Post No. 10,665

Date uploaded in London – –    16 FEBRUARY   2022         

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SAMSARA SAGAR (Kural 10)  is the word used in Tamil Veda Tirukkural and Sanskrit Bhagavad Gita (4-36)

In the Bhagavad Gita it is the sea of sins which one can cross by the boat of wisdom (4-36)

Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar says,

“None but those who have meditated constantly on the feet of god can cross the ocean of births by swimming” –Tirukkura 10

Tamil words Neenthuvar ‘will cross by swimming’ Neenthaar ‘will be unable to swim to cross are used by Valluvar. This Sea of Births and Deaths is used in umpteen verses by Alvars, Nayanmars, Paripatal poet of Sangam literature. Most of us imagined it as a sea. This is only a symbolic way of saying. Since South India is surrounded by the sea on three sides it will be easy to make it understandable by using water and boat. But if it is a land locked country or a vast country where sea is several hundred miles away, poets may not use sea to cross but a bridge to cross. This is what happened in Ancient Iran (Persia or Paraseekam) and India.



The Cinvat Bridge (Bridge of the Gathers) also spelt Chinvad Bridge is the bridge to paradise. All good people will be allowed to cross over this bridge (Gatha Ushtavaiti in Zend Avesta) to reach paradise. It is in Parsi book .

Earth and heaven are separated by a space, empty except for the wind. In order to go from the earth to heaven one must pass through this intermediate space. Only the soul is capable of such an act, so that except for special cases like that of Arda Viraf,  it must take place after death. The old Hindu views are very similar.

The path by which one can cross over this empty space is the bridge (in the Rig Veda and Atharvana Veda the space is mentioned as sea in Sanskrit, probably both looked blue in colour). The wind may help or harm anyone according to their good and bad actions. If someone is neither very bad nor very good will remain in the windy area and suffer. Good souls go to heaven and bad souls go to hell.

Primitive people used other symbolism- one can cross the chasm or a stream with a rope. Old Teutons imagined a rain bow by which they can climb and cross. Earlier scholars explained that the Cinvad Bridge is the Rainbow.



In the Rig Veda, the bridge occurs only once (9-41) as a figure of speech but not as a path into the other life. But we find this idea in the Yajur Veda -Kathaka Samhita 28-4,

“By means of the mid-day (soma) pressing the gods entered into the world of heaven. Their steps and ladder were the Daksinas. If one offers Daksinas (fees), one crosses a bridge and enters into the world of heaven. One has as many breaths in that world as one gives breath (Prana dhana rite?) here. On that account much must be given here. therefore they praise what is generously given here as better bridge for him who crosses over (read Tirtvaa and Tirate instead of Kirtvaa nd Kirate)

Compare Maitrayani Samhita (4-8-3)

The mid-day pressing is the world of heaven if  Daksinas were given by mid day pressing.   You must give much in order to ascend into the world of heaven; indeed you must make abridge for yourself with your gifts in order to attain the world of heaven.

(It may mean Dhana on earth, i.e. doing charity, will make it easier to go to heaven; Dhaana= Dontions)

And compare also Taittiriya Samhita 6-5-3-3,

Verily the sacrifice makes himself a ladder and bridge to attain the world of heaven.

Another reference is also worth noting. Satapatha Braahmana 14-7-2-27 (Brhad Aranyaka Upanishad 4-4-24),

This one (the Atman) is the bridge, which holds the worlds apart, so that they cannot be confused.



 A similar passage is in the Chandogya Upanishad 8-4-1 where in addition  to a statement  as above, it goes on to say,

Neither day nor night can cross the bridge, nor death nor suffering , neither good nor evil deeds. All evils turn back from there; for this Brahman world as banished all evil. Therefore if a blind man goes over the bridge, he receives his sight, if a wounded man , he is healed, if a sick person , he is cured. Therefore if the night crosses the bridge , it is turned to day; for this Brahman world is ever luminous.

In Kathopanishad -2 we read

We care solicitously for Naciketas fire, the bridge of the sacrificers to the eternal highest Brahman, the saving shore for those, who wish to cross.

In Svetasvatara Upanishad 6-9

God himself is called the highest bridge to immortality (also Mundakopanishad 2-2-5)

The Cinvat Bridge  in later literature is translated as Bridge of Separator. It is assumed God is the separator, who as a judge of the pious and the wicked discriminates between hem and sets them apart.



Another interesting similarity is about the spirits of ancestors come to greet you when you die.

When the soul arrives in the world beyond, the other souls come to meet and greet. Zarathustra himself says so, only with reference to perdition (Y.49-11). The same thing is told later with reference to paradise( Had.N.Yast) and we are reminded of the benign words with which Ahura Mazda protects the new arrival.

Strangely similar is the report in Kausitaki Upanishad 1-3 of what Brahman says upon the arrival of a deceased person in that other world:

“Run to meet him for through my glory he has attained to the ageless stream, truly he shall not grow old”.

According to Zarathushtra, the souls go to meet the liar arriving in hell with bad food (Y 49-11; comp. Y 53-6 and 31-20) . This again is supplemented by the Hadokht Nask with the report that in the paradise heavenly food and drink are brought to the virtuous.

We can compare this with Kausitaki Upanishad,1-4

Five hundred Apsaras go to meet him, , one hundred with fruits in their hands, one hundred with wreaths, one hundred with raiment, one hundred with fragrant powder in their hands.

According to Rig Veda 10-154-1

Ghee , among other things is eaten in heaven which corresponds to the ‘raoghna -zaramaya’, the spring butter.

In the same way we can compare with the sweet scent which blows from the Southern quarters to the soul of the pious on the third morning after death (Had N.2-18)- ie. shortly before his arrival in the world beyond– the agreeable and beneficent winds which according to Atharva Veda 18-2-21 the fathers and Yama waft toward the deceased.

(South is the direction of the departed souls in Sanskrit and Tamil books).



In the Zoroastrian scriptures we see Daena appearing as a damsel (V.19-10) who looks like Apsaras in the Cinvat Bridge with two dogs. We have the two dogs (with four eyes) in the Vedas.

There are other interesting comparisons:-

In both Hindu  and Parsi religions , body parts are compared in similar way :

Eye- Sun;

Blood and Semen – Water

Dog’s Sense of Smell – go to Water Source

Another parallelism ,

Rain water = semen

Kausitaki Upanishad says,

The moon lets the soul which cannot answer its questions satisfactorily, turn to rain and fall upon the earth from which animals are coincides with the Iranian. According to Chandogya Upanishad 5-10-6 rice and barley , herbs and trees, sesame and beans originate in this way.

In the Zoroastrian Bundahis 9-2,

Amerodad , the arch angel , as the vegetation was his own, pounded the plants small, and mixed them up with water which Tistar seized and Tistar made that water rain down upon the whole earth. Plants grew up from them. Birds mix them with water and Tistar seize them and rain them down. This cycle goes on

Source book –

DR MODI MEMORIAL VOLUME, BOMBAY, 1930, with my inputs

Tags- Bridge to heaven, Cinvat , Cinvad, bridge, Parsi, Hindu, Upanishad, Zend Avesta

Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta-4 (Post No.10,647)


Post No. 10,647

Date uploaded in London – –    10 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta-4

What is Zend Avesta?

Zend Avesta – sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism, today practised by the Parsees. They comprise the Avesta , liturgical books for the priests, the Gathas, the discourses and revelations of Zoroaster and the Zend, commentary upon them

—Hutchinson Encyclopedia.

ZEND is Chandas (poetry, prosody)  GATHA is song  and these words are used in Sanskrit and other Indian languages from the days of Rigveda until this day.

Avestan is an ancient language, used only in the Zend Avesta. The book has many Sanskrit words.



Nabhanethista is the son of Manu, the hero of the Flood Story. Hindu scriptures say that Nethishta was the son of Manu and his son was Naabhaaga.

This Nabhanethista is seen in both the Zend Avesta and the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world.

Nabaa-nazdistais in Yasna 26-6/7 (of Zend Avesta)

His name is found both in the Rig Veda and the Yajur Veda and later Brahmana literature.

Naabaanedishta Maanava- RV 10-59, RV 10-61-62

Nabhanedishtha: Taittiriya Samhita: 3-9-1-4; Aitareya Brahmana 5-14-1-2


A.Kalyanaraman in his book Aryatarangini says,

“Nabah = Biblical Noah, Nedishta means literally next or nearest to Manu. Nabanethishta is Manu’s son according to Hindu scriptures. Sumerian story says that Naphistim is said to be descendant of Shamash (Sun) who was the first creation God.

Zoroastrian Avesta contains the same name Naba Nezdishtim, as that of an ancient prophet of the Asuras, who defied the Deva worshipers.

Mr. Kalyanaraman argues that the story of Floods has travelled to Sumer through commercial contacts and it was later used in the Bible.

B=V change is seen in all Asian languages (particularly in Bengal). B=V change is seen in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and earlier Persian literature. If we apply the B=V change to Biblical story of Floods, then we come to the name Nabha/Nova (noVa is naBa)

So Manu and Nabhanethishta story travelled all the way to Middle East from the Rig Veda. Rig Veda is considered older than all religious books in the world.

Mr Kalyanaraman in his book ‘Arya Tarangini’ adds more details:-

The Avesta copies almost exactly the Manu legend. The Ahura Mazda asks Yima to build a ‘vara’ or enclosure with the following words, “Thou shall bring the seeds of men and women,  the best on earth; also the seed of ever kind of cattle etc. two of every kind to be kept inexhaustible there”

The Manu legend records that Manu had a son called Nabha Nedhistim whom his father overlooked in the division of his properties, probably because of some reprehensible heterodoxy in the offspring. Nedhistim then took refuge with the family of Angirases, who solaced him with the gift of many cows, specially as a tribute to his poetic gifts.

Bhrugu and Angirases are connected with Fire Worship and associated with the magical rites in the Atharvana Veda. We have lot of similarities between the Zoroastrianism and Atharvana Veda ( it will be shown in another article).


Sumerian Connection

In the Epic of Gilgamesh we come across Ut Naphistim who is none else but Nabha Nedistim

Utnapishtim or Utanapishtim is a character in ancient Mesopotamian mythology. He is tasked by the god Enki to create a giant ship to be called Preserver of Life in preparation of a giant flood that would wipe out all life. The character appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Thus, the Story of Flood and Story of Manu’s son Nabha Nedistim confirmed the Hindu- Parsee connection. Even the Sumerian stories called him an ancestor of Gilgamesh. So it must be dated before 2500 BCE.


From my year 2015 article (Mystery of Rig Veda -Part 8)

Manava is the surname for all those born in the clan of Manu;following names are found in the Rig Veda:

Saaryaata Maanava RV 10-92

Cakshu Maanava 9-52, 9-106-4

Naabaanedishta Maanava- 10-59, 10-61-62

Manu AApasa – 9-5, 9-106-7

Manu Vaivasvata – 8-5, 8-27-31

Manu Samvrana 9-49, 9-101-10

Manyu Tapasa – 10-67, 10-83,84

Manyu Vaisstha 9-29, 9-97-10

Maanya Maitravaruna – 8-67

It looks like  naming children after older ancestors was very common in those days. That is why we find many Manu names in one and the same family)


Girls Name Pilu, Piloo

Pilu, Piloo, Piilu, Peelu —  is a popular Girl’s name. It is from the Atharva Veda.

Piilu is the name in Atharva Veda of a tree (Carrya arborea or Salvadora persica) on the fruits of which doves fed.

Piilumati is the intermediate heaven lying between the Udnvati (watery) and the Pra-dyauh (farthest heaven). It presumably means rich in Pilu.

In short , Pilu or Peelu is fruit.

1935 Ananda Vikatan Tamil dictionary also gives the meaning as a ‘Tree, Flower’ (pool in Hindi is also fower)

In Vedic literature we come across Pippalatan, Son of Vedic Rishi Dirgtamas. It will be Mr Ficus Religiosa in English, that is Mr Peepal or Peepul Tree.

In Indian languages, relatives use shortened nick names in families.

In Tamil , all names finish with U in homes.

Rama is Ramu

Soma is Somu

Subrhmanyan is Subbu

Meena is Meenu

Veena is Veenu

Shyamala or Chamundi is Shamu

In the same way Peepal is Peelu or Piplu

In short something to do with a tree or its fruit.

Pippal is fruit which became Apple in English (Extension of meaning in Linguistics)

What is it to do with Parsis?

We see Piloo among Parsis.

But in Persian language, they change Ph into F.

Parasika is Fars; Feroze is Pilu (F=P; R=L)

Feroze Gandhi- Husband of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi

Pirojsha – Industrialist

So Persian names with Fe is Pe.

We come across names with Fer….. Peel…..around the world.

Pilu is used even in Nordic language (Greenland) .

According to Wisdom library it has 23 meanings

Pilu, Pīlu: 23 definitions

Pīlu (पीलु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VIII.30.24) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Pīlu (पीलु) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Pīlu) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

Ayurveda (science of life)

Pilu [पीलू] in the Rajasthani language is the name of a plant identified with Salvadora oleoides Decne. from the Salvadoraceae (Salvadora) family. For the possible medicinal usage of pilu, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Pīlu (पीलु) refers to “Salvadora persica” and represents a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Mahābhārata Anuśāsanaparva 53.19 , and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—

Pīlu (पीलु) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Salvadora persica Linn. var. wightiana Verdc.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning pīlu] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Pīlu (पीलु) is the name in the Atharvaveda of a tree (Careya arborea or Salvadora persica) on the fruit of which doves fed.

India history and geography

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in India history glossary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pīlu.—(IE 8-3), Indian form of Arabic-Persian fīl, an ele- phant. Note: pīlu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in Marathi glossary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

piḷū (पिळू).—f R (Or pēḷū) A rude twist or roll with the hand of cocoanut-fibres or cotton.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

piḷū (पिळू).—f A rude twist or roll with the hand of cocoanut-fibres or cotton.

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in Sanskrit glossary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pilu (पिलु).—See पीलु (pīlu).

Derivable forms: piluḥ (पिलुः).

— OR —

Pīlu (पीलु).—[pīl-u]

1) An arrow.

2) An atom; प्रत्यक्षं न पुनाति नापहरते पापानि पीलुच्छटा (pratyakṣaṃ na punāti nāpaharate pāpāni pīlucchaṭā) Viś. Guṇa.552.

3) An insect.

4) An elephant.

5) The stem of the palm.

6) A flower.

7) A group of palm trees; Mb.7.178.24.

8) A kind of tree.

9) A heap of bones.

1) The central part of the hand.

lu n. The fruit of the Pīlu tree.

Derivable forms: pīluḥ (पीलुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pīlu (पीलु).—name of a piśāca: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 18.5; piśāco pīlu-nāmataḥ (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 611.19 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pīlu (पीलु).—m.

(-luḥ) 1. The name of a tree, applied in some places to the Careya arborea, and in others to the Salvadora persica; it is very commonly assigned also to all exotic, and unknown trees. 2. An elephant. 3. An arrow. 4. A flower. 5. The blossom of the Saccharum sara. 6. An atom. 7. An insect. 8. The metacarpus, the central part of the hand. 9. The stem of the palm tree. E. pīl to stop, aff. u; also with kan added, pīluka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pilu (पिलु).—pīlu, m. A certain tree; cf. pailava.

(From Wisdom Library)

Xxxx Subham xxxxx

Tags- Pilu, Piloo, Nabha, Nova, Nedhishta, Manu, Son, Veda, Parsi,Hindu gods, Zend Avesta 

A New Story- Yajur Veda in Zend Avesta— Part 2 (Post .10,634)


Post No. 10,634

Date uploaded in London – –    6 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Here is the story from the Aitareya Brahmana,

“The Devas and Asuras waged war in these worlds,

The Asuras made these worlds fortified places (Puras, Polis in Greek) and made them as strong and impregnable as possible; they made the earth of iron, the air of silver, and the sky of gold. Thus they transformed these worlds into fortified places. .

The Devas said, these Asuras have made these worlds fortified places; let us build other worlds in opposition to these. They then made out of her/earth a seat, out of the air a fire hearth, and out of the sky two repositories for sacrificial food. (These are called Havirdhana).

The Devas said, let us bring the ‘Upasads’. By means of a siege/upasada one may conquer a large town. When they performed the first Upasad, they drove the Asuras from this world. When they performed the second, they drove them out from the air and when they performed the third, they drove them out from the sky. Thus they drove them out from these worlds.


What is Upasad?

Upasad is a particular ceremony which is to take place immediately after the great ‘Pravargya’ ceremony, during which the priests produce for the sacrifice (Yajamana) a golden celestial body , with which alone he is permitted by the gods to enter heaven. When in this way the sacrificer is born anew he is to receive the nourishment appropriate for an infant’s body, and this is milk. The chief part of the Upasad ceremony is, that one of the priests, the ‘Adhvaryu’, presents milk to him in a large wooden spoon, which he must drink. Formerly it had to be drunk from the cow which was to be milked by the Adhvaryu. But this custom has now fallen into disuse.

(We may compare it to a miracle in the Pathrrup Pathu – Ten Decads- in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature where the poet disappeared after the Tenth Yaga. The poet earlier demanded the Chera king that he may be sent to heaven in physical body. When the Tamil king asked him to suggest the way forward, the poet asked the Tamil king to perform Ten Yagas for him. Chera king obeyed and at the tenth sacrifice both the Tamil poet and his wife went to heaven in physical body. Visvamitra , earlier tried the trick with the king Trisankhu, but failed miserably for lack of penance. But Trisankhu became Southern Stars- now in the flags of Australia, New Zealand and  few other countries)

Martin Haug continues the story,

“The Asuras, thus driven out of these worlds, repaired to the Ritus/ seasons. The Devas said, let us perform Upasad. The Upasads being three, they performed each twice; that makes six in all, corresponding with the six seasons. Then they drove the Asuras out from the Ritus/ seasons.

(In European countries the seasons are four; but in the Rig Veda and Tamil Sangam literature the seasons are six, typical Hindu and Indian, a severe blow to Max Muller gang and Marxist gang)

The Asuras now repaired to the months. The Devas made twelve Upasads, and drove them out from the months. After having been defeated here also , they repaired to the half months. The Devas performed 24 Upasads and drove the Asuras out of half months . After having been defeated again, the Asuras repaired to the day and night. The Devas performed Upasads and drove them out.

Therefore the first Upasad ceremony is to be performed in the first part of the day and the other in the second part of the day. The sacrificer leaves thus only so much space to the enemy as exists between the conjunction of day and night, that is the time of twilight in the morning and evening.

(Hindus believe that time- twilight time- should be allocated to worship of gods and so they perform Sandhya Vandana 3 times everyday-  ealrly morning, mid day and early evening.)


Asura Gayatri

Thus the Asuras of the Hindu literature are being the supreme beings of the Parsis, Ahura Mazda with his arch angels, is according to these statements, hardly to be doubted. But there exists, perhaps, a still more convincing proof. Among the metres, used in the Yajur Veda , we find seven such which are marked by the epithet ‘Asuri’ such as Gayatri Asuri, Usnih Asuri, Pankti Asuri. These Asura metres, which are foreign to the whole Rigveda, are actually found in the Gatha literature in the Zend Avesta, which professedly exhibits the doctrine of Ahura religion.

The Gayatri Asuri consists of 15 syllables which metre we discover in the gatha Ahunavaiti, if we bear in the mind that the number of 16 syllables, of which it generally consists, is often reduced to 15. Compare, for instance, Yas.31-6 and the first two lines of 31-4.

The Usnih Asuri, consisting of 14 syllables, is completely extant in the Gatha Vohu- khshathra ( Yas literature) , each of which comprises 14 syllables.

The Pankti Asuri consists of 11 syllables, just as many as we found in the Gathas Ushtavaiti and Spenta- mainyu.

This coincidence can certainly not be merely accidental, but shows clearly, that the old Gatha literature of the Zend Avesta was well known to the Rishis who compiled the Yajur Veda.

Of great importance, for showing the original close relationship between the Hindu and Parsi religions, is the fact several of the Hindu gods are actually mentioned by name in the Zend Avesta, some as demons and, others as angels.

I will show them in another article.


My comments

Asuras in Zend Avesta are good and Devas are bad is not new to Hindu religion. Whenever a new prophet forms a new religion or sect, he decried the old gods and practices. The oldest schism in Vedic society was seen in the creation of the Shukla and Krishna Yajur Vedas. In the Vedic period we saw Indra and Agni were at the top position. Later Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva occupied top positions. During the times of Adi Shankara there were over 90 sects in Hinduism. Shankaracharya wiped out all the unwanted bad practices and made ‘six- god worship’ Shanmatha.

Later several reformers like Dayananda of Arya Samaj established a new sect. Very recently we saw Hare Krishna movement and its founder Bhakti Vedanta Prabhupada showed Lord Shiva as Demi god.

In Egypt, King Eka Nathan= One God, Akhnaton introduced Monotheism and revolted against the domination of the priests. This was due to Hindu influence.

Tamil Alvars and Nayanmars projected either Vishnu or Siva as the greatest god. Saints like Vallalar and Narayana guru created new practices and new temples.

In recent times Guru Nanak formed Sikh religion to control the atrocities committed by Muslim rulers.

Muslims called non Muslims as kafirs and Christians called non Christian s as pagan. Both the religions split into several sects

So schism is seen in every religion including Buddhism and Jainism. It is no wonder it happened in the oldest and longest religion.

When did happen in Hinduism during Vedic period is undecided. There are many theories. When Max Muller said Parsis migrated from India into Iran, Martin Haug said it happened the other way around. It is always debatable. No one knew even the date of the Vedas. It ranged from 6000 BCE to 1500 BCE!

Xx Subham xxx

TAGS– Asura, Asuri, Asuri metres, Zend Avesta, Gatha, Aitareya Brahmana, Story

Yajur Veda in Zoroastrian Zend Avesta-1 (Post No.10,631)


Post No. 10,631

Date uploaded in London – –    5 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Martin Haug  (1827- 1876) German Indologist, has done some good research in the Zoroastrian and Hindu scriptures . He was well versed in many languages including Hebrew, Latin, Sanskrit and Avesta. He translated the Aitareya Brahmana of Rigveda.

He says Zend Avesta, the Parsi scripture is like the Hindu Vedas. But becaus of some schism both were developed in a different way. He also pointed out the word Asura had positive connotation in the early part of the Rrigveda . He gives an interesting story  ofrom the Aitareya Brahmana.

I am giving below his argument and added My Comments at the end.

“Let us look at the close connection between the Vedas and Zend Avesta. The most striking feature is the use of the names Asura and Deva. Asura is Ahura in the Zend.

Deva stands for the divine beings in the Hindu scriptures. In the Zend Avesta and modern Persian literature Deva is the general name of an evil spirit, a fiend or demon.

In the confession of faith, as recited by the Parsis to this day , the Zoroastrian religion is said to be Vi- daevo,,”against the Deavas”.

(See Yasna 12-1) and one of their most sacred books is called

“Vi daevo datta” , now corrupted into Vendiddad,i.e.”what is, given against , or for the removal of the Devas”.

The Devas are the originators of all that is bad, of every impurity, of death; and are constantly thinking of causing the destruction of the fields and trees, and of the houses of the religious men. The spots most liked by them, according to Zoroastrian notions, are those most filled with dirt and filth, especially cemeteries, which places are, therefore, objects of the greatest abomination to a true Hormazd worshipper.

Asura is, in the form of Ahura, the first part of Ahura Mazda (Hormazd), the name of God among the Parsis ; and the Zoroastrian religion is distinctly called the Ahura religion( see Yasna 12-9) in strict opposition to the Deva religion.

But among the Hindus, Asura has assumed a bad meaning, and is applied into the bitterest enemies of their Devas, with whom the Asuras constantly waging war, and not always without success, as even Hindu legends acknowledge. This is the case throughout the whole Puranic literature, and as far back as the later parts of the Vedas; but in the older parts of the Rigveda Samhita we find the word Asura used in as good and elevated a sense as in the Zend Avesta.


The chief gods such as

Indra RV 1-54-3

Varuna  RV1-24-14

Agni RV 4-2-5; 7-2-3

Savitri RV 1-35-7

RudraRV 5-42-11

Aae honoured with the epithet Asura, which means living, spiritual, signifying the divine, in its opposition to human nature. In the plural, it is even used, now and then, as a name for all the gods as for instance in RV 1-108-6 :

“This Soma is to be distributed as an offering among the Asuras” by which word the Rishi means his own gods whom he was worshiping.

We often find one Asura particularly mentioned , who is called Asura of heaven RV 5-41-3; heaven itself is called by this name, RV 1-131-1

“Our father who pours down the waters 5-83-6;

Agni, the fire god, is born out of his womb 3-29-14; his sons support heaven”.

In a bad sense we find Asura only twice in the older parts of the Rigveda

2-32-4; 7-99-5 in which passages the defeat of the sons or men of the Asura is ordered, or spoken of; but we find the word more frequently in this sense in the last book of the Rigveda ( which is only an appendix to the whole, made in later times) , and in the Atharva Veda , where the Rishis are said to have frustrated the tricks of the Asuras 4-23-5 and to have the power of putting them down 6-7-2

In the Brahmanas, or sacrificial books, belonging to the each of the Vedas, we find the Devas always fighting with the Asuras. The latter are the constant enemies of Hindu gods, and always make attacks upon the sacrifices offered by devotees. To defeat them all the craft and cunning of the Devas were required; and the means of checking them was generally found in a new sacrificial rite. Thus the Asuras have given rise to a good many sacrificial customs, and in this way largely contributed towards making the Brahmanical sacrifices so complicated and full of particular rites and ceremonies.

To give the reader an idea of the way in which the battles between the Devas and the Asuras are said to have been fought, a translation of a passage, taken from the Aitareya Brahmana 1-23 of the Rigveda is here given:-

To be continued………….

Tags- Yajur Veda, Zend Avesta, Ahura, Deva-Asura clash