahmins perform.



Good and Bad Brahmins: Chanakya’s Definition! (Post No.4775)

Date: 22 FEBRUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London- 15-28


Written by London swaminathan


Post No. 4775


PICTURES ARE TAKEN from various sources. They may not be directly related to the article. They are only representational.







Various Types of Brahmins- Chanakya Niti


Chanakya classifies Brahmins according to the work they do and the virtues they possess. Some are called Rishis and others are called Mlechchas (Foreigners, barbarians)


A Brahmin who living life in a forest all times performs Sraadhdha with fruits and roots growing in untilled land every day is called a Rishi


akrusshta pala muulena vanavaasarataha sadaa

kurute aharahaha sradhdham rushi  vipraha sa ucyate




One Meal a Day!


A Brahmin who is satisfied with only one meal and keeps himself engaged continuously in six activities and has coition with his wife in the period favourable for conception is called Dwija.


eka ahaarena santushtaha shatkarma nirataha sadaa

rtukaalaabigaamii ca sa vipro dwija ucyate



(Six activities of Brahmins: Teaching, Studying, Performing sacrifice, Helping others to perform sacrifice, Giving  charity and receiving charity)


Vaisya Brahmana


A Brahmin who keeps himself busy in worldly affairs, looks after animals and engages himself in trade and agriculture is called a Vaisya.

laukike karmani rataha pasuunaam paripaalakaha

vaaniijya krsi kartaa yaha saha vipro vaisya ucyate



A Brahmin who sells lac and the like, oil, indigo, saffron, honey, ghee, liquor and meat is called a Sudra.


laakshaaditaila niilaanaam kusumba madhu sarpishaam

vikrato madhya maamsaanaam sa vipraha suudra ucyate



Brahmin Cat

A Brahmin who puts spokes in the form of others, is hypocritical, selfish, deceitful, envious, gentle and cruel is said to be Maarjaara, a he cat


parakarya vihantaa ca daampikaha svaartha saadhakaha

chalii dveshii mruduhu kruuro vipro maarjaara uchyate




Mlechcha/ Foreigner Brahmin!

A Brahmin who has no compunction in destroying an oblong reservoir of water, well and tank, garden and temple is called a Mleccha.


vaapii kuupa tadaagaanaam aaraamsu ravesmanaam

uchcheedane niraasankaha sa vipro mlechcha uchyate



(Real meaning of Mlecha is reflected in it; Foreigners distort the meaning  and attribute it to Dravidians, aborigines etc. But Mlechas are foreigners who destroyed Hinduism and India; in short Anti Hindus are called Mlechas; it is in Sangam Tamil literature as well.)



Chandala/ outcaste Brahmin

A Brahmin who steals the money given as an offering to gods as also to teachers, outrages the modesty of the wives of others, and can get along with all kinds of people is called Caandaala


devadravyam  gurudravyam paradaaraabhimashanam

nirvaahaha sarvabuteshu viprascaandaala uchyate


Foreigners always distort the meaning of Chandala and the real meaning is Anti Social elements, immoral elements and thieves.




Feed the Brahmins

That is the food which is the left over of the Brahmins, friendship is that which is cultivated for the sake of others, wisdom is that which does not commit sin (= Which does not allow one to commit sin), Dharma is that which is followed with no show.


tad bhojanam yad dwija bukta sesham

tat sauhrudam yat kriyate parasmin

saa praakjnataa yaa na karoti papam

dambam vinaa yaha kriyate sa dharmaha


Since Chanakya and Manu insist that Brahmins should not save or accumulate money and ask them to beg for ever, Chanakya asks everyone to feed them; unless Brahmins are in begging condition, they would be lazy and woudn’t  go to any distant place for performing Yagas and Yajnas. If they are in begging condition, they would happily travel from village to village for getting Dakshina (fees). They are not allowed to save money like we save today.


Looking at the strict conditions Chanakya places, not many people can claim Brahminship today!


Source Book for verses: Canakyaniti, Translated by Satya Vrat Shastri


xxx SUBHAM xxxx