Hindu Science: Four Types of Speech (‘Vak’)- Post No 2559

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Research Article  by London swaminathan


Date: 20 February 2016


Post No. 2559


Time uploaded in London :–  11-51 AM


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Four Types





Chathvaari vaak parimitaa padaani taani vidurbrahmanaa ye maniishinah

Rik Veda 1-164-45

Saayanaa in his commentary mentioned that the four types mentioned by the seers are Paraa, Pasyantii, Madhyamaa and Vaikharii.


Modes of Speech (Manu Smrti)

1.Paarushyam = harsh

2.An rtam = untruth

3.Paisuunyam = tale bearing

4.Asambaddha pralaapah = talking of unrelated things.

Parushyamanrtam chaiva paisuunyam chaapi sarvasah

Asambaddha pralaapascha vaangmayamsyaa chaturvidham



All meanings, ideas, intentions, desires, emotions, items of knowledge are embodied in speech, are rooted in it and branch out of it. He who misappropriates, misapplies and mismanages speech, mismanages everything.



Harsh Speech

If one answers harshly, for instance a father, or a mother, or a brother, or a sister, or a teacher, or a Brahman, people say to him:’ Shame on you’,

Verily, you are a slayer of your father

Verily, you are a slayer of your mother

Verily, you are a slayer of your brother

Verily, you are a slayer of your sister

Verily, you are a slayer of your teacher

Verily, you are a slayer of a Brahman

–Chandogya Upanishad


Speech in Mahabharata

Darts, barbed arrow, iron-headed spears,

However deep they may penetrate the flesh,

May be extracted, but a cutting speech,

That pierces, like a javelin, to the heart

None can remove; it lies and rankles thee


Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar in his Tirukkural says:–

Couplet/Kural 127

Guard your tongue, whatever else you may not guard, otherwise you will come to grief through wrong utterance

Couplet/Kural 128

One harm resulting from one foul utterance is enough to nullify all the good done by a man

Couplet/Kural 129

A burn caused by fire may heal; but a scar caused by a fiery tongue will never heal.

In forty more couplets under four different headings he talks about eloquence, sweet talk, listening, slander etc.


Hindu poets from Kanyakumari to Kashmir thought in the same way and wrote in the same way.


Hindus – Great Scientists!


Following materials show that the Hindus were great scientists and advanced in human speech research to a highest level. They talk about so many things about speech around 1000 BCE. No religious book or literature appeared at that time in the world. Moses and Homer came later. Their writings or sayings were put into writing still later.


Vedic Index by Keith Macdonell gives the following:

Speech plays a great part in Vedic speculation, but only few points are of other than mythological significance.  Speech is in the Satapatha Brahmana divided into four kinds – that of men , of animals, of birds and of small creeping things. The discrimination or making articulate of speech is ascribed to Indra by the Samhitas. The speech of the following musical instruments – Tuunava, Viinaa, Dundubhi – is mentioned, and in one Samhita also that of the axle of a chariot.


The speech of the Kuru Pancalas was especially renowned as well that of northern country, according to the Kausitaki Brahmana so that men went there to study the language. On the other hand barbarians in speech were known, and were to be avoided. Demons/ Asuras are described as saying he’lavah.


((I guess this is Hallelujah of the Semitic religions. ))

One division of speech referred to is that of the divine (daivi) and the human (manusi), of which some specimens are given, such as OM, the divine counterpart of tathaa, and so forth.

The Brahmin is said to know both; it seems best to regard the distinction not as between Sanskrit and Apabrahmsa, as Sayana suggests, but as between the Sanskrit of the ritual and the hymns and that of ordinary life


The Vratyas are described as speaking the language of the initiated (Dikshita Vac), though themselves are not initiated (a-diksita), but as calling that which  is easy to utter (a-durukta), difficult to utter”.

((Vratyas may be foreigners or those who gave up the Vedic way of life.))



My previous article written in 2014 is given below:–


What Hindus know that Scientists don’t know!


Written by London Swaminathan
Post No. 967 Date 9th April 2014.

Whenever some discovery is made or invention is announced, Hindus boast that it is already in their scriptures! Whenever some catastrophe happens, immediately some people write that it is already forecast by Nostradamus. I used to laugh at them. If Nostradamus has predicted everything that is going to happen in the next fifty years, let us have it straight on the table in black and white. The same applies to Hindus as well. So I wrote to some scholars and saints and they are yet to reply. But I have started to work in this direction by writing two posts: Hindus Future Predictions (Part 1 and Part 2) in this blog. I have interpreted some passages in the Hindu scriptures that which may be discovered in future. I have also written about the concept of TIME as Hindus see it. Now I want to draw your attention to what Kanchi Parmacharya Swami (1894-1994) said about SOUND and VIBRATIONS.


speech 1

“If the mantras are the life breadth of the Vedas, the life breadth of the mantras themselves is the purity or clarity of the sound, their proper intonation. I have spoken about how by altering the sound or tone of the mantras the vibration in space as well as our ‘nadis’ will change and how the fruit yielded by the chanting will not be what is desired. The Siksa sastra deals in a scientific manner with how the sound of syllables originating in different parts of the body is revealed.


The sound we hear with our ears is called ‘Vaikhari ‘and its source is within us and called ‘Para’. Vaikhari originates in the lips and Para is the sound present in the Muladhara below the navel. Before it is revealed as Vaikhari through the mouth it goes through two stages, Pasyanti and Madhyama. It is only when we go higher and higher on the path of Yogic perfection that we shall be able to hear the sounds Pasyanti, Madhyama and Para. The seers who are masters of Yoga are capable of hearing the Para sounds. There are certain ‘Para’ sounds originating in the Muladhara which on being transformed into Vaikhari, can be heard by men. Such sounds please the deities, create good to the world and bring Atmic uplift. It is such ‘Para’ sounds that the seers have grasped from the transcendent space and given us as the Veda mantras. That the Tamil work Tolkappiyam mentions these truths and a clear understanding of them came to light recently.

speech 2


Tolkappaiyam about Mysterious Sounds

It had been known for some time that the words Para and Pasyanti occur in old Tamil works as parai and paisanti. But it came to our knowledge only recently that the very first Tamil work – extant – , the Tolkappiyam, mentions profound matters like , for instance, the fact that the sounds of Muladhara are created by the upward passage of Udana, one of the five vital breadths. Apart from containing references to mantra yoga, the ancient Tamil work also reveals knowledge of Vedic intonation.

Recently, there was a controversy as to why the mantras recited in temples must be Sanskrit and not Tamil. Tamil scholars themselves gave the reasons: “It is totally wrong to raise questions about language in which mantras are couched. The language and meaning are of secondary importance. The special quality or the special significance of mantras, is their sound and fruits they yield. Tolkappiyar has himself stated that the Veda mantras have a special quality and power arising from their sound’’.
The vibrations of the sound of the Vedic language are beneficial to all orders of creation including bipeds and quadrupeds; so too the language n which all mantras belonging to the mantra sastra are couched. This is not a language in the sense we understand the term in ordinary usage and is not the property of one caste or of one race, but of the entire world.


Tolkappiyar stated that he would not deal with the Vedic sounds since they had their source in Para and were of great import. “I will deal with the sounds that are within the reach of ordinary people, Vaikhari, he said. The other sounds belong to the inner mysterious world…. Tamil scholars have pointed out that there is the authority of the Tolkappiyam itself for not changing the mantras used in temples.

Page 739-740 of Hindu Dharma , Voice of Guru Pujyasri Candrasekarendra Sarasvati Svami, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai-400 007, Year 2000.


speech 3

Sound of Music
“ Not all mantras that create benign vibrations are necessarily meaningful. Inn this context we have the example of music. During the research conducted by a university team, it was discovered that the vibrations created by instrumental music quickened the growth of plants and resulted in a higher yield of fruits and vegetables. Here is a proof that sound has the power of creation.
Page 167 of the above book


Some people are at a loss to understand why the sound of the Vedas is given so much importance. How does sound originate or how is it caused? Where there is vibrartin, where there is movement or motion, there is sound. This is strictly according to rational science. Speech is constituted of vibrations of many kinds. We hear sounds with our eras. But there are sounds that are converted into electric waves and these we cannot hear. We know this from the working of the radio and the telephone. All that we hear or perceive otherwise are indeed electric waves. Science has come to the point of recognising all to be electric waves — the man who sees and listens, his brain, all are electric waves.

Sound and vibration go together. The vibrations produce either a gross object or a mental state. We come to the conclusion that creation is a product of sound. This ancient concept is substantiated by science itself.
The mantras of the Vedas are sounds that have the power to inspire good thoughts in people.
Rainfall depends on the production of particular sounds which, in turn, create particular vibrations the same applies to all our needs in life.


speech 4


The Vedas are sounds emanating from the vibrations of Great Intelligence, the Great Gnosis. That is why believe that the mantras of the Vedas originate from the Paramatman (supreme god ) himself. We must take special care of such sounds to ensure the good of the world. Yes , the Vedic mantras are sequences of sounds that are meant for the good of the world.
Page 82-83 of the above book.

Please read my earlier posts:
1.Hindu Wisdom: Copper Kills Bacteria
2.Scientific Proof for Samudrika Lakshana
3.Is Brahmastra a Nuclear Weapon?
4.How did Rama fly his Pushpaka Vimana/plane?
5.Power of Holy Durva Grass
6.Science behind Swayambu Lingams
7.Hindus’ Magic Numbers 18,108,1008
8.Amazing Power of Human Mind
9.107 Herbs in Rig Veda
10.Hindus Future Predictions Part 1 (posted 20 May 2012)
11.Hindus Future Predictions Part 2 (Posted on 20 May 2012)
12.Science behind Deepavali (Two parts)
13.Amazing Tamil Mathematics

Over 2500 articles are available in Tamil and English.

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by TAMIL AND VEDAS on APRIL 9, 2014  •