Pearl is available from Twenty Sources! (Post No.3538)

a6727-nose_ring_wikipedia

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 12 January 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-20

 

Post No.3538

 

 

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contact:  swami_48@yahoo.com

Tamil literature lists 20 places as the sources of pearls . Biologists know only one place where pearl is born. Sanskrit literature lists only eight places but these are not scientifically proved.

Twenty places according to Tamil verse from Uvamana Sangraham and Rathina Surukkam:
Oysters
Horn of elephant/tusk
Horn of boar

Bamboos

Areca nut Tree

Special Type of Banana Tree

Chalanchalam (Rare Type of right whorld Chank

Hear of Fish

Head of Crane

Lotus

Neck of women

Sugar cane

Paddy

Snake (cobra)

Clouds

Iguana

Moon

Chanks

Head of a crocodile
Teeth of cows

Varahamihira lists the following eight places in his Brhat Samhita:-

 

Following is from 2015 post: “Eight Types of Pearls: Varahamihira’s 1500 year old Price list”

17f95-pearl-large

Pearls are produced by:

Elephants, Oysters, Snakes, Clouds, Chanks, Bamboos, Whales, Boar (Brhat Samhita, Chapter 81)

Pearls come from eight areas

 

Simhalaka (Sri Lanka), Paraloka (Travancore coast), Surashtra (Gujarat), Tampraparani River (in South Tamil Nadu), Parasava (Iran), a Nothern country, Pandya vataka and the Himalayas.

Kautilya’s Artha Shastra (Third Century BCE) mentioned Pandya Kavata pearl. Fahien (399-414 CE) mentioned Simhala/Sri Lankan pearls.

Paraloka is a confusing term. There is one river called Parali in Kerala and there is an island Parali in the Lakshadweep. But the interesting thing is that itself sounds pearl in Tamil (Paral in Tamil is pearl in English and this town name is Paral+i).

Elephant Pearls:

 

Pearls are also obtained from the head and tusks of Bhadra class of elephants, says Varahamihira. But Varahamihira makes it clear that he repeats what the ancients believed about the elephant pearls. (This means they are not found even in Varahamihira days who lived around 510 CE)

He speaks about the pearls found in Boar tusk, Whales etc. Then he gives details about the pearls that are found in the seventh layer of winds. But the heaven dwellers will catch them before it falls on to earth!

Then he categorises Nagaratna as pearls. If the kings wear Nagaratna pearls enemies will be destroyed and his reputation will increase.
Kalidasa speaks of pearls from the head of elephants

xxx

From my 2012 post “Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Sangam Literature”

 
Pearl in the Oyster

 

If the rain falls on Swati star day the oysters open their mouth to drink the rain drops and the rain drops become pearls-This was the belief of ancient Indians including Tamils.
Bhartruhari and Sangam Tamil literature say that the pearls are created by the oysters on a particular day,I.e. The oysters open their mouths when there is rain falling down on a day under the star Swati(one of the 27 stars ). Biologists say that the sand particles that enter the living oysters secrete a liquid which covers the irritant to become a pearl.
Malavi.1-6: Kalidasa says , ‘the skill of a teacher imparted to a worthy pupil attains greater excellence, as the water of a cloud is turned in to a pearl in a sea shell.In Puram 380 ,Karuvur Kathapillay says the same about the origin of pearls. Bhartruhari makes it more specific by saying the rain on Swati Nakshatra days become pearls. Biologits also confirm on full moon days lot of sea animals like corals release their eggs or spores. So far as India is concerned it might have happened in that particular (Swati star with Moon) season.

Kalidasa gives more similes about pearls. He describes the river that is running circling a mountain as a garland of pearls ( Ragu.13-48 and Mega.-49)

Other references from Kalidasa: sweat drops as pearl:Rtu.6-7; tears as pearls: Mega 46, Ragu VI 28,,Vikra V 15; smile-KumarI-44, water drops on lotus leaf:Kumara VII 89

 

Pearls obtained from the head of elephants:Kumarasambhava 1-6, Raghu.9-65; In Tamil literature: Murugu 304, Malaipadu 517, Puram 170Natri.202, Kurinchi.36, Akam.282 etc.

 

In Tamil the teeth are compared to the pearls: Ainkur. 185, Akam 27

Since Gulf of Mannar is the main source of pearls in India ,thre are innumerable references to pearls in Tamil literature. Even Kautilya refers to the pearls from Pandya country. Korkai was the harbour city where the pearl fishing was flourishing. Aink 185,188, Akam 27,130 and Natri 23mention pearls from Korkai.

(for more information, go to  the two articles mentioned  by me

–Subham–

 

THE STORY OF PARIJATA TREE (Post No.3495)

Wikipedia Picture of Parijata at Kittoor in Uttar Pradesh

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 29 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London:-  17-37

 

Post No.3495

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

This mythical (Parijata) tree rose of the milk ocean and Indra planted it in his garden. “Its bark was gold, and it was embellished with young sprouting leaves of a copper colour, and fruit stalks bearing numerous clusters of fragrant fruits.”

 

It is related that once Narada brought a flower of this tree to Dwaraka and presented it to his friend Krishna. He waited to see to to which of his wives Krishna gave the flower. The flower was given to Rukmini, and Narada went straight to Satyabhama and made a show of sorrow. On her enquiring why he was not in good cheer, the sage told Satyabhama, that he had presented Krishna with a flower of the Parijata tree thinking that she was her favourite wife and he would present it to her, but was grieved to find that Krishna had given it to Rukmini.

 

Satyabhama’s jealousy was roused and she asked Narada what could be done to spite Rukmini. The sage advised her to ask Krishna to bring the Parijata tree itself from heaven and plant it near her house. After giving this advice, he went back to the celestial region and told Indra to guard the Parijata tree carefully as thieves were about.

 

Satyabhama repaired to the anger-chamber, (ancient Hindu kings who had more than one wife had room or house, called anger-chamber, set apart for a dissatisfied queen to occupy and demand redress of her grievances) and when Krishna came to her shereviled him for cheating her.

“You pretend that I am your favourite wife, but treat me as Rukmini’s handmaid she said, and asked him what made him present the Parijata flower to Rukmini. Krishna admitted his guilt and asked her what he could do in expiation. She wanted possession of the tree. Krishna immediately proceeded to Amaravati, Capital City of Indra’s Empire. Krishna stole into Indra’s grove and started uprooting the tree. The king of the gods came upon the scene and caught the thief red-handed but seeing who his despoiler was, he allowed him, after some show of resentment, to take the tree to Dwaraka, Capital city of Krishna’s empire.

 

It is fabled that, after Krishna’s death, Dwaraka was submerged in the ocean and the Parijata tree was taken back to heaven.

 

Source: EPICs, MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF INDIA by P Thomas

Coral Jasmine is also called Parijata

 

Botanical Information: Two different plants are known as Parijata one is Coral Jasmine (Pavala Mallikai in Tamil) and another is Baobob Tree in Uttar Pradesh; See the picture taken from Wikipedia)

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

Tulsi Leaf is heavier than Lord Krishna! (Post No. 3492)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 28 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London:-  15-42

 

Post No.3492

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

STORY OF THE TULSI PLANT (OCIMUM SANCTUM)

 

This plant is sacred to Vishnu. Its leaves are supposed to possess medicinal properties. Orthodox Hindus plant it in their gardens and and compounds and worship it.

 

A story is told how even Rukmini, the chief wife of Krishna, and an incarnation of Lakshmi, gave pride of place to Tulsi.

Narada, one day, visited Satyabhama, one of the wives of Krishna, and this lady confided to the sage that she wished to obtain Krishna as her husband in all her future births, and asked him how this could be done.

Narada said that the best way of ensuring this was to give her husband to Narada himself, as anyting given to a Brahmin could be depended upon to return to the giver in future births in manifold forms. Carried away by Narada’s eloquence Satyabhama gave her husband to Narada and the latter asked Krishna to work as his page, gave him his Vina to carry and proceeded towards the celestial regions.

 

The other wives of Krishna, on coming to know of this rushed to the sage and implored him to return their husband. They reviled Satyalhara for her presumption, and this lady repented on her rash act and requested Narada to return Krishna to her.

 

Narada now disclosed to them that it was a sin to receive anything in charity from a Brahmin and told them they could buy their husband from him if they cared to. He was asked to name his price and he demanded Krishna’s weight in gold. The ladies piled up their ornaments in one pan of the scales, but when Krishna sat in the other this one came in a thud. Now they sent for Rukmini who was not in the crowd. She came with a leaf of the Tulsi plant, asked the ladies to remove the ornaments from the pan and, when this was done, placed the leaf in the pan when Krishna was lifted upwards in the other. Rukmini now told all the ladies that Tulsi was more beloved to Krishna than any of them.

 

On the eleventh day of Kartik (october-November) a ceremony is performed in honour of Tulsi and her marriage with Vishnu. “This ceremony opens the marriage season among high caste Hindus. It is said that he who performs this marriage ceremony assuming that Tulsi is his daughter, gets all the benefits of Kayadandan, (giving away a daughter in marriage),a very meritorious act.

 

Source:Epics, Myths and Legends of India by P Thomas, Year 1961

 

–Subham–

Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 27 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London:-  13-05

 

Post No.3489

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

The amazing thing about India is it was the largest country in the world 2000 years ago. Invaders like Alxander, Genghis khan wetn from one end to the other part of the world and plundered the wealth of the countries they invaded. Before they returned to their starting points, whatever they “conqurered” broke into pieces. But Bharat was united for long time, though there were so called “56 Desas” (countries or Kingdoms). The second amazing thing about the olden days is that all the Tamil and Sanskrit poets followed the same customs in such a vast space. There was no internet or mobile phone or fast transport and yet they did it!

 

Kalidasa sings about nature’s orchestra in Meghaduta, Raghuvamsa and Kumara sambhava. Tamil poets Kapilar and Kamban echoed it in their verses.

 

Kapilar lived in age nearer to Kalidasa. He was the Sangam period poet who contributed the highest number of poems. He and Kalidasa sang about the flute music that originated in the bamboo forest. The holes made by the beetles in the bamboos produced music when the wind passed through its holes. Whenever the clouds made thunderous noise it served as the drum beats. Moreover, it echoed through the caves in the mountains.

 

When there are rainy clouds with rolling thunderous sound naturally the peacocks begin to dance. The forest is full of noises from deer, frogs and song birds. This kindled the imagination of the poets to sing beautiful verses. Sudraka, author of the Sanskrit Drama Mrcha katika (The Clay Cart) also used such imagery.

 

Let us look at the verses from Kalidasa:

 

“Who by filling the holes of the bamboos with wind breathed from the mouths of the caves, appears as if he wishes to play an accompaniment to the Kinnaras, singing in high pitch”–Kumarasambhava 1-8

xxx

And in the Meghaduta, Kalidasa addresses the Cloud Messenger (megha duta):

“The wind breathing through the hollow bamboos makes sweet music

woodland nymphs sing with passion-filled voices

of the victory over the Triple City (Tri pura);

If your thunder rumbles in the glens like a drum

would not the ensemble then be complete

for the Dance-Drama of the Lord of Beings?

xxx

the same thing is repeated in the Raghu vamsa (2-12 and 4-73)

 

While Dilipa is on his way he heard the hum and thrum of nature that seemed to be the full score singing of georgic deities to the accompaniment of high-pitched fluty bamboos while the air is filling their holes like a flutist, and he is all ears for that symphony as if it is having the sonata form of his glory. [2-12]

The soft breeze causing murmuring rustle in the leavers of birch trees and melodious sounds in bamboo trees, and surcharged with the coolness of the sprays of River ganga has adored Raghu on his way. [4-73]

Tamil Poets Love of Nature

 

Kapila, the Brahmin poet of Sangam age, sang the highest number of verses in the Sangam literature. He was a great Sanskrit scholar and must have mastered Kalidasa who lived just a few hundred years before Kapila. When a Northern King by name Brhat Dutta ridiculed Tamil he called him, and taught Tamil and made him to compose verses in Tamil. His poems were also included in the Tamil Sangam literature. To impress upon Brhat Dutta, Kapilar composed a poem Kurinji Pattu. It is nearly an imitation of Kalidasa. Kapila must have used Sanskrit to teach him Tamil

 

In the Akananuru verse 82, Kapilar used the bamboo flute music imagery of Kalidasa. But it has more than what Kalidasa said; here is a rough translation of the Tamil verse:-

“Beetles made holes in the bamboo trees; the wind blowing through the holes produced sweet music; on the other side the water falls made big noise by rolling the big stones; deer made noise; the humming of the bees came from another direction. Hearing this the peacocks danced and the monkeys were the audience! For the poet Kapilar it was like an orchestra with wind sound as flute, water falls as drums, deer cry as a musical instrument, humming of the beetles as lute and the peacock as bard’s wife and monkeys as the fans.

Kamban who composed Ramayana in Tamil, also has a similar scene in the Kishkinda Kanda. He describes the rainy season beautifully:

Humming of the beetles sounded like lute; the thundering clouds were like the playing of drums; peacocks looked like the girls with bangles in their arms. Red colour Kanthal flowers looked like the lamps on the stage. Karuvilam flowers looked like the eyes of the onlookers.

It is very interesting to compare both Tamil and Sanskrit literature and see the same similes, same messages and same approach in both of them

–Subham–

 

 

நச்சு மாமரம் ஆயினும் கொலார்- மாணிக்கவாசகர் (Post No. 3470)

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 21 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-13

 

Post No.3470

 

 

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contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

இந்துக்கள் கருணை மிகுந்தவர்கள்; குறிப்பாக செடி கொடிகளிடத்திலும் பறவை, விலங்குகளிடத்திலும் பேரன்பு கொண்டவர்கள். முல்லைக்குத் தேர் ஈந்தான் பாரி மன்னன்; மயிலுக்குப் போர்வை ஈந்தான் பேகன் என்னும் மன்னன். சிவபெருமான் சுவீகார புத்ரனாக எடுத்த தேவதாரு மரத்துக்கு பார்வதி தங்கக் குடங்களிலிருந்து தண்ணீர் வார்த்தாள்; இது குமரக் கடவுளுக்கு அவள் தாய்ப்பால் கொடுத்தது போல இருந்தது என்று காளிதாசன் ரகு வம்சத்தில் (2-36/39) கூறுகிறான். மேகதூதம் என்னும் நூலில் தனது காதலி ஒரு மந்தார மரத்தை மகன் போல வளர்ப்பதைக் கண்டு வா என்று மேகத்திடம் யக்ஷன் கூறுவதாக கவி புனைந்துள்ளான்.

 

பாரதியாரோ “காக்கை குருவி எங்கள் ஜாதி” என்று சொல்லிவிட்டு மலையையும் கடலையும் கூட தங்கள் கூட்டம் என்பார்.

சங்க இலக்கிய நூலான நற்றிணையில் ஒரு பெண் ஒரு புன்னை மரத்தை அன்போடு சகோதரி போலக் கருதி அதற்கு பாலும் நெய்யும் ஊற்றி வளர்த்த பாடல் உள்ளது (நற்றிணை 172).

 

சாகுந்தல காவியத்தில் சகுந்தலை என்ற கானகப் பெண் செடிகொடிகளுக்க்ப் பெயர் சூட்டுவது, செடிக்குத் தண்ணீர் ஊற்றாமல் சாப்பிடப் பாகாமல் இருப்பது, ரிஷி முனிவர்கள் செடி கொடி மரங்களைப் புதல்வர்களாகப் பாவிப்பது ஆகியவற்றை காளிதாசன் பாடுகிறான்.

விஷ மரமானாலும் கூட மனிதர்கள் வெட்ட மாட்டார்கள் என்று காளிதாசன் குமார சம்பவ காவியத்தில் பாடுகிறான் (2-55).

இதையே மாணிக்க வாசகரும் திருவாசகத்தில் சொல்லுவது ஒப்பிடற்பாலது:

 

விச்சதின்றியே விளைவு செய்குவாய்

விண்ணு மண்ணக முழுதும் யாவையும்

வைச்சு வாங்குவாய் வஞ்சகப் பெரும்

புலையனேனையுன் கோயில் வாயிலிற்

பிச்சனாக்கினாய் பெரிய அன்பருக்

குரியனாக்கினாய் தாம் வளர்த்ததோர்

நச்சு மாமரமாயினுங் கொலார்

நானும் அங்கனே யுடைய நாதனே

–திருச்சதகம், திருவாசகம், பாடல் 96

 

பொருள்:-

விதை இல்லாமலே செடிகொடிகளை வளரச் செய்பவன் நீ; விண்ணுலகம், மண்ணுலகம் ஆகியவற்றை நிலைபெறச் செய்து, உரிய காலத்தில் அவைகளை, அழிப்பவனும் நீயே; புலையனைப் போன்ற என்னையும் உன் கோவிலின் முன்னே வைத்துப் பித்தனாக்கினாய் —அடியார்களுக்கு உரியவானாக ஆக்கிவைத்தாய்.  உலகத்தார் தாமே வளர்த்த மாமரங்கள் நச்சுத்தனமை எய்தினாலும் கொல்ல மாட்டார்கள்— என்னை அடிமையாக உடைய தலைவனே! யானும் அத்தகையேன் ஆவேன்.

 

 

 

 

“மரம் சா மருந்தும் கொள்ளார்”– என்று தமிழ் நூல்கள் பகரும். மருந்தே வேண்டினும் அந்த மரம் சாகும் அளவுக்கு அதன் பட்டைகளைத் தோலுரிக்க மாட்டார்கள்.

 

மாணிக்க வாசகரும் காளிதாசனும் ஒரே கருத்தைப் பாடி இருப்பது இமயம் முதல் குமரி வரை ஒரே சிந்தனை நிலவுவதற்கு எடுத்துக் காட்டு.

 

மரங்களை வெட்டாதே என்று காவிரிப் பூம்பட்டினத்துக் காரிக்கண்ணனார் பாடிய பாடலும் புறநானூற்றில் (57) வருகிறது:-

 

கடிமரம் தடிதல் ஓம்பு – நின்

நெடுநல் யானைக்குக் கந்து ஆற்றாகவே– என்கிறார் புலவர்.

 

 

மரங்கள் வாழ்க! நச்சு மரங்களும் வாழ்க!!

Please read my earlier posts on Kalidasa:

1.Gem stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature

2.Holy River Ganges in Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature

3.Gajalakshmi in Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature

4.Sea in Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature

  1. Bird Migration in Kalidasa and Tamil literature

6.Hindu Vahanas in Kalidasa and tamil literature

7.Amazing Statistics on Kalidasa

8.Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st Century BC

 

9.சங்கத்தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் காளிதாசன் உவமைகள்

  1. காளிதாசனின் நூதன உத்திகள்: தமிழிலும் உண்டு

11. Lord Shiva and Tamils adopted Trees! (Posted on 6 July 2013)

 

12. சிவனுக்கும் தமிழர்களுக்கும் மரங்கள்- சுவீகார புத்ரர்கள்! (Posted on 6 July 2013)

 

 

–Subham–

Aristophanes, Vashistha and the Frog Song in the Rig Veda ( Post No.3452)

Research Article written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 15 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London:- 14-32

 

Post No.3452

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Frog song in the Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world, is echoed in Greek Aristophanes’ work and Kamba Ramayana in Tamil. These works span at least 3000 years. Croaking of frogs as inspired three great writers!

 

The seventh Mandala of Vashistha is placed third in the chronological order of ten mandalas. This means it forms the oldest section of the Rig Veda. Greek writer Aristophanes wrote The Frog in 405 BCE. Kamban wrote his verse on frog 1000 years after the Greek author.

Max Muller says that the panegyric of the frogs in the Rig Veda, is a satire on the priests; and it is curious to observe the same animal was chosen by the Greek satirist Aristophanes.

 

Following is the translation of Ralph T H Griffith:

1.They who lay quiet for a year, the Brahmans who fulfil their vows,

The Frogs have lifted up their voice, the voice Parjanya hath inspired.

 

2.What time on these, as a dry skin lying in the pool’s bed, the floods of heaven descended,

The music of the Frogs comes forth in concert like the cows lowing with their calves beside them.

 

3.When at the coming of the Rains the water has poured upon them as they yearned and thirsted,

One seeks another as he talks and greets him with cries of pleasure as a son his father.

 

4.Each of these twain receives the other kindly, while they are revelling in the flow of waters,

When the Frog moistened by the rain springs forward, the Green and Spotty both combine their voices.

 

5.When one of these repeats the other’s language, as he who learns the lesson of the teacher,

Your every limb seems to be growing larger as ye converse with eloquence on the waters.

 

6.Oneis Cow bellow and Goat-bleat the other, one Frog is Green and one of them is Spotty.

They bear one common name, and yet they vary, and, talking, modulate the voice diversely.

 

7.As the Brahmans, sitting round the brimful vessel talk at he Soma rite of Atiratra,

So, Frogs, ye gather round he pool to honour this day of all the year, the first of Rain-time.

 

8.These Brahmans, with the Soma juice, performing their year long rite, have lifted up their voices;

And these Adhvaryus, sweating with their kettles, come forth and show themselves, and none are hidden.

 

9.They keep the twelve month’s God appointed order, and never do men neglect the season.

Soon as the Rain-time in the year returneth, those who were heated kettles gain their freedom.

 

10.Cow-bellow and Goat-bleat have granted riches, and Green and Spotty have vouchsafed us treasure.

The Frogs who give us cows in hundreds lengthen our lives in the most fertilizing season.

This poem gives additional information such as

1.There was year long Fire ceremonies and Brahmins observed silence or something like that.

2.The 12 month a year was our contribution to the world. The Pancha Bhutas (five elements), the six seasons all show that Hndus were far advanced in every filed before the Greeks, Sumerians and the Egyptians.

3.The decimal system is also our gft to the world; it is used in hundreds of hymns in the Rig Veda

4.This is a beautiful poem on nature and it shows how much the Vedic Hindus loved the nature.

5.In the poem Brahmins and frogs are interchangeable.

6.We don’t fully understand this poem now. Even with Sayana’s commentary we cant understand it completely.

Kamba Ramayanam

Kamban was a great poet who translated Ramayana in tamil. He used the simile of Frog in the Kishkanda Canto. He says,

The frogs are making loud noise in the rainy season and became quiet when the rains stopped. It is like the children who learn from the teacher making loud noise and the intellectuals keeping quiet in the assembly of fools.

 

Bharti, the greatest Tamil poet of modern era also was influenced by this hymn.

Bharati on Cats

The greatest of the modern Tamil poets Subramanya Bharati says in his beautiful poem Tom Tom:
We have in our home
A pet, a white cat,
She gave birth to kittens
Each of a different hue.

Ash coloured was one kitty,
Jet black was another;
A third vivid like a viper;
Milky-white was a fourth.

Skin colours do vary
But they are of the same stock.
Can you call one colour superior
And another inferior?

Complexions may vary
But all men are one.
We are all uniformly human
In our thoughts and deeds.

 

Greek Frogs

Aristophanes was the greatest comic playwright of ancient Greece. His comedies are the earliest roots of the film, theatre and television comedies we enjoy today. Other ancient writers list 40 plays by Aristophanes; only 11 of these have survived to the present. He wrote The Frogs in 405 BCE.

 

Frogs, or The Frogs is one of Aristophanes’s greatest comedies and is justly celebrated for its wit and keen commentary on Athenian politics and society. It is the last surviving work of Old Comedy and is thus also notable for heralding a passing era of literature. While it is a comedy, it is also a trenchant political satire and expresses Aristophanes’s views on Athenian democracy, the value of poetry

 

 

Born in the city of Athens he started writing before he was 20.  Aristophanes lived through a period of great political and social change. For 27 years Athens fought a war against its arch rival Sparta. The eventual defeat of Athens brought to an end the greatest of ancient Greek civilization and was followed by a time of political instability during which Athens was ruled by dictators and corrupt governments.

 

Aristophanes wrote plays about the changes he saw going around him.

 

Many of Aristophanes’ plays are satires. He criticizes political leaders by making them seem ridiculous; often the leaders are out witted by the hero of the play, who is portrayed as an ordinary citizen.

Aristophanes also made fun of people such as philosophers, teachers and lawyers, whom he felt corrupted society. Nobody was shape from his sharp words even the most respected figures of the time are made to look foolish.

 

In his play the great Greek Philosopher and teacher Socrates is portrayed as a mad man who has an evil influence on the young people of Athens.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Whales in Kalidasa’s work and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3427)

Research Article Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 7 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 16-43

 

Post No.3427

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

(Tamil version of this research article is also posted)

 

Kalidasa, India’s greatest poet, who lived in the first century BCE talks about whales in his work Raghuvamsa. Kalidasa was one of the geniuses of the world. He is well versed in all the subjects from astronomy to zoology. In Raghuvamsa, he describes the whale and ‘the water’ that was coming out of its holes on the head.

 

Following is the translation of Raghuvamsa 13-10

“These whales with these wide opened mouths take in the water along with the marine creatures into them, and holding their jaws together, jet out water through the blowholes on their heads”.

Science fact: Though it is not water but the hot air breathed out, it sprinkles water during this exhaling. The hot air thrown out or exhaled condescends and sprinkles water.

 

Tamil poets who lived 200 years ago also repeats what Kalidasa said in his Raghuvamsa. There are two verses in Natrinai (132 and 291) where in we come across whales and sperm whale that contains ‘oil’ in its head.

 

An anonymous poet says in verse 132: “ Whole town is sleeping; there is no one who is awake. The mouthed whale gushes out water. When the cold and noisy wind blows into the streets there is drizzling.  The water comes into the house through the holes in the door. Even the sharp toothed dog shivers.”

 

In verse 291, famous poet Kapilar says:-The water birds stand in the muddy waters like the soldiers of a king’s army to eat the fat/oil headed (Sperm) whale.(Probably the whale got  stranded in the muddy water).

 

Another anonymous poem found in Natrinai 175 says, “the fishermen light the lamps made up of oyster shells, filled with fish oil in the coastal areas.

Picture of a stranded Sperm Whale

These poems show clearly that the ancient Indians know about the whales. the reference is in both Tamil and Sanskrit

texts. Their belief was also the same. They did believe the whales threw out water through their blow holes. They used fish oil as a fuel.

 

South Indian coasts were frequented by whales and dolphins 2000 years ago. now we see only stranded whales.

 

Big Whale Bone

Tamil poet Kamban who made Ramayana in Tamil also spoke about whale bone on the sea shore (Kishkinda Canto, Dundhubi section). When Lord Rama saw a big and dry bone on the sea shore, he asked Sugreeva what it was. He wondered whether it was a skeleton of a whale. But Sugreeva explained it was the skeleton of Dundhubi killed by Vali.

 

From this we come to know it was not uncommon to see a whale bone intact on the sea shore.

 

Makara and Sura in Tamil and Sanskrit:

Ancient poets used words like Makara and Sura for all the aquatic creatures (shark fish) and mammals (whales and dolphins) with a strangely shaped mouth. But to differentiate it from one another, they added some pre-fix. Old commentators due to lack of knowledge in Biology, interpreted every big creature as big fish.

 

–subham–

 

 

ஜெயலலிதா சொன்ன யானைக் கதை(Post No.3422)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 6 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 5-58 am

 

Post No.3422

 

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Jayalalitha’s Strange Elephant Story (Dinamani 6-12-2016)

 

காலஞ்சென்ற முதலமைச்சர் செல்வி ஜெயலலிதா கேட்ட கதை தினமணி பத்திரிகையில் வெளியானது. இது போல யானைகளின் அபார, அபூர்வ அறிவு பற்றிய கதைகளை நான் வெளியிட்டுள்ளேன். உ. வே.சாமிநாத அய்யர் எழுதிய கதையையும், காஞ்சி பரமாசார்ய சுவாமிகள் யானையை சமாதானப் படுத்திய கதையையும் வெளியிட்டேன். ஆகவே இந்தக் கதையில் உண்மை இருக்கும்:–

 

யானைகளின் மனதையும் அறிந்தவராக முதல்வர் ஜெயலலிதா திகழ்ந்தார். ஆண்டுதோறும் யானைகளுக்கு புத்துணர்வு முகாம் நடத்த உத்தரவிட்டார். யானைகள் தனக்கு மிகவும் பிடித்தமானவை என்பது குறித்து ஜெயலலிதாவே கூறியதாவது:
நீரும் நெருப்பும் திரைப்படத்தின் படப்பிடிப்புக்காக முதுமலை காட்டுக்குச் சென்றிருந்தேன். அந்தப் படத்தில் எம்ஜிஆர் கதாநாயகன். நாங்கள் இருவரும் நடித்த ஒரு காதல் காட்சியில் நிறைய யானைகள் இடம் பெற்றன. முதுமலைக் காட்டில் மரங்களை வீழ்த்துவது, அந்த மரங்களை வெட்டும் இடத்துக்கு கொண்டு சேர்ப்பது, வெட்டிய மரத் துண்டுகளை வரிசையாக அடுக்கி வைப்பது, பின்னர் அவற்றை லாரிகளில் ஏற்றுவது போன்ற பணிகளுக்காக யானைகள் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டன.
அந்த யானைகளுக்கு பயிற்சி அளிக்கப்பட்டு, நன்றாகப் பழக்கப்படுத்தப்பட்டு மிகவும் சாதுவாக இருந்தன. அங்கே அவற்றில் மிகப்பெரிய யானை ஒன்று என் கவனத்தைஈர்த்தது.

 
அந்த யானை குறித்து பாகன் சொன்னவை:
அந்தப் பாகனுக்கு மிகவும் அழகான இளம் மனைவி இருந்தாளாம். ஆனால், அவள் மிகவும் முன் கோபியாம். அண்மையில் பாகனுக்கும், அவரது மனைவிக்கும் இடையே ஏதோ மனப் பூசல் ஏற்பட, இருவருக்கும் இடையே வாய்ச்சண்டை வலுத்தது. இதனால், கோபம் அடைந்த பாகனின் மனைவி வீட்டைவிட்டு வெளியேறி, தனது பிறந்த வீட்டுக்குச் சென்றுவிட்டாள். அவளைச் சமாதானம் செய்வதற்காக எத்தனையோ முறை அங்கு சென்று பாகன் அவளைத் தன்னுடன் திரும்பி வருமாறு மன்றாடிக் கேட்டுக் கொண்ட போதிலும், அந்தப் பெண் பிடிவாதமாக வர மறுத்துவிட்டாள். இதனால், சோகத்துடன் பாகன் இருந்து வந்துள்ளான்.
ஓர் இரவு எப்படியோ அந்த யானை, பூட்டப்பட்டிருந்த சங்கிலியை அறுத்துக் கொண்டு, யாருக்கும் தெரியாமல், 15 மைல் தொலைவில் இருக்கும் பாகனின் மனைவி ஊருக்குப் புறப்பட்டுவிட்டது. நேராக அந்த ஊருக்குச் சென்று, பாகன் மனைவி இருக்கும் வீட்டை உடைத்து, அவன் மனைவியைத் தூக்கிக் கொண்டு வந்துவிட்டதாம்.
யானை என்பது அதிசயப் பிறவி. விலங்குகளில் ராஜா யானைதான் என்று குறிப்பிட்டார்ஜெயலலிதா.
குருவாயூர் உள்ளிட்ட பல கோயில்களுக்கு யானைகளை முதல்வர் ஜெயலலிதா தானமாக வழங்கியுள்ளார் என்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.

 

 

TRUE ELEPHANT STORIES posted by me in my blogs

திருமூலர் சொன்ன யானைக் கதை: தெரிந்த கதை, தெரியாத உண்மைகள்! Posted on 14-3-2014

ஒரு யானையின் சோகக் கதை!(Post No.3379)-posted on 22-11-2016

செய்நன்றி:- நன்றியுள்ள யானையும், குடிகாரப் பாம்பும்! Posted on 12 July 2015

யானையின் பெயர்கள் Posted on 25-11-2014

மகாவம்சத்தில் அற்புதச் செய்திகள்”  Posted on 12 Sept.2014

யானை பற்றிய நூறு பழமொழிகள் (posted on 5 June 2012)

யானையை விழுங்கிய மலைப்பாம்புகள் 7 மார்ச் 20114

 

Elephant Miracles

 

45 Words for Elephant

 

xxxxx

 

Erukku Plant (Calotropis gigantea) in Hinduism!(Post No.3216)

calotropis_gigantea-jpgwiki

Arka/Erukku:-Picture taken from wikipedia;thanks

Complied by London Swaminathan

Date: 3 October 2016

Time uploaded in London: 20-51

Post No.3216

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Tamils are very familiar with this Erukkam Pu (Calotropis gigantea)  plant because it is the most sought after plant during Ganesh Chaturthy. No other day they use it to worship god. It grows on its own in dilapidated building sites and road side bushes.

 

There is no reference to Lord Ganesh in Sangam Tamil literature (except an appendix verse in Tiru Murukaatrup padai). Neither Kalidasa nor the Tamil saint Manikkavasagar mentioned Ganesh, because they lived in the early centuries of common era or before that. But Tamils must have known Lord Ganesh because Kapilar mentioned Erukku and grass for gods in verse 106 of Purananuru. Both these are offered to Lord Ganesh only in Tamil Nadu and the very name Kapila is the one of the important 16 names of Lord Ganapathy.

Erukkam pu is offered to Lord Siva in certain parts of India. Maharashtrians also use it as one of the five plants (Pancha Pallava).

 

Adi parva of Mahabharata has a reference to this lant. Upamanya, disciple of seer Ayoda Dhaumya, became blind after eating the Erukkam leaves. This plant and its latex are poisonous.

 

Cambodians use it in funeral service. Probably this is the reason for an Indian curse, “May the Arka/Erukku grow at your door”.

calotropis_gigantea_plant-ogv

Erukku Marriage

A brahmin marries second wife when his first wife is dead or sick or separated. But he is very superstitious about marrying a third wife. If he marries for the third time, it is believed that she will become a widow.  To avoid this, he marries the arka (Erukku) plant. Indians believe that this is the oldest plant. After marrying himself to the plant and goes for a new wife, who will be his fourth wife. The bridegroom will go to the place where the Erukku grows, with a friend and a priest, on an auspicious day. The accompanying friend acts like the father in law and the plant is addressed with Mantras. After the marriage the plant is cut down.

 

The plant is named Arka in Sanskrit which is one of the names of the sun. The plant is supposed to catch some property from the sun. Some people used to apply the leaves to their foreheads when the sun is in a certain position. A person suffering from some illness ties a lock of his hair or a rag from his clothing on to the plant, and it takes on his ailment and withers.

Tying rags to trees and marrying with the trees happen in other parts of the world as well.

TREE MARRIAGES

Allegorical marriage of trees is practised in India. All the rituals that are performed in an actual wedding are done to the trees. Big feast is also given to everyone.  Aswatta Tree (peepal tree) is the symbol of Vishnu. First, Lord Vishnu is invoked into the tree. Some years later, a mate is chosen for the tree, and with all the pomp and ceremony of a Brahmin wedding,  a bride, in the shape of a neem tree, is brought and legally married to the Aswatta tree.

In the fruit growing districts of the country it is supposed to be extremely unlucky for the owner of a plantation, or his wife to tatse any of their own fruits until one of the trees has been legally married to another of a different species. An owner of a mango grove will marry one of his trees, preferably to a tamarind tree. If it is not possible, jasmine plant will be the bride.

brahma-thailand

Brahma from Thialand

The origin of these tree marriages centres around an old legend, where Brahma of the four faces, induced a certain prince Indramena to restore the temple of Jagannath that was buried under the sand. After some time, the king was able to discover the buried temple but could not restore it. Then Brahma allowed him to build a new temple in a new site. Brahma also told him that Vishnu would come to the king  in the shape of a tree, which would be washed by the sea. Then the trunk of an Aswatta tree was washed up on the shore. A wood carver Visvakarma,  was allowed to carve the figure of Krishna. Half way through it, the king peeped into the room , violating the stipulated condition and so the Viswakarma left it without completing it.

 

Suham–

If there is just rule, animals wouldn’t harm! Indian Poets’ Discovery! (Post No.3185)

animals-3

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 24 September 2016

Time uploaded in London:7-30 am

Post No.3185

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

Kalidasa, the greatest of the Indian poets, Kamban,author of Tamil Ramayana, Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda Tirukkural, Manikkavasagar, author of Tamil Hymn Tirusvasagam, and Ilango, author of the best Tamil epic Silappadikaram – all these five poets agree on one thing—animals won’t harm anyone, not even its natural enemy and rain would pour down at proper time and there will be a bumper harvest, If the country is ruled by a honest man!

 

Kamban says in the Kishkinda kanda (canto) that Solar Dynasty (Surya Vamsa) had kings under whose rule deer and tiger drank water from the same place. He repeated this in two verses in two different cantos ( in Tamil:- Pulip pothum pul vaayum oru thuraiyil neerunna ulakaandon oruvan).

 

Rama says that “my forefathers did dig up the ocean (Sagara story), brought Ganges River to earth from the heaven (Bhageeratha, a Civil Engineer cum king, diverted Ganga river into the plains), made deer and tiger to drink water from the same water source, but I am unable to get my wife (Sita Devi) back”– Kishkinda Kandam

animals-water-1

Kalidasa says (Raghuvamsa 6-46)  that in the Ashramas of saints, animals who have natural enmity wouldn’t show it and King Neepa was also like that. Though conflicting virtues were resided in him they had amicable relations (E.g.Neepa was harsh like the sun ,cool like the moon; wealth and education stayed with him).

(Ashram= Saint’s residence)

 

Tamil Epic poet Ilango says that the Pandyas ruled according to Dharma and so “the bears never dug up the anthills for food, tigers never attacked deer, crocodile never harmed men, not even snakes bit people; neither thunder struck on men nor ghosts possessed people; young woman and her lover can even walk on a public road at the dead of night without fear ( in Tamil, Vaalvari Venkai Maankanam Maralaa…….).

 

Tamil Saivaite poet Manikkavasagar praised Lord Shiva as 0ne who helped a deer to drink milk from a female tiger ( in Tamil:- Puli Mulai Pul Vaaykku arulinai Potri).

 

Purananuru, anthology of 400 Tamil verses, says that a tiger killed a female deer but left its little one without any harm. A wild cow seeing that motherless fawn, immediately gave him milk (verse 323)

 

Tiruvalluvar’s  didactic work – Tirukkural — is the Tamil Veda. He says:-

“Rain and harvests are rich in the land ruled by the righteous sceptre of an able leader- 545

If the leader rules in unjust ways, seasonal rains will fail as the clouds withhold their showers – 559

Cows yield less, Brahmins forget their Vedas, if the leader does not guard justice” – 560

 

If there is a good ruler the area will have three showers every month – says another Tamil verse.

 

These views are in the Mahabharata and various Hindu scriptures as well. This shows that the same culture existed from southernmost Kanyakumari to Northernmost Kashmir.

 

Long live Tamil! Long Live Kalidasa and Kamban!!

animal-water-2

-Subham-