River Ganges in Sumerian Culture (Post No.3731)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 17 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 8-05 am


Post No. 3731


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


contact; swami_48@yahoo.com




Enki – River Ganges in Sumerian Culture


Holy River Ganga (Ganges) is so famous and so holy that wherever Hindus went they named at least one river after Ganga. We see Ganga in River Mekong (Ma Ganga) in South East Asia, Maveli Ganga in Sri Lanka, Congo in Central Africa etc. Sumerians also named God Enki after River Ganga.


Enki is the Sumerian god of the waters and wisdom. Akkadians called it Ea.


Both Enki and Ea are corrupted Sanskrit words:

Enki= Ganga

Ea – Toyam/water


But Enki is a male god in Sumerian; His abode was subterranean sweet water ocean Apsu.

Apsu is also a Sanskrit word for water (Apa= Apsu).


In Mesopotamian flood myths, Enki appears as the protector of humanity. Lot of stories are linked to Enki in course of time. This is because the local gods got mixed up with Enki. More over various cultures layered one over the other and people thought all are same.


Enki was worshipped in Iraq (Mesopotamia) between 3500 BCE and 1750 BCE. Hindu migration started towards Europe and West Asia 8000 years ago according to the latest Genetic research. Cave paintings in Bhimbetka and other parts of India proved that human occupation was there as early as 50,000 years ago in the heart of India (Madhya Pradesh etc).

Sumerians believed that Enki fills the Iraq rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Enki is perceived to fill the two rivers with sacred sweet water. This Sumerian belief is a typical Hindu belief. Hindus believe that all the rivers in India gets Ganga water on holy days. On Deepavali (Diwali) day, all the waters in any part of India is considered Ganga water. Tamils exchange greetings in the morning “have you had Ganges bathing today?” This is a traditional greeting for Deepavali.


When Kumbamela is celebrated every four years, Ganges visits different rivers in India. Mahakumbamela is celebrated every 12 years at Prayag (also known as Allahabad).


Whenever they dip in any water they recite the Punya Nadhi (River Hymn) sloka. Ganga Sindhusca Kaveri, Yamuna ca Saraswati……… The meaning is seven rivers are sacred and Ganga stands first. Hindus always keep Ganges water at home and mix it with other waters. Just by adding a drop of Ganga water they consider the whole water is from the Ganges. Sumerians also believed that Enki floods the rivers in Iraq (old Mesopotamia).



Enki is associated with Creation myth in Sumerian Civilization. Though the special meaning was Ganga , the common meaning was water for Enki. No wonder water is associated with creation. All the major cultures have the Flood Myth.


He is usually represented as a figure in typical horned head dress and tiered skirt with two streams of water springing from his shoulders or a vase and including leaping fish. This is again a Hindu story. Ganges is coming from the head of Lord Shiva and is depicted in all the pictures. Since Hindus migrated to Sumerian lands thousands of years ago, they had only vague memories. Fish stands for the Fish Avatar (Matsyaavatar) of Lord Vishnu.


The water coming from a vase is also a typical Hindu story. Hindus believe that the South Indian River Kaveri came from the vase of a great sage named Agastya. Ganges is also represented in a vase in every Hindu house.


Some of the images in Sumerian would remind any Hindu the penance done by the King Bhageeratha to bring the celestial Ganges to earth. This is a story about geology and a great engineering marvel. Around 1800 or 2000 BCE, big natural catastrophes happened in the Himalayan region. As a result of this great Saraswati river disappeared; Ganges changed its course; Indus valley civilization disappeared because of drought and floods. At that time Bhageeratha,who was a great engineer diverted the Ganges towards bay of Bengal via the modern Gangetic plain.


Like the Egyptians relocated Abu symbol  from the course of Nile river, Bhageertha removed a big blockage in the course of Ganges which was considered a big Engineering marvel. This is depicted in Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu Pallva Monuments) and other sculptures. Puranas say that Ganges comes from the head of Lord Shiva. Sumerians also has depicted this scene.

Enki and Egypt

Michael Rice, in his book Egypt’s making, writes,

“In Egypt the hieroglyphic symbol – ‘foot with a jar’ from which water is pouring, meant PURE, CLEAN.

The Pyramid text Utterance 513says,

“Be pure; occupy your seat in the bark of Re; row over the sky and mount up to the distant ones; row with the imperishable stars, navigate with the Unwearyingly Stars.”

(my comments: Hindus also place Ganges at two levels; one is Ganges on earth/Himalayas

and the second is Aakasa Ganga (Sky Ganga). The Milky Way galaxy that contains solar system is called Akasa Ganga in Sanskrit literature)


“One of Enki’s shrines is described as ‘the clean place’ and ‘pure’ and the idea of distant journeying is compelling, at least in the context of a review which started out on this voyage through the Egyptian perceptions of their island connections. The association with purity and water is also notable”.

(My comments: The words clean, pure etc show that they meant only Ganga; this confirms Enki is Ganga; Hindus sprinkle Ganges water on the day of Purity Ceremony known as Punyaaha Vachana)


Dictionary of Ancient Near East adds,

“Enki’s most important cult centre was the E-abzu at Eridu. As a provider of fresh water and a Creator God and determiner of destinies, Enki was always seen as favourable to mankind. In the Sumerian poem ‘Inana and Enki’, he controls the ‘me’ concerned with every aspect of human life and in ‘Enki and the World Order’, he has the role of organising in detail every feature of the civilized world. He also appears as a powerful and cunning deity in several Hittite Myths”.


New Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology adds:

“Enki or Ea, god of the Apsu, was the principal divinity of the liquid elements. But he had a daughter, the goddess NANSHE who shared his functions. She was the goddess of springs and canals. Like her father she ws particularly honoured in Eridu, the holy city, which was situated at the mouth of Apsu. She was also worshipped at Lagash each year, on a canal near the city, there was a procession of boats to escort the sacred barge in which the Goddess rode”.

(My comments: In addition to Sanskrit words used in the above (enki=Ganga, Ea=Toyam, Apsu=apa), note that Eridu is considered Gangotri of Sumerians. Lagash is Kailash. Sumerians vaguely remembered all the Indian place names and they changed or got corrupted in course of time. even today famous city Madurai in Tamil Nadu is called Marudai; no wonder Kailsh became Lagash! The boat festival is the Ganaga mata festival with Goddess Ganga on the boat.)

“Nanshe’s emblem was a vase in which a fish swam. Finally the rivers were deified. They were invoked not only as the creators of all things but also the instruments of the Gods’ justice”.

(My comments: India is the only country in the world where all the rivers are deified; even today they worship the rivers. There are even statues for all the River Goddesses and festivals around the year. They considered famines, droughts and floods are God’s punishments for their evil deeds; now environmental scientists agree with the Hindus: if we abuse Nature it punishes us!)


Ganges is praised in the Rig Veda. When Saraswati River existed Ganges occupied a secondary place. When Saraswati river disappeared, Ganga came to first place. So Ganges and Enki can be used to find out the periods of civilization. My guess is that Sumerian, Babylonian and Mesopotamian civilizations came when Ganga was considered most sacred. That means Rig Veda is earlier than all these civilizations. Nicholas Kazanas, greek scholar, proved that Rig Veda was composed before 3300 BCE through linguistic research. Herman Jacobi of Germany and BG Tilak of India have dated Rig Veda before 4500 BCE through astronomical data.

Now  the samples of underground Saraswati River proved scientifically that  the Vedic civilization was older than the previous conjectures.






Science behind Swayambhu Lingams

Picture of Ice Lingam at Amarnath Caves

(This article is available in Tamil as well: swami)

In India, particularly in South India, many Hindu temples claim to have Swayambhu lingams. First of all, what is a Swayambhu lingam? These are the lingams that manifest on its own i.e. not made by man. They appear suddenly or mysteriously without any human efforts. They are self existing and when the saints or holy men see them they install them in a temple. We have several stories about great saints like Adi Shankara installing such lingams in several places. The famous Madurai Meenakshi temple has a Swayambhu lingam.

Is there any science behind such spontaneous appearance of Lingams? Can stones rise from the earth by some special force?

Yes, says scientists.

Some natural formations such as the famous Kailash Mountain or Tiruvannamlai hill look like Shivaling. This is nature’s work of art. Some are scientifically explained. The most famous Amarnath Ice Linga is formed by dropping water through the mountain crevices. But yet it is a natural wonder to see it in a particular season every year in Amarnath, Kashmir.

Picture of Mt Kailash

Hindus see god in everything. They see it in music, dance, Prasad they eat, shoes holy men wear, foot prints seen on rocks, the Rangoli they draw in front of their houses in Tamil Nadu. They even see Shivlingam in a particular kind of flower. Hindus also collect certain natural objects like polished stones or Salagramam (fossils ) and do Panchayatana Puja.

Kanchi Paramacharya Swaigal had explained it in his lectures. The stones or fossils collected from river Gandaki in Nepal, Red stone from Sonabhadra in Bihar, Crystals from Vallam in Tamil Nadu, Linga shaped Banalingam stones from river Narmada, stones collected from Swarnamukhi river in Andhra Pradesh are worshiped as Vishnu, Ganesh, Surya/sun, Shiva and Goddess Ambika respectively in the Five/Panchayatana Pujas.

All these are nature’s work. No man made them. But there is another strange scientific phenomenon known as micro seismic activity that pushes the stones to the surface from the depth.

Do stones rise from the depths by special force?


Picture shows Panchayatana Puja stones

A letter published in London Times newspaper on 20th May, 1994 (from the paper cuttings preserved in my storage cup board) explains this. Anne C.A. Silk wrote this letter in reply to a reader’s query. The letter gives some interesting information about “stone growing fields” in Chiltern Hills. (These Hills are not far from London). “There was a local industry of gathering the large flints, some the size of a fist, to sell to local builders by the roadside.

There is a further reason for the ascending mode of flints and rocks worldwide, over and above the fork disturbance proposed by Brian Parker (May 14 letter). This is the natural extremely low frequency (ELF) seismic energy from deep within earth.

Micro seismic activity from faults such as Church Stratton Fault, Mere Fault, Great Glen Fault, sub terranean settling and indeed traffic at roundabouts will generate ELF energy sufficient enough to vibrate rocks and stones to the surface.

It is of relevance to note that ELF frequencies from 30 Hz to 300 Hz also cover brain waves in humans”.

So we can conclude that Swayambu Lingams come from below the earth by ELF or some forces yet unknown to science.

For more information, contact swami_48@yahoo.com or swaminathan.santanam@gmail.com


Ravana trapped & Sita Devi died in Earth Quake

Sita is the name in India for everything that is good, pure and holy; everything that in women we call women. The women in India must grow and develop in the foot prints of Sita, that is the only way.

–Swami Vivekananda

Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara ,Manodari   thatha

Pancha kanya smaren nithyam sarva papa vinashanam


(All the sins of those who think about the five great women Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara and Mandodari will be destroyed).

The very thought of Sita Devi, wife of the epic hero Sri Rama purifies a person. No woman can come even closer to Sita in greatness. We read about the great qualities of Sita Devi in the words of Valmiki  in Ramayana. No good women would have undergone so many problems. In spite of her miserable life, she never  lost her balance. She held her husband Rama in high esteem till the last minute.

Sita’s death is miserable and mysterious. Miserable in the sense, she had a tragic end. But she herself chose it. She asked Mother Earth to take her back where from she came. If we read, between the lines, we may see that Sita Devi died in an earth quake. The Ramayana sloka clearly speaks of big tremors  through the ‘world’ when she went down the earth. The wonder of wonders is that she knew that there is going to be an earth quake. Hindu scriptures say that chaste women can control five elements- any aspects of nature. Earlier also she did fire walking at the command of her husband and came pure when a washer man suspected her chastity.

Sita was born and brought up in an earth quake prone area comprising modern Bihar bordering Nepal. Bihar was notorious for biggest earth quakes of India. Valmiki described her descent in to earth as a miracle. He said in the Ramayana that a marvellous throne supported on the heads of Nagas came from down the earth and when Sita took the seat it went down when the entire world was watching.  At that moment a great tremor passed through the whole world, he added.

Modern science shows that animals can sense earth quakes several days before it actually happens. No wonder Sita came to know about it days before it happened and prepared herself .  Valmiki who stood by her side though out her trials and tribulations was a Trikala Jnani. He can foretell anything. Hindus go beyond Einstein in understanding and  explaining  Time. They see it from the top of a mountain as a running stream of past, present and future. They can see all the three stages at the same time like we see the buses moving along the roads far down below a hill.

We also witnessed  a sad earth quake event in our own life time. On 26th January 2001, the Republic Day of India, there was a big earth quake in Gujarat which killed thousands of people. Students who were attending the Republic Day parade went down the earth and disappeared while people were watching the parade. Though it is rare, it could happen. We may believe that something like it happened on the last day of Sita’s life.

Bible narrated seven catastrophes happening on seven days during Moses’ struggle against the Pharaoh.  Modern research shows that it did not happen on consecutive days ,but over  a considerable time. Passage of time and myth making make strange stories (Please read my article Did Agastya drink the ocean in Is Brahmastra a Nuclear Weapon? ).


There is an anecdote about Ravana in our epics and mythologies. That also happened during an earth quake in the Himalayas. Ravana was ‘punished ‘ by Lord Siva for his arrogance. The Saivite saints sang about it in every Pathikam  (Ten Hymns) in Thevaram. The legend is that Ravana tried to lift the Kailash hills, the abode of Shiva, and Siva pressed it down and Ravana’s hands got crushed. Then Ravana fled the area. Gnana Sambandhar made it a point to refer to this anecdote in every ninth hymn in his Thevaram.

It looks like there was an earthquake when Ravana visited the Himalayas and got trapped there. After his prayers to Shiva everything went alright, but his arrogance was subdued. This gave place for this episode of Ravana getting crushed under Kailash.

There are lots of references in Sangam Literature and Sanskrit literature about earth quakes. The translation of the Tamil word Nilam Putai Peyarthal  (Purananuru 34 by Alathur Kizar) is land moving or dislocating.  They knew very well about such earth quakes.