Written by London Swaminathan

Post No.7641

Date uploaded in London – 2 March 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

We have covered ten out of 12 chapters of Manava Dharma Shastra so far. Today let us investigate chapter 11. Manu, as usual, gives very interesting rules regarding Brahmins in this chapter.

I am covering up to 100 slokas in chapter 11 of Manu Smriti (Popular Hindu Law Book).


The rule about River Sarasvati shows original Manu Smriti is Pre Indus Valley Civilization work . It was updated up to Sunga period (2nd century BCE) who were fanatically pro Brahmin.

The rule against cutting trees shows that ancient Hindus were concerned with environmental issues.

The rules against killing animals show that the ancient Hindus were friends of animals

The strict punishments for brahmins for drinking and other offences show brahmins must be purer than aall others.

First let me give interesting/important bits in bullet points-

1.sloka 11-1,2- nine types of brahmins must be supported

2.sloka 11-33- Brahmin’s weapon is Atharva Veda.

3.sloka 11-36- who can officiate as priest

4.sloka 11-49- gold theft

5.sloka 11-55- killing a priest

6.sloka 11-60 killing a cow

7.sloka 11-65- cutting trees

8.sloka 11-69- killing donkey, camel etc.

9.sloka 11-73- skull flag/ pirate’s flag

10.sloka 11-78- Sarasvati river

11.sloka 91- 99 severe punishments for Drinking

12.Sloka 11-15- violence against misers

Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda, supports violence against misers – see Kural 1077, 1078


14. slokas 11-49-54 – what diseases one gets for Gold theft, Drinking, Sex offence (Doctors wont agree!!)

15.sloka 55- Worst Five Sins




11-1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring, him who wishes to perform a sacrifice, a traveller, him who has given away all his property, him who begs for the sake of his teacher, his father, or his mother, a student of the Veda, and a sick man,

2. These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, begging in order to fulfil the sacred law; to such poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning.

3. To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and presents (of money) must be given; it is declared that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure.

4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacrifices on Brahmanas learned in the Vedas.

5. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses, he obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the money.

6. One should give, according to one’s ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone; (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss.


11-7. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years or more than that, is worthy to drink the Soma-juice.

8. But a twice-born man, who, though possessing less than that amount of property, nevertheless drinks the Soma-juice, does not derive any benefit from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the Soma-juice.

9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counterfeit virtue will first make him taste the sweets (of fame, but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in hell).

11-10. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment of those whom he is bound to maintain, that produces evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is dead.

11. If a sacrifice, (offered) by (any twice-born) sacrificer, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a righteous king rules,

12. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice, may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any Vaisya, who possesses a large number of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifices nor drinks the Soma-juice;

13. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices.

14. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows, kindles not the sacred fire, or one possessing a thousand cows, drinks not the Soma-juice, a (sacrificer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those two, even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas);


11-15. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives, and who refuses to give it; thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase.

16. Likewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a provision for the morrow,

17. Either from the threshing-floor, or from a field, or out of the house, or wherever he finds it; but if (the owner) asks him, he must confess to him that (deed and its cause).

18. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana; but he who is starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sacred duties.


11-19. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into a boat, and carries both (over the sea of misfortune).

20. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifices, the wise call the property of the gods; but the wealth of those who perform no sacrifices is called the property of the Asuras.

21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, appropriates another’s possessions), a righteous king shall not inflict punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya’s want of care.

22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man, and having fully considered his learning and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own property, a maintenance whereon he may live according to the law;

23. And after allotting to him a maintenance, the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains from such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his spiritual merit.

24. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice; for a sacrificer, having begged (it from such a man), after death is born (again) as a Candala.


11-25. A Brahmana who, having begged any property for a sacrifice, does not use the whole (for that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow.

26. That sinful man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of the gods, or the property of Brahmanas, feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures.

27. In case the prescribed animal and Soma-sacrifices cannot be performed, let him always offer at the change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission).

28. But a twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his duties according to the law for times of distress, obtains no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion (of the sages).

29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas, and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste), who were afraid of perishing in times of distress, a substitute was made for the (principal) rule.

30. That evil-minded man, who, being able (to fulfil) the original law, lives according to the secondary rule, reaps no reward for that after death.

31. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king; by his own power alone be can punish those men who injure him.

32. His own power is greater than the power of the king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by his own power alone.


11-33. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras; speech, indeed, is the weapon of the Brahmana, with that he may slay his enemies.

34. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth, the chief of the twice-born by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations.

35. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher, (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings); to him let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh words.


36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman, nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in great suffering, nor one uninitiated, shall offer an Agnihotra.

37. For such (persons) offering a burnt-oblation sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) belongs; hence the person who sacrifices (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), and know the whole Veda.

38. A Brahmana who, though wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya, a horse sacred to Prajapati, becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires.

39. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts, but let him on no account offer sacrifices at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed).

40. The organs (of sense and action), honour, (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, offspring, and cattle are destroyed by a sacrifice at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given; hence a man of small means should not offer a (Srauta) sacrifice.


11-41. A Brahmana who, being an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred fires, shall perform a lunar penance during one month; for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son.

42. Those who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) offer an Agnihotra, are priests officiating for Sudras, (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda.

43. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world).

44. A man who omits a prescribed act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual enjoyments, must perform a penance.

45. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed; some declare, on the evidence of the revealed texts, (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence).


11-46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men) in their folly commit intentionally, by various (special) penances.

47. A twice-born man, having become liable to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) committed in a former life, must not, before the penance has been performed, have intercourse with virtuous men.

48. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life, and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence).


11-49. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, black teeth; the slayer of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru’s bed, a diseased skin;

50. An informer, a foul-smelling nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain, deficiency in limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redundant limbs;

51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer of clothes, white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness.

52. The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extinguishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs).

53. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are born idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed men, who are (all) despised by the virtuous.

11–54. Penances, therefore, must always be performed for the sake of purification, because those whose sins have not been expiated, are born (again) with disgraceful marks.


11-55. Killing a Brahmana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), adultery with a Guru’s wife, and associating with such (offenders), they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka).

56. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king (regarding a crime), and falsely accusing one’s teacher, (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana.

57. Forgetting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence, slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or (swallowing substances) unfit for food, are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura.

58. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse, and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).

59. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.


11-60. Slaying kine, sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice, adultery, selling oneself, casting off one’s teacher, mother, father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda, and neglecting the (sacred domestic) fire,

61. Allowing one’s younger brother to marry first, marrying before one’s elder brother, giving a daughter to, or sacrificing for, (either brother),

62. Defiling a damsel, usury, breaking a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one’s wife, or child,

63. Living as a Vratya, casting off a relative, teaching (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid teacher, and selling goods which one ought not to sell,

64. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, executing great mechanical works, injuring (living) plants, subsisting on (the earnings of) one’s wife, sorcery (by means of sacrifices), and working (magic by means of) roots, (and so forth),


65. Cutting down green trees for firewood, doing acts for one’s own advantage only, eating prohibited food,

66. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, studying bad books, and practising (the arts of) dancing and singing,

67. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism, (are all) minor offences, causing loss of caste (Upapataka).

68. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow), smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or at spirituous liquor, cheating, and an unnatural offence with a man, are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gatibhramsa)


11-69. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a fish, a snake, or a buffalo, must be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed caste (Samkarikarana).

70. Accepting presents from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speaking a falsehood, make (the offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra).

71. Killing insects, small or large, or birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors, stealing fruit, firewood, or flowers, (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha).

72. Learn (now) completely those penances, by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be expiated.


73. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve years, subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag.

74. Or let him, of his own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose); or he may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire;

75. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Visvagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut;


11-76. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk one hundred yoganas (Yojana= ten miles) , reciting one of the Vedas, eating little, and controlling his organs;

77. Or he may present to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property, as much wealth as suffices for the maintenance (of the recipient), or a house together with the furniture;

78. Or, subsisting on sacrificial food, he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) Sarasvati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda.

79. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas.

80. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana.

81. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana’s (property), or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt).

82. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana.

83. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice, is (also) freed (from guilt).


11-84. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure.

85. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.

86. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification.

87. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control.

88. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice, or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,

89. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:

90. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained.


11-91. A twice-born man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt;

92. Or he may drink cow’s urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies;

93. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag.

94. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura.

95. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice-born.

96. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such (substances).

97. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed.

98. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.

11-99. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).




Post No.7485

Date uploaded in London – 23 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


Four interesting anecdotes about Agigarta/Sunashepa, Vamadeva gautama, Bhardwwaja, and Viswamitra are referred to in this chapter.(The stories are in Aitareya Brahmna, Rig Veda, Sankhyayan Srauta Sutra, Mahabharata)

In Tamil there is a proverb that “Ten will fly away when hunger comes”. The meaning is that one loses ten virtues when one suffers from hunger. Those ten virtues or qualities are – honour, family’s good name, learning/education,generosity, intelligence, giving gifts, penance, taking new ventures, sexual feelings and perseverance.,

First Manu define the six jobs assigned to Brahmins. And then the work allocated to kings, business community and the farming community

In the time of famine, drought or distress etc the rules are relaxed. When a man is left to starve to death he can even kill animals and eat meat.

Since farming, ploughing may kill animals brahmins must avoid this at any cost is the dictum of Manu

First, let me give the interesting things in bullet points:–








श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुण: परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् |
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेय: परधर्मो भयावह: || 35||

śhreyān swa-dharmo vigua para-dharmāt sv-anuhhitāt
swa-dharme nidhana
śhreya para-dharmo bhayāvaha

Better is one’s own duty though imperfectly carried out than the the duty of another carried out perfectly. Better is death in the fulfilment of one’s own duty for to follow another’s duty is perilous.










10-120  TAX RATES



10-129  THEY SHOULD NOT AMASS WEALTH (Earlier Manu stipulates that Brahmins should never amass wealth as well),


Full translation

10-74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order.

75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana.

76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men.

77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.

78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes).

79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the performance of sacrifices.

80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya.


81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank.

82. If it be asked, ‘How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.

83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya’s mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.


84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.

85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions.

86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings),

87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs

88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass;

89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts.

90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long.

91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.

92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.

93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya.

94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities.

95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters.

96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.


97. It is better (to discharge) one’s own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own.

98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra’s mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so).

99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts.

100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice-born are (best) served.

101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following manner.

102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied.

103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water.

104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud.,


105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing.

106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life.

107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest.

108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Candala.

109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.

110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class.

111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.

112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable.

113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left.

114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of the following ones).,


115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men.

116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).


117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest.

118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability.

119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected;


120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him).

121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya.

122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends.

123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.,


124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support.

125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.

126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law  there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law.


127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts.

128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, without being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the next.

129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas.

130. The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared, and if they perform them well, they will reach the most blessed state.

131. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances.




WRITTEN By London Swaminathan

Date: 15 DECEMBER 2019

Time in London – 15-29

Post No. 7346

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Didda was the most successful Queen in Indian history . She ruled Kashmir for 23 years quelling many rebellions and weeding out corrupt ministers. Here is the only instance in the ancient history of India where we have some details of the activities of a female ruler. She was very influential in the history of Kashmir between 958 and 1003 CE. She was a ruler from 981 till her death in 1003 CE.

Diddaa was the daughter of Simharaja of Lohara and the granddaughter of Shahi king Bhimapala of Udabhaandpura. She was married to the Kashmiri king Kshemaraja (950-958 CE). According to Rajatarangini, Kashmiri chronicle written by Kalhana, Diddaa had so great an influence over her husband and he was known as Diddaa- kshema, a humiliating appellation. Kalhana’s statement is supported by the copper coins of Kashmir , where we see Di-Kshema, apparently an abbreviation of the above appellation .

After the death of Kshemagupta in 958 CE, his son Abhimanyu was raised to the throne under the guardianship of the widowed Queen Mother. During Abhimanyu’s rule Diddaa caused the downfall of powerful Chief minister Phalguna because he gave his daughter to Kshemagupta. The Queen next found the powerful nobles Mahiman and Patala conspiring for the throne of Kashmir.

In spite of great influence they wielded Diddaa turned them out of the palace. They rose in revolt, but she quickly bought off their Brahmana supporters. One of the bribed Brahmanas, named Yasodhara was now made the Commander in Chief of the Kashmirian Army. But when Yasodhara defeated the Sahi King Thakkana, Diddaa grew suspicious and accused him of taking money to keep the king on the throne. When Diddaa tried to banish him, Yasodhara’s supporters rose in revolt and besieged Diddaa in her palace. But she crushed the rebellion with the help of minister Naravahana. The valiant force known as Ekangas also helped her.

Kalhana is eloquent in describing the achievements of Diddaa when he says, “Those treacherous ministers who during sixty years had robbed sixteen kings from 901 CE, from Gopala to Abimanyu, of their dignity, lives and riches were quickly exterminated by the energy of Queen Diddaa”.

The grateful Queen now made Naravahana her Chief councillor with the title Rajaanaka, but soon she was led to believe that he was trying to usurp power. The minister fell from her grace and ultimately committed suicide.

Soon afterwards Diddaa had to tackle another rebellion by the landed aristocracy. They were called Damaras. Unable to cope with the situation now she called Phalguna to help her. About this time her son Abhimanyu died in 972 CE . It was a shock to Diddaa. Suddenly she turned to religion and engaged herself for a year in building temples and monasteries for acquiring Punya, a religious merit.

Loose character was a fatal weakness in her and this coupled with a great desire for power, soon led to a violent reaction and she had her little grandsons Nandigupta, Tribhuvana and Bhimagupta, killed one after another by employing witchcraft, and herself ascended the throne of Kashmir in 981 CE .

Then she ruled for 23 years. When she made a low born favourite named Tunga her Chief minister; other ministers revolted against her under the guidance of Prince Vigraharaja. He was her brother’s son. He induced influential Brahmanas to enter upon a solemn fast; but the queen bought them off by a judicious distribution of gold amongst them. Vigraharaja was then utterly defeated by the Kashmirian forces under Tunga, who next subdued Prithwipaala, the rebellious leader of Rajapuri and forced him to pay tribute. Tunga was made Commander in Chief and he defeated the Damaras who rose in revolt again about the close of Didda’s reign.

Diddaa died in 1003 CE; but before her death she selected her brother’s son Sangraama Raaja of Lohara as her heir to the throne of Kashmir. She secured a change of dynasty without any political upheaval. Scholars have rightly concluded that, in spite of the defects in her character, she was endowed with energy and statesmanship of a very high order.

She could beat all our modern politicians of India.

Source book – Great Women of Indi, Advaita Ashrama, 1953.


Naga Rani Soma – Kaundinya Marriage Story in Vietnam (Post No.7103)

Research Article written London Swaminathan

Date: 16 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 20-48
Post No. 7103

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

There are two interesting stories about the fonder of the Hindu Rule in Vietnam. Two thousand years ago the country was called Annam and Champa. When the French ruled the region, it was called Indo-China and Cochin- China. The Hindu rule was started by a Brahmin named Kaundinya. The inscriptions talk about two Kaundinyas. But there is nothing unusual in it because Kaundinya is a Gotra name. Whoever is born in the Gotra/clan call himself Kaundinya. They were well known in Tamil Nadu. We know three famous Kaundinyas. One was the saint who crossed the ocean and established Hindu rule in South East Asia (S E A) which lasted for over 1500 years. Another famous Kaundinya was the great Saivaite saint Thiru Jnana Sambandar who revived Saivism in Tamil Nadu 1400 years ago. The third Kaundinya was Vishnu Dasan in Purananuru of Sanagam Tamil Literature. He was a great Brahmin who performed Yagas and Yajnas and the ghee was flowing like river according to Tamil poet Avur Mulan Kizar (Verse 166 of Pura nanuru)

Now back to Kaundinya of Vietnam. Once a follower of Hindu faith, directed by god in his dream, came to Champa in a trading vessel. The female ruler of the kingdom came to plunder the vessel, but was taken aback by the military power of the Brahmana Kaundinya and his followers. She submitted to the new comer and married him. Her name was Soma and she was the head of Nagas, the snake (race) people. The story was recorded in the middle of third century by the Chinese. It is echoed in an epigraphic record dated 657 CE in Cambodia.

In that epigraph we hear that Brahmana Kaundinya married daughter of the Naga King, and from this union sprang the royal family.

The Chinese records distort Sanskrit names beyond recognition. But from the history of both the countries and the period of rulers we are able to identify the Chinese names.

Kaundinya was called Hen Tien in Chinese history.

Another story about the foundation of Kambuja (Cambodia) says that the son of Indraprastha was banished by his father for some misdeeds. He came to the kingdom and defeated the Naga ruler and then married his daughter.

We see similar stories in Tamil epic Manmegalai, Pallava history and Mahavamsa of Sri Lanka.

The story line is similar- one banished prince travels to a far-off place, marries the local princess and start a new royal line.

The Chinese distortion of names must be understood to follow the history of Vietnam. Since we have only inscriptions in Vietnam and no written history we have to look at the written records in Chinese. Following Sanskrit names are identified in Chinse records.

First King Sri Maran (192 CE) = Kiu -lien or Fan-che-man

Indra varman or Shresta varman = Chelli ta pa mo

Kaundinya = Huen – tien

Jaya varman = Cho – ye- pa-mo

FUNAN = Phnom, biu nam  (meaning  mountain – Sailendra )

Yava dwipa = Ye- tiao

Deva varman =Tiao pien

R C Majumdhar, an authority on S E A History argues that we see the influence of both South and North Indian cultures in S E An countries.

So far, scholars agree that the script came through the Pallava region and the architecture also is similar to the Pallava period. Place names and Kings’ names and religious ideas and artefacts are from both North and South India

But my research shows more similarities and the scholars have missed those points until now.

Following are my discoveries:

1.The first King’s name SRI MARAN is a typical Tamil Pandya king’s name. We don’t find such name anywhere in India except Pandya Dynasty. Sri Maran’s name is documented in Tamil inscriptions and Tamil literature

2.Vietnam’s Kate festival is similar to Pitru Paksha and Mahalaya Amavasai of Hindus of India. Both pay homage to the departed souls at the same period in similar ways.

3. Ram Navami and other Hindu festivals are celebrated by Vietnam Hindus (Chams) with the names like Ram naung

4.We have two famous Kaundinyas in Tamil literature- Purananuu (verse 166) and Thevaram of Sambandar.

5. There was a Tamil king with the title ‘the Pandya who lost life in sea’ (Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvazuthi). My opinion is that he was one of the kings on sea expedition, may be travelling towards S E A.

6.Most famous Pallava King Mahendra Varman ruled from Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. At the same time there was one Mahendra Varman in SEA.

7. Pasupata Cult , Kabalika cult are referred to in Tamil Saivaite saints’ stories (Periya  Puranam etc).  it existed in S E A at the same time. We must find out who spread this to SEA.

8.Sanskrit Inscriptions, numbering over 800 are found spread over a vast area from Vietnam to remote Borneo. We see Sanskrit writing in Vietnam from second century CE and we see Mulavaraman Yupa Inscription deep inside Borneo’s thick forest. How was is possible to spread Sanskrit from one end of SEA to another end 1600 years ago?

There is much scope for research in the above areas and the universities in both countries must come together and organise joint research. One must know Sanskrit, Chinese and Tamil to study the ancient history of S E An countries.

–subham —

Brahma on Stamps

Following are my discoveries:

1.The first King’s name SRI MARAN is a typical Tamil Pandya king’s name. We don’t find such name anywhere in India except Pandya Dynasty. Sri Maran’s name is documented in Tamil inscriptions and Tamil literature.

2.Vietnam’s Kate festival is similar to Pitru Paksha and Mahalaya Amavasai of Hindus of India. Both pay homage to the departed souls at the same period in similar ways.

3. Ram Navami and other Hindu festivals are celebrated by Vietnam Hindus (Chams) with the names like Ram naung.

4.We have two famous Kaundinyas in Tamil literature- Purananuu (verse 166) and Thevaram of Sambandar.

5. There was a Tamil king with the title ‘the Pandya who lost life in sea’ (Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvazuthi). My opinion is that he was one of the kings on sea expedition, may be travelling towards S E A.

6.Most famous Pallava King Mahendra Varman ruled from Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. At the same time there was one Mahendra Varman in SEA.

7. Pasupata Cult , Kabalika cult are referred to in Tamil Saivaite saints’ stories (Periya  Puranam etc).  it existed in S E A at the same time. We must find out who spread this to SEA.

8.Sanskrit Inscriptions, numbering over 800 are found spread over a vast area from Vietnam to remote Borneo. We see Sanskrit writing in Vietnam from second century CE and we see Mulavaraman Yupa Inscription deep inside Borneo’s thick forest. How was is possible to spread Sanskrit from one end of SEA to another end 1600 years ago?

There is much scope for research in the above areas and the universities in both countries must come together and organise joint research. One must know Sanskrit, Chinese and Tamil to study the ancient history of S E An countries.

ஐயர் குடுமி அவிழ்ந்தது ஏன்? (Post No.6770)

Written by  London Swaminathan

 Date: 13 AUGUST 2019  

British Summer Time uploaded in London –  7-57 am

Post No. 6770

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND

2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு வாழ்ந்த சாணக்கியன் பற்றி ஏராளமான கதைகள் உண்டு. பழங்கால பாரதத்தில் மூன்று ஹீரோக்கள் (Three Heroes) இருந்தனர். அவர்கள் – 1.விக்ரமாதித்தன், 2.உதயணன், 3.சாணக்கியன் ஆவர். இவர்கள் மூவரும் சரித்திர புருஷர்கள். கட்டுக்கதை, கற்பனை கதாபத்திரங்கள் அல்ல. இவர்களில், 2000 ஆண்டுக்கு முன் எழுந்த ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத நாடகங்களில் சாணக்கியன் பற்றி பல கதைகள் இருக்கின்றன. கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சம் மாறுதலுடன் அவை காணப்படும். ஆயினும் அவை அனைத்திலும் இழையோடும் கருத்து ஒன்றுதான்.

நவ நந்தர்கள் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட 9 மன்னர்கள், இப்போது தமிழ்நாட்டிலுள்ள திராவிடர்களைப் போல ஒரு பக்கம் பூஜையும் மறு பக்கம் பிராமண எதிர்ப்பும் காட்டி வந்தனர். அவர்கள் க்ஷத்திரியர்கள் அல்ல. சாணக்கியனோ கறுப்பு நிற பார்ப்பான்; காக்கையுடன் அழகிலும் வண்ணத்திலும் போட்டி போடுவார்!!

அவர் ஒரு முறை பிராஹ்மண போஜனத்தில் பந்தியில் அமர்ந்தார். அவரை நந்தர்கள் கேலியும் கிண்டலும் செய்து பந்தியிலிருந்து தர தர என்று வெளியே இழுத்து அவமானப் படுத்தினர்.

திரவுபதி கூந்தலை அவிழ்த்த்து கௌரவர்களை அழிக்க சபதம் செய்தது போல அவரும் குடுமியை அவிழ்த்தார். இந்த நந்த வம்சத்தைப் பூண்டோடு அழிக்கும் வரை ஓய மாட்டேன் என்று சபதம் செய்து, முரா என்ற மயில் வளர்க்கும் கீழ் ஜாதியைச் சேர்ந்த மௌர்ய சந்திர குப்தனுக்குப் படைப் பயிற்சி அளித்தார். அவன் தலைமையில் மகத்தான மௌர்ய சாம்ராஜ்யம் உருவானது. நந்தர்களும் பிராமண எதிர்ப்பும் அடியோடு ஒழிந்தது. மௌர்ய சந்திர குப்தனின் மஹத்தான படைபலத்தை அறிந்த அலெக்ஸாண்டர் இந்தியாவுக்குள் நுழையாமல், காஷ்மீர் எல்லையுடன் திரும்பிப் போனார்.

கௌடில்யம் எனும் அர்த்த சாஸ்திரத்தை — உலகின் முதல் பொருளாதார புஸ்தகத்தை — எழுதி புகழும் பெற்றார். அவர் பெயரில் பல நீதி சாஸ்திர நூல்களும் உண்டு.

அத்தனையும் சொல்லும் message

மெஸ்ஸேஜ் ஒன்றுதான்  – முள்ளை முள்ளால் எடுக்கலாம்; வைரத்தை வைரத்தால் அறுக்கலாம். ஒரு தலித் ஜாதி ஆளைக் கொண்டே அதர்மத்தை அழிக்கலாம்.

வாழ்க ‘தலித்’ சந்திர குப்தன்  ! வளர்க பார்ப்பான் சாணக்கியன் புகழ்!!

இத்துடன் இணைத்துள்ள பகுதியில் ஐயர் குடுமியை அவிழ்த்த சுவையான சம்பவம் உளது. படித்து மகிழ்க.



WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

 Date: 6 AUGUST 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London –9-49 AM

Post No. 6737

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND



Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 19 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-28
Post No. 5679

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

Manava Dharma Shastra (Manu Smrti)

We have already looked at the slokas `1 to 110’ of the Fifth Chapter.

Now we continue from Sloka/ couplet 5- 111

My Comments

1.Amazing thing about Manu smrti is that it is not only talking about cleaning or washing oneself, but also cleaning objects as if it is a science journal (see slokas 111 to 114).

2.Hindu’s belief of Dharba grass continue until today. Though now and then we see some scientific explanation for using the grass, nothing is proved beyond doubt. Further research is required.

3.Cow dung and Cow’s urine have anti- bacterial properties is proved and accepted now; but Manu talks about purification by fruits which is not popular nowadays.

4.Sloka 127. Even a Brahmin’s word will certify the purity of a thing or a task. It is no wonder Manu says that because Manu puts so many strict conditions on Brahmins. When one is truthful and honest anyone will accept his word. Foreign travellers who visited India also praised their honesty.

(My personal experience:- My mother used to buy vegetables from the vendors at our door step; whatever she takes from thevendor, she used to show to her, ‘look madam I am taking these many….;’ then the vendor woman would comment, Oh Madam, you are all Iyers/brahmins; you would not lie to us; so you don’t need to show me what you take inside the house.)


  1. Slokas 129, 130 about Purity of woman’s mouth and artisan’s hand are very interesting. This shows Manu’s high respect for both artisans and women.

6.Sloka 134 about 12 impurities give the list of 12 impurities in the body.


8.SLOKAs 155 and  156 are similar to Tamil Veda Tirukkural which says that a woman who worships her husband alone,  and not god, can perform miracles.

9.Sloka 158 is very interesting because Manu talks about widows . This shows Manu never knew Sati or supported Sati. He lived in the age of Rig Veda 5000 or 6000 years ago. But later accumulations are added to original Manu Smrti like we add amendments to our constitution now and then.

  1. DASYU- Sloka131 talks about Dasyu. This word was also abused by foreign miscreants who translated them as Tribal people; Kalidasa and others use it for robbers. The real meaning is Robbers, Thugs, thieves


now the original slokas…………………..


5-111. The wise ordain that all objects made of metal, gems, and anything made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water.

  1. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, likewise what is produced in water as shells and coral, what is made of stone, and a silver vessel not enchased.
  1. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver; those two, therefore, are best purified by (the elements) from which they sprang.
  2. Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be suitable (for each particular case), by alkaline (substances), acids or water.


5-115. The purification prescribed for all sorts of liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them, for solid things by sprinkling them with water, for objects made of wood by planing them.

  1. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water).
  2. The Caru and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden sword, called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar.


5-118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them.

  1. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain;

Cleaning with Fruits

5-120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard.

  1. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, horn, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or with a mixture of cow’s urine and water.
  2. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cow dung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second burning.
  3. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning.


5-124. Land is purified by the following five modes, viz.

by sweeping, by smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with cows’ urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night).

  1. Food which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched with the foot, sneezed on, or defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by scattering earth over it.
  2. As long as the foul smell does not leave an object defiled by impure substances, and the stain caused by them does not disappear, so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing inanimate things.


5-127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that on which no taint is visible, what has been washed with water, and what has been commended as pure by the word of a Brahmana.

  1. Water, sufficient in quantity in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing the proper smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on pure ground.
  1. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is every vendible commodity exposed for sale in the market, and food obtained by begging which a student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule.


5-130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall; a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk, and a dog when he catches a deer.

  1. Manu has declared that the flesh of an animal killed by dogs is pure, likewise that of a beast slain by carnivorous animals or by men of low caste (Dasyu), such as Candalas.
  2. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, (but) those which are below the navel are impure, as well as excretions that fall from the body.
  3. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and fire one must know to be pure to the touch.


5-134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and water must be used, as they may be required, likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body.

  1. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies).
  1. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times).
  2. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) double for students, treble for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics.
  3. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite the Veda, and always before he takes food.
  4. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only).
  5. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan’s meal.
  1. Drops of water from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) impure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth, nor what adheres to the teeth.
  2. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others, must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground; they render him not impure.
  3. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure (person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs an ablution, without putting down that object.
  4. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman.
  5. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths, and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study the Veda.
  6. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women.


5-147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.

  1. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.
  1. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband’s) families contemptible.
  2. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure.
  3. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult his memory.
  4. For the sake of procuring good fortune to brides, the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures (PraJapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal by the father or guardian is the cause of (the husband’s) dominion over his wife.
  5. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.
  6. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife.


  1. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart from their husbands; if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven.
  2. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell after death with her husband, must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead.
  3. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by living on pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died.


5-158. Until death let her be patient of hardships, self-controlled, and chaste, and strive to fulfil that most excellent duty which is prescribed)for wives who have one husband only.

  1. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without continuing their race.
  2. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.
  3. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her place with her husband in heaven.
  4. Offspring begotten by another man is here not considered lawful, nor (does offspring begotten) on another man’s wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women.
  5. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman (parapurva).
  1. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin.
  1. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord, resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous (wife).
  2. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband.
  3. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with the sacred fires used for the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements.
  1. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him, he may marry again, and again kindle the fires.

169.(Living according to the preceding rules, he must never neglect the five great sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in his own house during the second period of his life.



TAGS- Manu on women, Hindu woman, Purity, cleaning, mouth



Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 2 October 2018


Time uploaded in London –18-37  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5499


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




We continue with the fourth chapter of Manu Niti from sloka 101.


1.It is interesting to note that Manu talks about natural catastrophes such as earth quakes and cloud bursts and natural phenomena like meteorite showers and ask the Hindus to stop the study of Vedas for 24 hours.

2.Weekly Holiday:-Manu was the first person in the world who asked the schools to close six days a month. He banned Vedic teaching on at least six days :-


Two ashtamis :– 8th day after new moon and eighth day after full moon.

Two Chaturdasis: one day before full moon; one day before new moon;

Full Moon Day and New Moon Day (two days)

Even today Vedic schools follow this rule

3.He is very keen about the ‘pollution’ from visiting crematoriums etc. So he asked us to stop Vedic recitation


  1. He asked us to stop Vedic recitation during travel (horse ride, camel ride, sea travel); this shows that Vedic Pundits were great travellers.

(But elsewhere he bans Brahmins going abroad by sea like Tamils ban women travelling abroad- See my article on Tolkappiam)

  1. In one of the slokas he talks about stopping Vedic studies on meat eating days. In the olden days, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas were learning basic Vedas. That is why he talks about meat eating and Vedic studies.

6.In sloka 124, he explains  the special role of three Vedas.

7.Sloka 126 is very interesting which gives the superstitious beliefs in the olden times.

8.Sloka 135 warns about offending Brahmana, Kshatria and a snake.


9.Sloka 146 says what Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita- Good Person never comes to grief ( BG 6-40)


Manu was a great educationist, great planner and a well- informed scientist.

The amazing thing is that he talks about meteorite showers which is given in all astronomical magazines nowadays. He bans the teaching of Vedas for 24 hours on those days.

(Note the slokas in bold letters)





4-101. Let him who studies always avoid reading on the following occasions when the Veda-study is forbidden, and let him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule do it likewise.

  1. Those who know the rules of recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped on these two occasions, when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time.
  2. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain are observed together, or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, counting from the occurrence of the event.
  3. When one perceives these phenomena all together in the twilight, after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season.
  4. On the occasion of a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that the Veda-study must be stopped until the same hour on the next day, even if these phenomena happen in the rainy season.
  5. But when lightning and the roar of thunder are observed after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, the stoppage shall last as long as the light of the sun or of the stars is visible; if the remaining above-named phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease, both in the day-time and at night.
  6. For those who wish to acquire exceedingly great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study is prescribed in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must always cease when any kind of foul smell is perceptible.



  1. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a man who lives as unrighteously , while the sound of weeping is heard, and in a crowd of men the recitation of the Veda must be stopped.
  2. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart of the sacred texts.
  3. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a funeral rite in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure.
  4. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda.


  1. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death,



  1. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth days of each half-month, nor on the full-moon day.
  2. The new-moon day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth day the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days destroy all remembrance of the Veda; let him therefore avoid reading on those days.



  1. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels is heard, nor while he is seated in a company.
  2. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice.
  3. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth.



  1. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that the Veda-study must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, and on the occurrence of all portents.
  2. On the occasion of the Upakarman and of the Vedotsarga an omission of the Veda-study for three days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night.



  1. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat or ship, nor on a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage,
  2. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructation’s,
  3. Nor without receiving permission from a guest who stays in his house, nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon.
  4. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the YaJur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka.



  1. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the YaJur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure as it were.
  2. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three Vedas and afterwards the text of the Veda.


  1. Know that the Veda-study must be interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between the teacher and his pupil.
  2. Let a twice-born man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two occasions, viz. when the place where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified.
  3. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse).
  4. Let him not bathe immediately after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.
  5. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Dikshita).
  6. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road.
  7. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited.
  8. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, or to the wife of another man.
  9. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man’s wife.



  1. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they ever so feeble.
  2. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never despise them.
  3. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it.
  4. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law.
  5. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say ‘well’ only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody.

Journey Timings

  1. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday heat, nor with an unknown companion, nor alone, nor with Sudras.
  2. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.
  3. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure.
  4. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel.
  5. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid to touch the hair on the secret (parts).
  6. Let him eagerly follow the customs which are auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire.
  7. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter sacred texts and offer burnt-oblations.


Daily Recital

  1. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one’s highest duty; all other observances are called secondary duties.
  2. By daily reciting the Veda, by the observance of the rules of purification, by (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births.
  3. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda.
  4. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes.

–to be continued………………..





Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 17  September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 15-31 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5441

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




I have already finished three chapters. Now we look at the fourth chpater


Fourteen interesting Points


1.Note slokas 4 and 7. Five ways of food gathering; no saving for more than three days. If Brahmins follow these rules no one would feel jealousy towards Brahmins. That is the reason Brahmins were given donations by the kings and others. Manu made these rules so that Brahmins would be dependent upon others for ever. They have to do Pujas and sacrifices to earn their livelihood.


  1. Read a beautiful quotation in sloka 12. ‘for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).


3.Read sloka 29;’Guests must be honoured’ which we can find only in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is purely a Vedic Hindu concept which is not found in any other ancient culture as a daily duty. This explodes the Aryan invasion theory.

4.Sloka 11 ; please do agnihotram. Nowadays very few Brahmins do it.

5.sloka 21- pancha yajna (Five Types of sacrifice done everyday)

6.sloka 29 exploded Aryan invasion theory; customs like this found only in Sanskrit and Tamil as a meritorious daily duty; you cant find this anywhere in the world

  1. Sloka 40-lying in bed with wife rules

8.Slokas 44 and 52 Interesting rules regarding looking at women, and urinating etc

  1. Slokas 64 and 74- No singing, No dancing and No gambling

10.Sloka 76- Must have wet feet while eating, dry feet while sleeping

11.Sloka.84- No presents from kings

12.Sloka 86- Kings are butchers

13.Slokas 88-90- Twenty One types of Hell.

14.Sloka 92- Importance of getting up at 4 am (Brahma Muhurta)




  1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man’s) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife.
  2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain to others, and live by that except in times of distress.
  3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by following those irreproachable occupations which are prescribed for his caste, without unduly fatiguing his body.
  4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a dog’s mode of life).
  5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita.
  6. But trade and money-lending are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service (LIKE A SLAVE) is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.
  7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.
  8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely.
  9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra.



  1. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices.
  2. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana.
  3. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).
  4. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame.
  5. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those according to his ability, attains to the highest state.
  6. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be).
  7. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart.
  8. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims.
  9. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race.
  10. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda.
  11. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and his great learning shines brightly.



  1. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifices to the sages, to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.
  2. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifices in their organs (of sensation), without any (external) effort.
  3. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath.
  4. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root, always perform them through knowledge alone.
  5. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month,
  6. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifices, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice), at the end of the year Soma-offerings.
  7. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice).
  8. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh.


  1. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, water, or roots and fruits.
  2. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.
  3. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid those who are different.
  4. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one’s own interest).
  5. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifices, and of a pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule.
  6. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes, if he possesses property.


  1. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare.
  2. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden ear-rings.
  3. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the middle of the sky.
  4. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at his own image in water; that is a settled rule.
  5. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them.



  1. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with her in the same bed.
  2. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish.
  3. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will increase.
  4. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease.




  1. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at a woman who applies collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth a child.
  2. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen,
  3. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill,
  4. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.
  5. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.
  6. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.
  7. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.
  8. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.


  1. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes.
  2. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it.
  3. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures.
  4. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take off his garland.
  5. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things.
  6. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice, if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest).
  7. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals.
  8. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody.
  9. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain.


  1. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes.
  2. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning.
  3. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity.


  1. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion.
  2. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled.
  3. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been used by others.
  4. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured.
  5. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad.
  6. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth.
  7. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.
  8. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification.
  9. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act.
  10. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees.


  1. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat.
  2. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).



  1. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life.
  2. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms.
  3. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life.
  4. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Candalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins.
  5. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance.
  6. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.
  7. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe without (submerging) it.
  8. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men’s) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil.



  1. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes.
  2. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels.


  1. A king is declared to be equal in wickedness to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible crime.
  2. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells:



  1. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka,
  2. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika,
  3. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka.
  4. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents from a king.


  1. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman (BRAHMA MUHURTA= STARTING FROM 4-30 AM), and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda.
  2. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion).
  3. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence in Vedic knowledge.
  4. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half.
  5. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.
  6. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night.
  7. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.
  8. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.
  9. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita.










Written by London SWAMINATHAN

Date: 11 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20-34 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5311


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




This part of Third Chapter of Manu Smrti contains several Interesting and Mysterious things:

What is Mysterious?

See 231 (departed souls like riddles) and

274 (solar eclipse)

194-202 Strange Names for different types of Manes and Origin of Manes

Invisible Presence of departed souls- See 189

What is interesting?

This part gives severe blow to Aryan Immigration theory for two reasons: all the ingredients used are from tropical regions. No where else in the world we see such ceremonies.

It gives a severe blow to Aryan- Dravidian division; there is no such cultures as Dravidian; even in funeral ceremonies we see similar customs from south to north of the country.

Most Interesting Point

The Four Blessings sought from the departed souls:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)

What a Great Genius Manu is!

Four Types of Questions (see 254)

Brahmins are fire ! (See 212)

Departed souls are Nature Lovers (see 207)

Three Best People (see 185)

Manes are more important than Gods! (see 203)




  1. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by the presence of unworthy guests is purified, and the full description of the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.


Best People

  1. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
  2. A Trinaciketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Jyeshthasaman,

Tri naciketa= The Story of Naciketas in Katha Upanishad

Tri Suparna = Three Bird passage in Rig Veda 10-114-3

Jyeshta Saman= Excellent Chants in the Tandya Brahmana 21-2-3


  1. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand cows (as donation or gift), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Giving and receiving up to 20000 cows as gift is in the Rig veda and Mulavarman Yupa inscription of Indonesia (4th Century CE).

It is found in several Indian Inscriptions as well .

At least Three Brahmanas for the Srardha

  1. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.
  2. A Brahmana who has been invited to a rite in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha must act in the same manner.


  1. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them when they walk like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

(The departed souls come at the speed of wind and sit near the Brahmins.)


Brahmin becomes Pig!

  1. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks the appointment, becomes guilty of a crime, and in his next birth a hog/Pig.
  2. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver of the feast committed.
  3. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
  4. Now learn fully from whom all these manes derive their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.


  1. The various classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Marici and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
  2. The Somasads (soma drinkers) , the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas (Tasted by Fire), the children of Marici, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
  3. The Barhishads (Seated on the Sacrificial Grass) , born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,

Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

  1. The Somapas (Soma drinkers) those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs (Oblation Eaters) those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
  2. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
  3. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas (Fire Burnt) , the Anagnidagdhas (Non Fire Burnt) , the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas (Connected with Soma) , are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.



  1. But know also that there exist in this world countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
  2. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
  3. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).



  1. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes the Sraddhas, has been declared to be a means of fortifying the latter.
  2. Let him first invite a Brahmana in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.


  1. Let him make the Sraddha begin and end with a rite in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a rite in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.
  2. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cow dung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.



  1. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.
  2. The sacrificer shall make the invited Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
  3. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with those who are invited in honour of the gods.
  4. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana sacrificer shall offer oblations in the sacred fire, after having received permission to do so from all the Brahmana guests conjointly.


  1. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting the Sraddha, oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.


  1. But if no sacred fire is available, he shall place the offerings into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ‘What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’


  1. They also call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.
  2. After he has performed the oblations in the fire, and the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot where the cakes are to be placed.
  3. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which he poured out the libations of water.


  1. Having offered those cakes (PINDA) according to the prescribed rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with the roots of those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the three ancestors who partake of the wipings (lepa).




  1. Having next sipped water, turned round towards the north, and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, the sacrificer who knows the sacred texts shall worship the guardian deities of the six seasons and the manes.
  2. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).
  3. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).
  4. But if the sacrificer’s father is living, he must offer the cakes to three remoter ancestors; or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as one of the Brahmana guests.
  5. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.
  6. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha as a guest, or the grandson having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.



  1. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the guests, he shall give to each that above-mentioned portion of the cake, saying, ‘To those, Svadha!’
  2. But carrying the vessel filled with food with both hands, the sacrificer himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.
  3. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.
  4. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,
  5. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.
  6. All this he shall present to his guests, being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each dish, proclaiming its qualities.



  1. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.
  2. A tear sends the food to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.
  3. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.
  4. At a sacrifice in honour of the manes, he must let his guests hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.
  5. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly of each dish, and repeatedly invite them to eat by offering the food and (praising) its qualities.
  6. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.
  7. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.
  8. All the food must be very hot, and the guests shall eat in silence; even though asked by the giver of the feast, the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.



  1. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake of it.
  2. What a guest eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on his feet, that the Rakshasas consume.



  1. A Candala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.
  2. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.
  3. A boar makes the rite useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).
  4. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).
  5. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.
  6. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.
  7. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.
  8. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.
  9. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.
  10. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)
  11. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
  12. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.
  13. Having addressed the question, ‘Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ‘Rest either (here or at home)!’
  14. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ‘Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.
  15. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.



  1. At a Sraddha in honour of the manes one must use in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word


; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam= WAS IT COOKED WELL?

; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam = WAS IT PERFECT;

and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam= WAS IT SPLENDID?.

  1. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices.
  2. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods.
  3. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.
  4. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)


  1. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.
  2. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.
  3. The sacrificer’s first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, if she be desirous of bearing a son.
  4. Thus she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with the quality of goodness, and righteous.
  5. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.
  6. But the remnants shall be left where they lie until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the daily domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.




  1. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.
  2. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,
  3. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,
  4. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,
  5. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,
  6. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.
  7. The vegetable called Kalasaka, the fish called Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.
  8. Whatever food, mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless satisfaction.



  1. ‘May such a man the manes say be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and in the afternoon when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'(SOLAR ECLIPSE)
  2. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.



  1. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others.
  2. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.


  1. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon.
  2. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).
  3. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.
  4. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day.
  5. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day.
  6. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the daily Sraddha.


  1. They call the manes of fathers Vasus, those of grandfathers Rudras, and those of great-grandfathers Adityas; thus speaks the eternal Veda.
  2. Let him daily partake of the vighasa (LEFTOVER OFFERINGS) and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal of Brahmana guests and the remainder of a sacrifice is called amrita.
  3. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five daily great sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.