Naga Rani Soma – Kaundinya Marriage Story in Vietnam (Post No.7103)

Research Article written London Swaminathan

Date: 16 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 20-48
Post No. 7103

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

There are two interesting stories about the fonder of the Hindu Rule in Vietnam. Two thousand years ago the country was called Annam and Champa. When the French ruled the region, it was called Indo-China and Cochin- China. The Hindu rule was started by a Brahmin named Kaundinya. The inscriptions talk about two Kaundinyas. But there is nothing unusual in it because Kaundinya is a Gotra name. Whoever is born in the Gotra/clan call himself Kaundinya. They were well known in Tamil Nadu. We know three famous Kaundinyas. One was the saint who crossed the ocean and established Hindu rule in South East Asia (S E A) which lasted for over 1500 years. Another famous Kaundinya was the great Saivaite saint Thiru Jnana Sambandar who revived Saivism in Tamil Nadu 1400 years ago. The third Kaundinya was Vishnu Dasan in Purananuru of Sanagam Tamil Literature. He was a great Brahmin who performed Yagas and Yajnas and the ghee was flowing like river according to Tamil poet Avur Mulan Kizar (Verse 166 of Pura nanuru)

Now back to Kaundinya of Vietnam. Once a follower of Hindu faith, directed by god in his dream, came to Champa in a trading vessel. The female ruler of the kingdom came to plunder the vessel, but was taken aback by the military power of the Brahmana Kaundinya and his followers. She submitted to the new comer and married him. Her name was Soma and she was the head of Nagas, the snake (race) people. The story was recorded in the middle of third century by the Chinese. It is echoed in an epigraphic record dated 657 CE in Cambodia.

In that epigraph we hear that Brahmana Kaundinya married daughter of the Naga King, and from this union sprang the royal family.

The Chinese records distort Sanskrit names beyond recognition. But from the history of both the countries and the period of rulers we are able to identify the Chinese names.

Kaundinya was called Hen Tien in Chinese history.

Another story about the foundation of Kambuja (Cambodia) says that the son of Indraprastha was banished by his father for some misdeeds. He came to the kingdom and defeated the Naga ruler and then married his daughter.

We see similar stories in Tamil epic Manmegalai, Pallava history and Mahavamsa of Sri Lanka.

The story line is similar- one banished prince travels to a far-off place, marries the local princess and start a new royal line.

The Chinese distortion of names must be understood to follow the history of Vietnam. Since we have only inscriptions in Vietnam and no written history we have to look at the written records in Chinese. Following Sanskrit names are identified in Chinse records.

First King Sri Maran (192 CE) = Kiu -lien or Fan-che-man

Indra varman or Shresta varman = Chelli ta pa mo

Kaundinya = Huen – tien

Jaya varman = Cho – ye- pa-mo

FUNAN = Phnom, biu nam  (meaning  mountain – Sailendra )

Yava dwipa = Ye- tiao

Deva varman =Tiao pien

R C Majumdhar, an authority on S E A History argues that we see the influence of both South and North Indian cultures in S E An countries.

So far, scholars agree that the script came through the Pallava region and the architecture also is similar to the Pallava period. Place names and Kings’ names and religious ideas and artefacts are from both North and South India

But my research shows more similarities and the scholars have missed those points until now.

Following are my discoveries:

1.The first King’s name SRI MARAN is a typical Tamil Pandya king’s name. We don’t find such name anywhere in India except Pandya Dynasty. Sri Maran’s name is documented in Tamil inscriptions and Tamil literature

2.Vietnam’s Kate festival is similar to Pitru Paksha and Mahalaya Amavasai of Hindus of India. Both pay homage to the departed souls at the same period in similar ways.

3. Ram Navami and other Hindu festivals are celebrated by Vietnam Hindus (Chams) with the names like Ram naung

4.We have two famous Kaundinyas in Tamil literature- Purananuu (verse 166) and Thevaram of Sambandar.

5. There was a Tamil king with the title ‘the Pandya who lost life in sea’ (Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvazuthi). My opinion is that he was one of the kings on sea expedition, may be travelling towards S E A.

6.Most famous Pallava King Mahendra Varman ruled from Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. At the same time there was one Mahendra Varman in SEA.

7. Pasupata Cult , Kabalika cult are referred to in Tamil Saivaite saints’ stories (Periya  Puranam etc).  it existed in S E A at the same time. We must find out who spread this to SEA.

8.Sanskrit Inscriptions, numbering over 800 are found spread over a vast area from Vietnam to remote Borneo. We see Sanskrit writing in Vietnam from second century CE and we see Mulavaraman Yupa Inscription deep inside Borneo’s thick forest. How was is possible to spread Sanskrit from one end of SEA to another end 1600 years ago?

There is much scope for research in the above areas and the universities in both countries must come together and organise joint research. One must know Sanskrit, Chinese and Tamil to study the ancient history of S E An countries.

–subham —

Brahma on Stamps

Following are my discoveries:

1.The first King’s name SRI MARAN is a typical Tamil Pandya king’s name. We don’t find such name anywhere in India except Pandya Dynasty. Sri Maran’s name is documented in Tamil inscriptions and Tamil literature.

2.Vietnam’s Kate festival is similar to Pitru Paksha and Mahalaya Amavasai of Hindus of India. Both pay homage to the departed souls at the same period in similar ways.

3. Ram Navami and other Hindu festivals are celebrated by Vietnam Hindus (Chams) with the names like Ram naung.

4.We have two famous Kaundinyas in Tamil literature- Purananuu (verse 166) and Thevaram of Sambandar.

5. There was a Tamil king with the title ‘the Pandya who lost life in sea’ (Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvazuthi). My opinion is that he was one of the kings on sea expedition, may be travelling towards S E A.

6.Most famous Pallava King Mahendra Varman ruled from Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. At the same time there was one Mahendra Varman in SEA.

7. Pasupata Cult , Kabalika cult are referred to in Tamil Saivaite saints’ stories (Periya  Puranam etc).  it existed in S E A at the same time. We must find out who spread this to SEA.

8.Sanskrit Inscriptions, numbering over 800 are found spread over a vast area from Vietnam to remote Borneo. We see Sanskrit writing in Vietnam from second century CE and we see Mulavaraman Yupa Inscription deep inside Borneo’s thick forest. How was is possible to spread Sanskrit from one end of SEA to another end 1600 years ago?

There is much scope for research in the above areas and the universities in both countries must come together and organise joint research. One must know Sanskrit, Chinese and Tamil to study the ancient history of S E An countries.

ஐயர் குடுமி அவிழ்ந்தது ஏன்? (Post No.6770)

Written by  London Swaminathan

 Date: 13 AUGUST 2019  

British Summer Time uploaded in London –  7-57 am

Post No. 6770

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND

2300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு வாழ்ந்த சாணக்கியன் பற்றி ஏராளமான கதைகள் உண்டு. பழங்கால பாரதத்தில் மூன்று ஹீரோக்கள் (Three Heroes) இருந்தனர். அவர்கள் – 1.விக்ரமாதித்தன், 2.உதயணன், 3.சாணக்கியன் ஆவர். இவர்கள் மூவரும் சரித்திர புருஷர்கள். கட்டுக்கதை, கற்பனை கதாபத்திரங்கள் அல்ல. இவர்களில், 2000 ஆண்டுக்கு முன் எழுந்த ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத நாடகங்களில் சாணக்கியன் பற்றி பல கதைகள் இருக்கின்றன. கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சம் மாறுதலுடன் அவை காணப்படும். ஆயினும் அவை அனைத்திலும் இழையோடும் கருத்து ஒன்றுதான்.

நவ நந்தர்கள் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட 9 மன்னர்கள், இப்போது தமிழ்நாட்டிலுள்ள திராவிடர்களைப் போல ஒரு பக்கம் பூஜையும் மறு பக்கம் பிராமண எதிர்ப்பும் காட்டி வந்தனர். அவர்கள் க்ஷத்திரியர்கள் அல்ல. சாணக்கியனோ கறுப்பு நிற பார்ப்பான்; காக்கையுடன் அழகிலும் வண்ணத்திலும் போட்டி போடுவார்!!

அவர் ஒரு முறை பிராஹ்மண போஜனத்தில் பந்தியில் அமர்ந்தார். அவரை நந்தர்கள் கேலியும் கிண்டலும் செய்து பந்தியிலிருந்து தர தர என்று வெளியே இழுத்து அவமானப் படுத்தினர்.

திரவுபதி கூந்தலை அவிழ்த்த்து கௌரவர்களை அழிக்க சபதம் செய்தது போல அவரும் குடுமியை அவிழ்த்தார். இந்த நந்த வம்சத்தைப் பூண்டோடு அழிக்கும் வரை ஓய மாட்டேன் என்று சபதம் செய்து, முரா என்ற மயில் வளர்க்கும் கீழ் ஜாதியைச் சேர்ந்த மௌர்ய சந்திர குப்தனுக்குப் படைப் பயிற்சி அளித்தார். அவன் தலைமையில் மகத்தான மௌர்ய சாம்ராஜ்யம் உருவானது. நந்தர்களும் பிராமண எதிர்ப்பும் அடியோடு ஒழிந்தது. மௌர்ய சந்திர குப்தனின் மஹத்தான படைபலத்தை அறிந்த அலெக்ஸாண்டர் இந்தியாவுக்குள் நுழையாமல், காஷ்மீர் எல்லையுடன் திரும்பிப் போனார்.

கௌடில்யம் எனும் அர்த்த சாஸ்திரத்தை — உலகின் முதல் பொருளாதார புஸ்தகத்தை — எழுதி புகழும் பெற்றார். அவர் பெயரில் பல நீதி சாஸ்திர நூல்களும் உண்டு.

அத்தனையும் சொல்லும் message

மெஸ்ஸேஜ் ஒன்றுதான்  – முள்ளை முள்ளால் எடுக்கலாம்; வைரத்தை வைரத்தால் அறுக்கலாம். ஒரு தலித் ஜாதி ஆளைக் கொண்டே அதர்மத்தை அழிக்கலாம்.

வாழ்க ‘தலித்’ சந்திர குப்தன்  ! வளர்க பார்ப்பான் சாணக்கியன் புகழ்!!

இத்துடன் இணைத்துள்ள பகுதியில் ஐயர் குடுமியை அவிழ்த்த சுவையான சம்பவம் உளது. படித்து மகிழ்க.



WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

 Date: 6 AUGUST 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London –9-49 AM

Post No. 6737

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND



Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 19 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-28
Post No. 5679

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

Manava Dharma Shastra (Manu Smrti)

We have already looked at the slokas `1 to 110’ of the Fifth Chapter.

Now we continue from Sloka/ couplet 5- 111

My Comments

1.Amazing thing about Manu smrti is that it is not only talking about cleaning or washing oneself, but also cleaning objects as if it is a science journal (see slokas 111 to 114).

2.Hindu’s belief of Dharba grass continue until today. Though now and then we see some scientific explanation for using the grass, nothing is proved beyond doubt. Further research is required.

3.Cow dung and Cow’s urine have anti- bacterial properties is proved and accepted now; but Manu talks about purification by fruits which is not popular nowadays.

4.Sloka 127. Even a Brahmin’s word will certify the purity of a thing or a task. It is no wonder Manu says that because Manu puts so many strict conditions on Brahmins. When one is truthful and honest anyone will accept his word. Foreign travellers who visited India also praised their honesty.

(My personal experience:- My mother used to buy vegetables from the vendors at our door step; whatever she takes from thevendor, she used to show to her, ‘look madam I am taking these many….;’ then the vendor woman would comment, Oh Madam, you are all Iyers/brahmins; you would not lie to us; so you don’t need to show me what you take inside the house.)


  1. Slokas 129, 130 about Purity of woman’s mouth and artisan’s hand are very interesting. This shows Manu’s high respect for both artisans and women.

6.Sloka 134 about 12 impurities give the list of 12 impurities in the body.


8.SLOKAs 155 and  156 are similar to Tamil Veda Tirukkural which says that a woman who worships her husband alone,  and not god, can perform miracles.

9.Sloka 158 is very interesting because Manu talks about widows . This shows Manu never knew Sati or supported Sati. He lived in the age of Rig Veda 5000 or 6000 years ago. But later accumulations are added to original Manu Smrti like we add amendments to our constitution now and then.

  1. DASYU- Sloka131 talks about Dasyu. This word was also abused by foreign miscreants who translated them as Tribal people; Kalidasa and others use it for robbers. The real meaning is Robbers, Thugs, thieves


now the original slokas…………………..


5-111. The wise ordain that all objects made of metal, gems, and anything made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water.

  1. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, likewise what is produced in water as shells and coral, what is made of stone, and a silver vessel not enchased.
  1. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver; those two, therefore, are best purified by (the elements) from which they sprang.
  2. Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be suitable (for each particular case), by alkaline (substances), acids or water.


5-115. The purification prescribed for all sorts of liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them, for solid things by sprinkling them with water, for objects made of wood by planing them.

  1. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water).
  2. The Caru and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden sword, called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar.


5-118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them.

  1. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain;

Cleaning with Fruits

5-120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard.

  1. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, horn, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or with a mixture of cow’s urine and water.
  2. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cow dung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second burning.
  3. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning.


5-124. Land is purified by the following five modes, viz.

by sweeping, by smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with cows’ urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night).

  1. Food which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched with the foot, sneezed on, or defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by scattering earth over it.
  2. As long as the foul smell does not leave an object defiled by impure substances, and the stain caused by them does not disappear, so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing inanimate things.


5-127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that on which no taint is visible, what has been washed with water, and what has been commended as pure by the word of a Brahmana.

  1. Water, sufficient in quantity in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing the proper smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on pure ground.
  1. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is every vendible commodity exposed for sale in the market, and food obtained by begging which a student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule.


5-130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall; a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk, and a dog when he catches a deer.

  1. Manu has declared that the flesh of an animal killed by dogs is pure, likewise that of a beast slain by carnivorous animals or by men of low caste (Dasyu), such as Candalas.
  2. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, (but) those which are below the navel are impure, as well as excretions that fall from the body.
  3. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and fire one must know to be pure to the touch.


5-134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and water must be used, as they may be required, likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body.

  1. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies).
  1. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times).
  2. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) double for students, treble for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics.
  3. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite the Veda, and always before he takes food.
  4. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only).
  5. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan’s meal.
  1. Drops of water from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) impure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth, nor what adheres to the teeth.
  2. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others, must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground; they render him not impure.
  3. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure (person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs an ablution, without putting down that object.
  4. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman.
  5. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths, and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study the Veda.
  6. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women.


5-147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.

  1. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.
  1. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband’s) families contemptible.
  2. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure.
  3. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult his memory.
  4. For the sake of procuring good fortune to brides, the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures (PraJapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal by the father or guardian is the cause of (the husband’s) dominion over his wife.
  5. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.
  6. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife.


  1. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart from their husbands; if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven.
  2. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell after death with her husband, must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead.
  3. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by living on pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died.


5-158. Until death let her be patient of hardships, self-controlled, and chaste, and strive to fulfil that most excellent duty which is prescribed)for wives who have one husband only.

  1. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without continuing their race.
  2. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.
  3. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her place with her husband in heaven.
  4. Offspring begotten by another man is here not considered lawful, nor (does offspring begotten) on another man’s wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women.
  5. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman (parapurva).
  1. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin.
  1. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord, resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous (wife).
  2. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband.
  3. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with the sacred fires used for the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements.
  1. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him, he may marry again, and again kindle the fires.

169.(Living according to the preceding rules, he must never neglect the five great sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in his own house during the second period of his life.



TAGS- Manu on women, Hindu woman, Purity, cleaning, mouth



Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 2 October 2018


Time uploaded in London –18-37  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5499


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




We continue with the fourth chapter of Manu Niti from sloka 101.


1.It is interesting to note that Manu talks about natural catastrophes such as earth quakes and cloud bursts and natural phenomena like meteorite showers and ask the Hindus to stop the study of Vedas for 24 hours.

2.Weekly Holiday:-Manu was the first person in the world who asked the schools to close six days a month. He banned Vedic teaching on at least six days :-


Two ashtamis :– 8th day after new moon and eighth day after full moon.

Two Chaturdasis: one day before full moon; one day before new moon;

Full Moon Day and New Moon Day (two days)

Even today Vedic schools follow this rule

3.He is very keen about the ‘pollution’ from visiting crematoriums etc. So he asked us to stop Vedic recitation


  1. He asked us to stop Vedic recitation during travel (horse ride, camel ride, sea travel); this shows that Vedic Pundits were great travellers.

(But elsewhere he bans Brahmins going abroad by sea like Tamils ban women travelling abroad- See my article on Tolkappiam)

  1. In one of the slokas he talks about stopping Vedic studies on meat eating days. In the olden days, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas were learning basic Vedas. That is why he talks about meat eating and Vedic studies.

6.In sloka 124, he explains  the special role of three Vedas.

7.Sloka 126 is very interesting which gives the superstitious beliefs in the olden times.

8.Sloka 135 warns about offending Brahmana, Kshatria and a snake.


9.Sloka 146 says what Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita- Good Person never comes to grief ( BG 6-40)


Manu was a great educationist, great planner and a well- informed scientist.

The amazing thing is that he talks about meteorite showers which is given in all astronomical magazines nowadays. He bans the teaching of Vedas for 24 hours on those days.

(Note the slokas in bold letters)





4-101. Let him who studies always avoid reading on the following occasions when the Veda-study is forbidden, and let him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule do it likewise.

  1. Those who know the rules of recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped on these two occasions, when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time.
  2. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain are observed together, or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, counting from the occurrence of the event.
  3. When one perceives these phenomena all together in the twilight, after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season.
  4. On the occasion of a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that the Veda-study must be stopped until the same hour on the next day, even if these phenomena happen in the rainy season.
  5. But when lightning and the roar of thunder are observed after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, the stoppage shall last as long as the light of the sun or of the stars is visible; if the remaining above-named phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease, both in the day-time and at night.
  6. For those who wish to acquire exceedingly great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study is prescribed in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must always cease when any kind of foul smell is perceptible.



  1. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a man who lives as unrighteously , while the sound of weeping is heard, and in a crowd of men the recitation of the Veda must be stopped.
  2. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart of the sacred texts.
  3. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a funeral rite in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure.
  4. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda.


  1. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death,



  1. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth days of each half-month, nor on the full-moon day.
  2. The new-moon day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth day the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days destroy all remembrance of the Veda; let him therefore avoid reading on those days.



  1. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels is heard, nor while he is seated in a company.
  2. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice.
  3. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth.



  1. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that the Veda-study must be interrupted until the same hour on the next day, and on the occurrence of all portents.
  2. On the occasion of the Upakarman and of the Vedotsarga an omission of the Veda-study for three days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night.



  1. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat or ship, nor on a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage,
  2. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructation’s,
  3. Nor without receiving permission from a guest who stays in his house, nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon.
  4. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the YaJur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka.



  1. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the YaJur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure as it were.
  2. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three Vedas and afterwards the text of the Veda.


  1. Know that the Veda-study must be interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between the teacher and his pupil.
  2. Let a twice-born man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two occasions, viz. when the place where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified.
  3. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse).
  4. Let him not bathe immediately after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.
  5. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Dikshita).
  6. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road.
  7. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited.
  8. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, or to the wife of another man.
  9. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man’s wife.



  1. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they ever so feeble.
  2. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never despise them.
  3. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it.
  4. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law.
  5. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say ‘well’ only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody.

Journey Timings

  1. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday heat, nor with an unknown companion, nor alone, nor with Sudras.
  2. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.
  3. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure.
  4. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel.
  5. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid to touch the hair on the secret (parts).
  6. Let him eagerly follow the customs which are auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire.
  7. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter sacred texts and offer burnt-oblations.


Daily Recital

  1. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one’s highest duty; all other observances are called secondary duties.
  2. By daily reciting the Veda, by the observance of the rules of purification, by (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births.
  3. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda.
  4. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes.

–to be continued………………..





Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 17  September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 15-31 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5441

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.




I have already finished three chapters. Now we look at the fourth chpater


Fourteen interesting Points


1.Note slokas 4 and 7. Five ways of food gathering; no saving for more than three days. If Brahmins follow these rules no one would feel jealousy towards Brahmins. That is the reason Brahmins were given donations by the kings and others. Manu made these rules so that Brahmins would be dependent upon others for ever. They have to do Pujas and sacrifices to earn their livelihood.


  1. Read a beautiful quotation in sloka 12. ‘for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).


3.Read sloka 29;’Guests must be honoured’ which we can find only in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is purely a Vedic Hindu concept which is not found in any other ancient culture as a daily duty. This explodes the Aryan invasion theory.

4.Sloka 11 ; please do agnihotram. Nowadays very few Brahmins do it.

5.sloka 21- pancha yajna (Five Types of sacrifice done everyday)

6.sloka 29 exploded Aryan invasion theory; customs like this found only in Sanskrit and Tamil as a meritorious daily duty; you cant find this anywhere in the world

  1. Sloka 40-lying in bed with wife rules

8.Slokas 44 and 52 Interesting rules regarding looking at women, and urinating etc

  1. Slokas 64 and 74- No singing, No dancing and No gambling

10.Sloka 76- Must have wet feet while eating, dry feet while sleeping

11.Sloka.84- No presents from kings

12.Sloka 86- Kings are butchers

13.Slokas 88-90- Twenty One types of Hell.

14.Sloka 92- Importance of getting up at 4 am (Brahma Muhurta)




  1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man’s) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife.
  2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain to others, and live by that except in times of distress.
  3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by following those irreproachable occupations which are prescribed for his caste, without unduly fatiguing his body.
  4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a dog’s mode of life).
  5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita.
  6. But trade and money-lending are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service (LIKE A SLAVE) is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.
  7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.
  8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely.
  9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra.



  1. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices.
  2. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana.
  3. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).
  4. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame.
  5. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those according to his ability, attains to the highest state.
  6. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be).
  7. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart.
  8. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims.
  9. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race.
  10. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda.
  11. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and his great learning shines brightly.



  1. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifices to the sages, to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.
  2. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifices in their organs (of sensation), without any (external) effort.
  3. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath.
  4. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root, always perform them through knowledge alone.
  5. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month,
  6. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifices, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice), at the end of the year Soma-offerings.
  7. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice).
  8. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh.


  1. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, water, or roots and fruits.
  2. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.
  3. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid those who are different.
  4. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one’s own interest).
  5. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifices, and of a pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule.
  6. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes, if he possesses property.


  1. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare.
  2. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden ear-rings.
  3. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the middle of the sky.
  4. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at his own image in water; that is a settled rule.
  5. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them.



  1. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with her in the same bed.
  2. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish.
  3. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will increase.
  4. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease.




  1. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at a woman who applies collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth a child.
  2. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen,
  3. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill,
  4. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.
  5. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.
  6. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.
  7. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.
  8. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.


  1. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes.
  2. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it.
  3. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures.
  4. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take off his garland.
  5. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things.
  6. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice, if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest).
  7. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals.
  8. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody.
  9. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain.


  1. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes.
  2. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning.
  3. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity.


  1. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion.
  2. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled.
  3. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been used by others.
  4. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured.
  5. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad.
  6. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth.
  7. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.
  8. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification.
  9. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act.
  10. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees.


  1. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat.
  2. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).



  1. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life.
  2. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms.
  3. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life.
  4. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Candalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins.
  5. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance.
  6. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.
  7. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe without (submerging) it.
  8. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men’s) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil.



  1. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes.
  2. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels.


  1. A king is declared to be equal in wickedness to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible crime.
  2. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells:



  1. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka,
  2. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika,
  3. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka.
  4. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents from a king.


  1. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman (BRAHMA MUHURTA= STARTING FROM 4-30 AM), and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda.
  2. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion).
  3. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence in Vedic knowledge.
  4. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half.
  5. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.
  6. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night.
  7. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.
  8. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.
  9. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita.










Written by London SWAMINATHAN

Date: 11 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20-34 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5311


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




This part of Third Chapter of Manu Smrti contains several Interesting and Mysterious things:

What is Mysterious?

See 231 (departed souls like riddles) and

274 (solar eclipse)

194-202 Strange Names for different types of Manes and Origin of Manes

Invisible Presence of departed souls- See 189

What is interesting?

This part gives severe blow to Aryan Immigration theory for two reasons: all the ingredients used are from tropical regions. No where else in the world we see such ceremonies.

It gives a severe blow to Aryan- Dravidian division; there is no such cultures as Dravidian; even in funeral ceremonies we see similar customs from south to north of the country.

Most Interesting Point

The Four Blessings sought from the departed souls:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)

What a Great Genius Manu is!

Four Types of Questions (see 254)

Brahmins are fire ! (See 212)

Departed souls are Nature Lovers (see 207)

Three Best People (see 185)

Manes are more important than Gods! (see 203)




  1. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by the presence of unworthy guests is purified, and the full description of the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.


Best People

  1. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
  2. A Trinaciketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Jyeshthasaman,

Tri naciketa= The Story of Naciketas in Katha Upanishad

Tri Suparna = Three Bird passage in Rig Veda 10-114-3

Jyeshta Saman= Excellent Chants in the Tandya Brahmana 21-2-3


  1. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand cows (as donation or gift), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Giving and receiving up to 20000 cows as gift is in the Rig veda and Mulavarman Yupa inscription of Indonesia (4th Century CE).

It is found in several Indian Inscriptions as well .

At least Three Brahmanas for the Srardha

  1. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.
  2. A Brahmana who has been invited to a rite in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha must act in the same manner.


  1. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them when they walk like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

(The departed souls come at the speed of wind and sit near the Brahmins.)


Brahmin becomes Pig!

  1. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks the appointment, becomes guilty of a crime, and in his next birth a hog/Pig.
  2. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver of the feast committed.
  3. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
  4. Now learn fully from whom all these manes derive their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.


  1. The various classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Marici and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
  2. The Somasads (soma drinkers) , the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas (Tasted by Fire), the children of Marici, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
  3. The Barhishads (Seated on the Sacrificial Grass) , born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,

Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

  1. The Somapas (Soma drinkers) those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs (Oblation Eaters) those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
  2. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
  3. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas (Fire Burnt) , the Anagnidagdhas (Non Fire Burnt) , the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas (Connected with Soma) , are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.



  1. But know also that there exist in this world countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
  2. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
  3. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).



  1. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes the Sraddhas, has been declared to be a means of fortifying the latter.
  2. Let him first invite a Brahmana in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.


  1. Let him make the Sraddha begin and end with a rite in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a rite in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.
  2. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cow dung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.



  1. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.
  2. The sacrificer shall make the invited Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
  3. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with those who are invited in honour of the gods.
  4. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana sacrificer shall offer oblations in the sacred fire, after having received permission to do so from all the Brahmana guests conjointly.


  1. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting the Sraddha, oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.


  1. But if no sacred fire is available, he shall place the offerings into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ‘What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’


  1. They also call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.
  2. After he has performed the oblations in the fire, and the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot where the cakes are to be placed.
  3. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which he poured out the libations of water.


  1. Having offered those cakes (PINDA) according to the prescribed rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with the roots of those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the three ancestors who partake of the wipings (lepa).




  1. Having next sipped water, turned round towards the north, and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, the sacrificer who knows the sacred texts shall worship the guardian deities of the six seasons and the manes.
  2. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).
  3. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).
  4. But if the sacrificer’s father is living, he must offer the cakes to three remoter ancestors; or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as one of the Brahmana guests.
  5. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.
  6. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha as a guest, or the grandson having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.



  1. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the guests, he shall give to each that above-mentioned portion of the cake, saying, ‘To those, Svadha!’
  2. But carrying the vessel filled with food with both hands, the sacrificer himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.
  3. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.
  4. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,
  5. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.
  6. All this he shall present to his guests, being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each dish, proclaiming its qualities.



  1. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.
  2. A tear sends the food to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.
  3. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.
  4. At a sacrifice in honour of the manes, he must let his guests hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.
  5. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly of each dish, and repeatedly invite them to eat by offering the food and (praising) its qualities.
  6. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.
  7. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.
  8. All the food must be very hot, and the guests shall eat in silence; even though asked by the giver of the feast, the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.



  1. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake of it.
  2. What a guest eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on his feet, that the Rakshasas consume.



  1. A Candala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.
  2. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.
  3. A boar makes the rite useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).
  4. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).
  5. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.
  6. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.
  7. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.
  8. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.
  9. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.
  10. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)
  11. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
  12. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.
  13. Having addressed the question, ‘Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ‘Rest either (here or at home)!’
  14. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ‘Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.
  15. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.



  1. At a Sraddha in honour of the manes one must use in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word


; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam= WAS IT COOKED WELL?

; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam = WAS IT PERFECT;

and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam= WAS IT SPLENDID?.

  1. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices.
  2. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods.
  3. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.
  4. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:


  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)


  1. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.
  2. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.
  3. The sacrificer’s first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, if she be desirous of bearing a son.
  4. Thus she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with the quality of goodness, and righteous.
  5. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.
  6. But the remnants shall be left where they lie until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the daily domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.




  1. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.
  2. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,
  3. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,
  4. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,
  5. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,
  6. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.
  7. The vegetable called Kalasaka, the fish called Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.
  8. Whatever food, mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless satisfaction.



  1. ‘May such a man the manes say be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and in the afternoon when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'(SOLAR ECLIPSE)
  2. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.



  1. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others.
  2. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.


  1. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon.
  2. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).
  3. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.
  4. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day.
  5. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day.
  6. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the daily Sraddha.


  1. They call the manes of fathers Vasus, those of grandfathers Rudras, and those of great-grandfathers Adityas; thus speaks the eternal Veda.
  2. Let him daily partake of the vighasa (LEFTOVER OFFERINGS) and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal of Brahmana guests and the remainder of a sacrifice is called amrita.
  3. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five daily great sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.





முஸ்லீம் நாட்டில் துர்கை, அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகள்! (Post No.5242)

WRITTEN by London swaminathan

Date: 21 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 9-24 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5242


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



உலகிலேயே மிகப்பெரிய முஸ்லீம் நாடு இந்தோநேஷியா. இங்கே 1500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு இந்துக்களின் ஆட்சி நடந்தது. இப்பொழுது இது பற்றி நிறைய புதிய தகவல்கள் வெளியாகி வருகின்றன. நான் மூன்று புஸ்தகங்களில் இருந்து தொகுத்து ஆங்கிலத்தில் எழுதிய நீண்ட கட்டுரையின் முக்கிய அம்சங்களை மற்றும் குறிப்பிடுகிறேன்.


இந்தோ நேஷியாவின் ஜாவா, சுமத்ரா, போர்னியோ, பாலி தீவுகள் நான்கிலும் ஏராளமான ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகள், ஜாவனிய கல்வெட்டுகள் உள்ளன. அவற்றிலிருந்து பல தகவல்கள் கிடைக்கின்றன.

சண்டி என்று துவங்கும் ஊர்ப்பெயர்கள் அனைத்தும் துர்க்கையின் பெயரில் அமைந்தவை. இங்குள்ள துர்க்கை இரு வடிவங்களில் காணப்படுகின்றன. எருமை அசுரனை வதைக்கும் மஹிஷாசுர மர்தினி கோலம்,  சோழர் கோவிலில் சாதாரணமாக நிற்பது போன்ற கோலம்.


துர்க்கை பற்றிப் பல கல்வெட்டுகள் உள; அவைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். பழங்கால கல்வெட்டுகளில் துர்க்கையின் சாபம் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. யாரேனும் அரசன் கொடுத்த தானத்தை கபளீகரம் செய்தாலோ ஊறு விளைவித்தாலோ துர்க்கா தேவி அவனைத் தண்டிப்பாள் என்று பொருள்படும் கல்வெட்டுகள் உள.


பிற்காலத்தில் வெற்றி வரம் தரும் தேவி என்று போற்றப்படுகிறாள்.

இதே போல அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். ஒன்று ரிஷி முனிவர்கள் போல ஜடாமுடியுடன் காட்சி தரும் கோலம்; மற்றொன்று தலைப்பாகை கட்டிய கோலம்.


மற்றொரு விநோதம்- பிரம்மாண்டமான பீமன் சிலைகளாகும். பஞ்ச பாண்டவர்களில் மல்யுத்த வீரனான பீமனின் பெரிய சிலைகள் உள. இவைகளில் சிலவற்றைப் பைரவன் என்று கருதுவோரும் உண்டு. பெரிய ஆண் உறுப்புகளைச் சொருகி வைக்கும்படி சிலைகள் வடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன. இதுவும் ஒரு தனி அம்சம்.


பிராஹ்மணர் ஆதிக்கம்

மிகப் பழங் காலத்திலேயே தமிழ் நாட்டுப் பிராஹ்மனணர்கள் யாக யக்ஞங்களுக்கு அழைக்கப்பட்டதும் தெரிகிறது. பழைய  கல்வெட்டுகள் பல்லவ கிரந்தம் போன்ற எழுத்துக்களில் உள்ளன. ஆரம்ப கால மன்னர்களின் பெயர்களும் பல்லவர் போல வர்மன் பெயரிலேயே உள்ளன.


மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டு முதல் தகவல் கிடைக்கிறது. மூல வர்மன் என்ற மன்னன் பஹு சுவர்ணக யாகம் செய்து பிராஹணர்களுக்குத் தங்கம் மற்றும் 20,000 பசு மாடுகள் தானம் செய்த செய்தி ஏழு ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகளில் உள்ளன. அவர்கள் தானம் பெற்ற பின்னர் யூப ஸ்தம்பங்களில் இதைப் பொறித்துள்ளனர்.


யூபம் என்ற ரிக் வேத ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத சொல் புறநானூற்றில் இரண்டு பாடல்களிலும் அதன் தமிழ் ஆக்கமான வேள்வித்தூணம் என்பது வேறு இரண்டு சங்கப் பாடல்களிலும் வருவதை ஏற்கனவே எழுதிவிட்டேன்.

மூல வர்மனின் தந்தை பெயர் அஸ்வ வர்மன். மற்றொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் பெயர் பூர்ண வர்மன்.


மூலவர்மன் யாகம் நடத்திய புனித பூமியின் பெயர் வப்ரகெசவ. இது போர்னியோவின் அடர்ந்த காட்டுக்குள் இருந்தது; 70 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் மனிதர்களின் காலடி படாத கன்னி பூமிக்குள் நுழைகிறோம் என்று ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள் உள்ளே நுழைந்த போது அதிசயமான பிராஹ்மண வேள்வித் தூண்களைக் கண்டு அசந்து போனார்கள்.


பூர்ணவர்மனின் பெயர் பொறித்த கற்கள் நிறைய கிடைக்கின்றன. ஒரு கல் ஆற்றோடையில் கிடந்தது. மற்றொரு பெரிய பாறையில் அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகள் பொறிகப்பட்டுள்ளன. பெரியோர்களின் காலடிச் சுவடுகளைப் பதித்து வணங்குவது இந்து மரபு. அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகளை விஷ்ணு பதம் என்று போற்றும் கல்வெட்டுக ளும் கிடைத்தன. அவனை உலகத்துக்கே ஆதாரம் என்றும் கல்வெட்டுகள் போற்றுகின்றன.

பூர்ண வர்மனின் தலைநகருக்குப் பெயர் தர்ம நகரம்; இது இப்போதைய இந்தோநேஷிய தலை நகரம் ஜாகர்த்தாவுக்கு அருகில் இருந்தது.



சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்திலும் மன்னனை, மநு சொன்னது போல, தெய்வமாகவே பார்த்தனர். இறைவன் என்பது மன்னனுக்கும் கடவுளுக்கும் கோயில் என்பது அரண்மனைக்கும் கடவுளின் இருப்பிடத்துக்கும் பயிலப்பட்டன.


சீன யாத்ரீகன் பாஹியான் பல சுவையான செய்திகளை அள்ளித் தெளிக்கிறான். “நான்  பொது ஆண்டு 414 ஆம் ஆண்டில் கப்பலைத் தள்ளும் காற்று துவங்கும் நாளுக்காக ஜாவாவில் தங்கியிருந்தேன்; இங்கு பிராஹ்மண மதம் கொடிகட்டிப் பறக்கிறது. புத்த மதம் பரிதாப நிலையில் உள்ளது” என்று பௌத்தன் (பாஹியான்) எழுதியுள்ளான். சீனாவுக்கு விரைந்து செல்ல காற்றின் திசைக்காக பாஹியான் காத்திருந்த போது கொடுத்த செய்தி இது.


தமிழர்களுக்கு பருவக் காற்றின் ரஹஸியம் தெரியும்; அந்தக் காற்று வீசத்துவங்கும் நாளில் புறப்பட்டால் இலங்கையிலிருந்து பாட்னா (பீஹார்) வந்து சேர ஏழே நாட்கள் போதும் அசோக மாமன்னனின் தூதுக்குழு இப்படி வந்த செய்தி மஹாவம்ஸத்தில் உளது ( எனது முந்தைய ஆராய்ச்சிக் கட்டுரைகளில் விவரம் காண்க)


இன்னொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் உதயணனுக்கும் மஹேந்திர தத்தாவுக்கும் பிறந்த மகன் ஐர்லங்கா ஆவான். ஆனக வாஞ்சன் என்பவன் காலத்தில் 27 கல்வெட்டுகள் வெளியாகின.


தமிழைப் பொறுத்த வரையில் சுமத்ராவில் ஒன்றும் மலேசியாவில் இரண்டுமாக மூன்று கல்வெட்டுகள் கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்டன. இவை 1000 ஆண்டுப் பழமை உடையவை. ஆனால் ஸம்ஸ்க்ருதக் கல்வெட்டுகள் ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேலாக (தென் கிழக்காஸிய நாடுகளில்) கிடைத்திருக்கின்றன.


தமிழ் சொற்களின் ரஹஸிய அர்த்தம்

வியட்நாம் நாட்டில் (சம்பா) கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்ட மிகப் பழைய கல்வெட்டு பாண்டியன் திருமாறன் என்பவனின் கல்வெட்டு ஆகும் ( நான் 1990-களில் லண்டன் “மேகம்” பத்திரிக்கையில் எழுதிய “வியட்நாமை ஆண்ட பாண்டியன்” என்ற கட்டுரையில் முழு விவரம் உளது; கண்டு மகிழக)


கடலுள் மாய்ந்த இளம்பெரும் வழுதி என்ற புறநானூற்றுப் பாண்டிய மன்னன் இந்திரன் அமுதம் பற்றி எழுதிய பாடல் ( 182) மிகவும் பிரஸித்தம். அவன் ஏன் கடலில் செத்தான்? தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளுக்குக் கப்பலில் செல்லும் போது புயலில் மாண்டான். அதை மறக்காமல் தமிழனின் பெருமையை உலகிற்குப் பறைசாற்ற புறநானூற்றைத் தொகுத்தளித்த மஹாதேவன் என்ற புலவனும் (தமிழில் பெருந்தேவன்) அப்படியே நமக்குக் “கடலுள் மாய்ந்த” என்ற பெயரைக் கொடுத்துச் சென்றார்.


கடல் சுவற வேல் விட்ட பாண்டியன் என்று திருவிளையாடல் புராணத்தில் ஒரு கதை உண்டு. கடலில் இருந்து நிலத்தை மீட்ட ‘நிலம் தரு வில் பாண்டியன்’ , பரஸுராமர் பற்றிய குறிப்புகளும் உண்டு. இதன் தாத்பர்யம்- அவர்கள் எல்லாம் கடலின் சீற்றத்துக்கு அஞ்சாது வில் தாங்கிய படைகளுடன் சென்று, தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளில் இந்து தர்மத்தை நிலை நாட்டினர் என்பதாகும்.


பொது ஆண்டு 385-ல் போர்னியோ காட்டுக்குள் தமிழ் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் யாகம் செய்ய, மூலவர்மன் அழைப்பில் சென்றிருந்தால் அதற்கு முன்னதாகவே தமிழ் மன்னர் ஆட்சி அங்கு இருந்திருக்க வேண்டும். அது மட்டுமல்ல. சாதவாஹனர் என்ற பிராஹ்மண மன்னர்களின் காசுகளில் கப்பல் படமும் உள்ளது இவர்கள் 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் ஆண்டவர்கள்.

மேலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷி என்ற தமிழ் பிராஹ்மண ரிஷியின் சிலைகள் பல நாடுகளில் கிடைப்பதும் திருஞான சம்பந்தரின் கோத்ரமான கௌண்டின்ய கோத்ரப் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் நாக ராணியைக் கல்யாணம் செய்துகொண்ட தென்கிழக்காஸிய நாட்டுக் கதைகளும் இதற்குச் சான்று பகரும்.


ஆக, தென்னக மன்னர்களும் பிராஹ்மணர்களும் முதலில் அங்கே காலடி எடுத்து வைத்தற்கு பல்லவர் எழுத்துக்களும் தமிழ் இலக்கியமும் உறுதுணையாய் நிற்கின்றன.


கட்டுரையில் காணப்படாத விஷயங்களை ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரையிலும் , இணைக்கப்பட்ட படங்களிலும் கண்டு மகிழ்க. 1920 ஆம் ஆண்டு டச்சு மொழி நூலில் இருந்து எடுக்கப்பட்ட அரிய புகைப்படங்களும் அடக்கம்.


அகஸ்தியர் கடலைக் குடித்தார் என்று புராணங்கள் சொல்லும். அகத்ஸ்யர் கடலைத் தாண்டி தென் கிழக்காஸியாவுக்குப் போனார் என்று அர்த்தம்.


இந்தோநேஷியாவில் துர்க்கை சிலையை வட புற சந்நிதிகளிலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷியின் சிலையைத் தென்புறங்களிலும் வைத்துள்ளனர் வடக்கில் இமய மலையில் இருந்த அகஸ்த்யரை தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் உருவாக்க சிவ பெருமான் அனுப்பிய கதை புராணங்கள் முதல் பாரதியார் பாடல் வரை உள்ளது அவர் தென் புறத்துக்கு வந்ததைச் சிறப்பிக்கும் முகத்தான் தென் வானத்தில் ஒளிரும் மிகப் ப்ரகாஸமான நக்ஷத்ரத்துக்கு அகஸ்த்ய நக்ஷத்ரம் என்றும் பெயர் சூட்டினர். அதன் அருகில் த்ரிஸங்கு சொர்கம் எனப்படும் நக்ஷத்ரத் தொகுதியைக் காணலாம்.




Ganesh and Navagraha in Japan!! (Post No.5125)



Date: 18 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-26  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5125


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Those who are interested in the ancient history of India and Japan must buy Lokesh Chandra’s book

‘Cultural Interflow Between Indian and Japan’ (published by International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi, 2014) It is in A 4 size with lots of pictures an diagrams. It contains lot of information which is not known to the outside world. Mr Lokesh Chandra and his father Dr Raghuvira are renowned scholars and authority on Indo- Japanese relations of ancient periods.


I am going to give you some interesting information only in bullet points; for full information one must read the book.

Mahbaharata in the Kabuki Theatre

The well known kabuki drama Naru-kami is derived from the legend of Rsyasrnga known in Japanese as Ikkaku Sennin, that is Ekasrnga. The whole legend has been translated from Chinese into French by Edouard Chavanes. Hsuan tsang mentions a hermitage in Gandhara where Ekasrnga lived near the foot hills of Swat mountains

Homa and Homa Kundas in Japan

Goma (homa in Sanskrit) is lit in metallic vessel on a wooden altar. A ninth century scroll in the Toji monastery has different homa altars for the worship of planets (Nava Graha) and 28 constellations (naksatra- isti). This Goma- ro – dan -yo scroll has coloured illustrations of the planets, constellations and their altars. Goma is the esoteric fire, the calm and the fury of the ritual rhythms in the cosmic counterpoint of invocations with Sanskrit mantras.

Gigantic Rock with Sanskrit hieronym

Along a road stands an oval rock about ten feet high on flat roundish base of another rock, with the Sanskrit monogram RO. Sanskrit letters implying deeper levels. A modern Japanese girl in mini, her hair dyed blonde and perhaps with a styrene injection for a round feminine form, stops by, graciously puts a tangerine on a piece of paper, as an offering to the planets. RO is the symbolic syllable of the Biijaakshara for Nava Graha Puja (Nava Graha= Nine Planets). Such are the frozen levels of culture ever echoing at different strata of existence and consciousness.

Bugaku and Gigaku

Bugaku and Gigaku dances are performed on the occasion of the Great Consecration ceremony at the Todaiji temple. Indian cultural influence is very easily recognised in bugaku’s structure. For instance one of the popular stories of Bugaku is the Bali Dance, which reproduces Ramayana’s famous story of the fight between Vali and Sugriva in the Kishkinda forest.

Gigaku, introduced twelve centuries ago, reproduces Indian legendary stories. Gigaku was also performed at the Great Buddha Consecration ceremony and moved spectators to laughter. Gikaku, masked comical dance, was believed to have been very popularly performed at the Todaji and other temples in Nara in those times.


Biwa= Veena

The largest lake in Japan, Lake Biwa,  is named after its close resemblance to the shape of a biwa. Thus, the Indian Viina, became the origin of Japan’s largest lake.

Buddhism in Japan

In 552 CE, the monarch of Paekche (Kudara/Korea) presented a gilt bronze image of Saakyamuni, Sutras, banners and umbrellas to the Japanese emperor Kimmei. The emperor replied that, “never from former days until now have we had the opportunity of listening to so wonderful a doctrine”.

Korea sent monks, a nun, a Buddhist image maker and an architect to the Japanese emperor in 577.

In 584, a stone image of Maitreya was brought from Paekche.


Indian monk Dharmabodhi (Hoodoo) came via China and settled in Hokkezan.

The Brahmin Archbishop

Floating in a sea of verdant woods in the golden ornament of the imposing roof of the Daibutsu-den “Hall of the Great Buddha” of the Todaiji temple. It enshrines the Viraat Rupa of Rocana, in the form of a gigantic statue, in the national temple eighth century Japan. Emperor Shomu had vowed to raise this statue to a height of 48 feet to symbolise the power of the profane and profound. Twelve years and immense materials were spent in casting the Daibutsu.


on 9th April 752 it was consecrated in a sumptuous ceremony, which was presided over by Bodhisena, the first historic Indian to have visited Japan. He was a Brahmin of Bharadvaja Gotra. Inspired by Manju Sri, he went to China to Wutai shan mountains sacred to Manju sri. At Imperial invitation, he arrived in Japan in 736 CE where he was warmly welcomed. The people knew him as the Baramon(Brahmin) Archbishop. He attained Samadhi on 25 February 760.


In Todaiji temple consecrated by the Brahmin Archbishop, we can view an expressive range of Nara sculptures of Brahma, Indra, Four Lokapaalass, Surya, Candra, Sarasvati and Sri Mahaadevi. Among them is a Krishna like figure playing the flute.


In front of the Great Hall of Buddha stands the eighth century octagonal bronze lantern adorned with musicians.


Largest Buddha statue in the largest wooden building is found here.


Bodhisena had rescued a  monk shipwrecked in the ocean on his way to China. This monk came to Japan along with him where he received a cordial welcome from monk Gyogi and was taken to the capital Nara in 736. His name was Buttestu (Buddhasthira??) He introduced music from his native land of Champa. He introduced Hindu- Buddhist music dances and dramas in Sanskrit.


Indian Cotton

Praajnaa (born 744 CE) was a monk from Kapisa who had studied at Nalanda University. In 781 he went to China and translated several Sutras. His writings in palm leaves were brought to Japan


In 799 an Indian was washed ashore somewhere in the Makawa province. A young man of twenty years, with nothing to cover his body except a straw coat and short drawers, he was stranded in a country where none understood him. Years later when he became conversant with Japanese, he said that he had come from India. He had seeds of cotton with him. He lived at the Kawadera temple at Nara. Two ancient chronicles Nihon -koki, and Ruiju-kokushi mention that he introduced the cultivation of cotton which became the most important clothing material. The Japanese words WATA or HATA for cotton are derived from Sanskrit ‘Pata’.

Ka, ka, ki, ki, ko, ku


India and Japan drink from common springs of culture. I go to children’s school and hear the Goju-on

a i u e o

ka ki ke, ke ko

It reminds me of my childhood when I recited, in like manner, the syllabary

Ka, Kaa, Ki, Kii, Ku, Kuu, Ke Kai …..

The Japanese language is written in the kana syllabary along with Kanji or Chinese characters. The kanji unites India and Japan at the deepest levels.

A Japanese child recites the IROHA poem, which has all the fifty sounds of the alphabet and every syllable occurs only once It is called Citrakaavya in  Sanskrit.

When many decades have passed, the child now matured, realises that he had sung impermanence in the IROHA, as he saw the cherry blossoms fade and fly away. It is a free translation of the Sanskrit poem.


One of the greatest poems in Japanese language, it was inspired by the Sanskrit work, Mahapari nirvana Sutra. To this day every Japanese child begins his education with this IROHA poem. Japan has preserved this stanza in original Sanskrit. It has been lost in India.

Ganesh Temples in Edo

The German doctor Phillip Franz von Siebold lived in Edo, Japan during he years 1823-28. He wrote Pantheon von Nippon (1832). He notes that Ganapati was popular among the masses in the Edo period, and there were several temples. The area is known as  Shoten Choo, Ganapati Township, to this day. I visited the Ganapati Temple Shotengu in the frequented area of Asakusa.  In 1970 I saw a huge gathering of young boys and girls who had come to pray for success in their courtship as he is Nandikesvara (Kangiten). Senior people too thronged for all kinds success.

There were 131 shrines to Sarasvati. The German text deserved to be translated into English to get vivid picture of vibrant Buddhism in Edo. In 1836 a shrine to Varuna was consecrated to prevent typhoons. The Japanese worshipped Indra for long life, Brahma to succeed in Imperial service, Varuna for rain, Garuda to cure poisoning and Mahaa  kaala (Good Time) for good business and for victory in war. Japan has the oldest functioning temple of Ganapati in the world.



My comments

The book by Lokesh Chandra has about 400 pages. It is an encyclopaedia on Indo-Japanese Cultural Links. If I give all the information in the book, it will be a gross violation of copyright rules. Everyone must buy the book and read it.


After reading the book, I feel Japan is a fertile field for spreading Hinduism. There we see a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.





Enku made 100,000 Chip Buddhas (see my article posted yesterday)




Brahmin Power in South East Asian Countries- (Post No 5095)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 10 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  9-46 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5095


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


Brahmin Power in Cambodia ,Thailand Burma and Vietnam

(Campa)- Post No 5095


n Cambodia, Brahmins maintained powerful hierarchy for many centuries. They were well organised. They came there around fifth century and increased in number due to a constant flow of immigrants from India. During the reign of Yasovarman 889 CE, Saivism was predominant. We learn from the following inscription that they enjoyed a position similar to that which was theirs in India.


The king,well versed in kingly duties, performed Koti Homa and Yajnas, for which he gave the priest s magnificent presents of jewels, gold etc.


The cult of the Royal God, though founded by Jayavarman II, 802 CE, did not reach the heights of its development until two centuries after wards, and was especially associated with Vaishnavism and the temple of Angkor Wat. This cult led Brahmins enjoying even more exalted position . The priest hood became hereditary in the family of Sivakaivalya, who enjoyed immense power. This sacerdotal dynasty almost threw the royal dynasty into the shade. Brahmins were depicted on the reliefs of Angkor Wat and Coedes has identified Drona and Visvamitra amongst them. In one of the relief s which illustrates a royal procession, it is interesting that the Brahmins were the only onlookers who do not prostrate before the king, as was also the case in India. In the reliefs aristocracy wear the chignon and the lower castes short hair.

One remarkable sign of the power of the Brahmins was that they had even marriage alliances with the princesses. Bakus, the descendants of ancient Brahmins, chose one from them to succeed if the royal family failed.


As early as the reign of Jayavarman V, Buddhism and Hinduism got mixed and the Brahmin purohitas were expected to be well versed in Buddhist prayers and rites. But the Brahmin s of Cambodia never sank so low as did those of Campa (modern Vietnam). In the Po Nagar inscription of Campa, we read that the feet of the king were worshiped,even by Brahmins and priests.



In Thailand


Though the religion of Thailand was Buddhism the royalty recruited Brahmin s from Cambodia. For centuries Brahmin s enjoyed quite an important position.

The famous inscription dated about 1361 CE of King Dharma Raja mentioned the kings knowledge of the Vedas and of astronomy. The inscription on the Siva statue found at Kamben bejra recorded the desire of King Dharmasokaraja,(1510 CE), to exalt both Hinduism and Buddhism.


Brahmins had access to sacred books and law books and so they served the royal s in various capacities. The epigraph ic records demonstrate the powerful influence of purohitas in Burma and Cambodia, where they often served under successive rulers and provided continuity to the government in troubled times. In ninth century Angkor, for instance, Indravarman I had the service of Sivasoma, who studied VedantA under Shankara.


Indian Brahmins are occasionally mentioned in the south East Asian inscription s and one wondered how Brahmins travelled abroad when Manu and other lawmakers ban foreign travel for Brahmins. These prohibitions may have had little practical effect, and would n of have deterred ambitious men lured by the hope of honour and fortune in a distant land. In fact they were invited by some rulers.


Not only in the Hindu courts in Cambodia but also in the courts of Pagan in Burma and Sukothai in Thailand, the Brahmins conducted great ceremonies,such as the Royal Consecration and-functioned as ministers and counsellors . The grand ceremony in Pagan required the services of numerous Brahmins.


In Cambodia Jayavarman VIII built a temple for the scholar priest Jayamangalaartha and likewise for the Brahmin Vidyesavid. Who became Royal sacrificial Priest. The Chinese visitor Chou Ta kuan refers to the presence of Brahmins wearing sacred thread.


We have evidence of use of Sanskrit even in Sri Lanka. Thirteenth century work Kundamala was composed in Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, according to some scholars.


Source: Source books- From Turfan to Ajanta, Edited by Eli Franco and Monika Zin, Lumbini International Research Institute, Nepal;2010