Ganges in Greek Geographer’s Writings! (Post No.4090)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 17 July 2017

Time uploaded in London-21-37

Post No. 4090

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.


India is the land of mighty rivers, and Ganga is the holiest of all those rivers. Ganga’s sister stream Yamuna is also worshipped because of Lord Krishna’s association with the river. Their banks are dotted with temples and shrines and thousands upon thousands worship daily the sacred streams. The principal centres of worship on the Ganges are Gangotri, the source of the Ganges in the mountain; Haridwar, where she forsakes her mountain home; Triveni Sangam (Allahabad) where she joins water with Yamuna (Jumna) and the mythical stream, the Sarasvati; Benares (Varanasi), the holiest city for the Hindus; and Sagar Island, where she mingles with the ocean.


According to the Greek geographer Strabo (64 BCE to 24 CE), Hindus worshipped Jupiter Pluvius, the River Ganges, and the gods of the country. This Jupiter Pluvius was Indra (Strabo 15-1-69). This shows Ganges was worshipped by the Hindus 2000 years ago which was noted by a Greek writer.


The day of Ganga’s supposed descent on earth, the tenth of the light half of Jeshth (June), and the day of the full moon or Kartik (October) are observed as festivals in her honour by all Hindus.


Water Power!

“Take away, O Waters, whatsoever is wicked in me, what I have done by violence or curse, and untruth” is a Vedic prayer repeated often today (Rig Veda 1-22-3)

So strong is the popular belief in the sanctity of the river that both in private life as well as in the law-courts people often give up cherished claims if their opponents deny them when holding Ganges water in their hands or swearing by the Ganges.

In the Mahabharata it is said that the “Gita comprises all the Sastras, i.e.sacred writings, Hari (Vishnu) all the gods and the Ganges all the Sacred places”.

In addition to the Ganges there are many others which are regarded as sacred by the Hindus. River Narmada also considered sacred for burning dead bodies on its banks.


Hindu River Marathon!


To follow the course of any river on foot is considered a highly meritorious act. A pilgrim, for example, sets out from the source of Ganges at Gangotri and walks by the left bank of the river to its mouth, at Ganga sagara; then turning round, he proceeds by the right side back to Gangotri, when he departed. This takes six years to accomplish. In the same way a pilgrim starts from the source of Narmada, a peak on the Vindhya Mountains, and walks to the mouth near Broach and back. This takes three years. The rivers Godavari and Krishna require only two years for the same process. Of course, the merit accumulated is in proportion to the time occupied in pilgrimage and the sacredness of the ground traversed.


Romans and Persians

Romans and Persians did something like a river worship in the olden days.

Gen.Sleeman points out that among the Romans and ancient Persians rivers were propiated  by sacrifices. When Vitellius crossed the Euphrates with the Roman legions to put Tiridates on the throne of Armenia, he propiated the river by the scrfice of a hog, a ram and a bull. Tiridates himself sacrificed a horse. Tacitus does not praise the river god, but the stream itself.


Plato makes Socrates condemn Homer for making Achilles behave disrespectfully towards the river Xanthus in offering to fight him (illiad 20-73); and towards the river Spercheus, another acknowledged god, in presenting to the dead body of Patroclus the locks of his hair which he had promised to the river (Iliad 23-14—53)

Hindu customs such as worshipping a river and giving hair to god, prevailed in those places 2000 years ago. But the beauty of Hinduism is that these customs prevail in India with the same fervour, but in other countries it has gone into the history books.




River Ganges in Sumerian Culture (Post No.3731)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 17 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 8-05 am


Post No. 3731


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.






Enki – River Ganges in Sumerian Culture


Holy River Ganga (Ganges) is so famous and so holy that wherever Hindus went they named at least one river after Ganga. We see Ganga in River Mekong (Ma Ganga) in South East Asia, Maveli Ganga in Sri Lanka, Congo in Central Africa etc. Sumerians also named God Enki after River Ganga.


Enki is the Sumerian god of the waters and wisdom. Akkadians called it Ea.


Both Enki and Ea are corrupted Sanskrit words:

Enki= Ganga

Ea – Toyam/water


But Enki is a male god in Sumerian; His abode was subterranean sweet water ocean Apsu.

Apsu is also a Sanskrit word for water (Apa= Apsu).


In Mesopotamian flood myths, Enki appears as the protector of humanity. Lot of stories are linked to Enki in course of time. This is because the local gods got mixed up with Enki. More over various cultures layered one over the other and people thought all are same.


Enki was worshipped in Iraq (Mesopotamia) between 3500 BCE and 1750 BCE. Hindu migration started towards Europe and West Asia 8000 years ago according to the latest Genetic research. Cave paintings in Bhimbetka and other parts of India proved that human occupation was there as early as 50,000 years ago in the heart of India (Madhya Pradesh etc).

Sumerians believed that Enki fills the Iraq rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Enki is perceived to fill the two rivers with sacred sweet water. This Sumerian belief is a typical Hindu belief. Hindus believe that all the rivers in India gets Ganga water on holy days. On Deepavali (Diwali) day, all the waters in any part of India is considered Ganga water. Tamils exchange greetings in the morning “have you had Ganges bathing today?” This is a traditional greeting for Deepavali.


When Kumbamela is celebrated every four years, Ganges visits different rivers in India. Mahakumbamela is celebrated every 12 years at Prayag (also known as Allahabad).


Whenever they dip in any water they recite the Punya Nadhi (River Hymn) sloka. Ganga Sindhusca Kaveri, Yamuna ca Saraswati……… The meaning is seven rivers are sacred and Ganga stands first. Hindus always keep Ganges water at home and mix it with other waters. Just by adding a drop of Ganga water they consider the whole water is from the Ganges. Sumerians also believed that Enki floods the rivers in Iraq (old Mesopotamia).



Enki is associated with Creation myth in Sumerian Civilization. Though the special meaning was Ganga , the common meaning was water for Enki. No wonder water is associated with creation. All the major cultures have the Flood Myth.


He is usually represented as a figure in typical horned head dress and tiered skirt with two streams of water springing from his shoulders or a vase and including leaping fish. This is again a Hindu story. Ganges is coming from the head of Lord Shiva and is depicted in all the pictures. Since Hindus migrated to Sumerian lands thousands of years ago, they had only vague memories. Fish stands for the Fish Avatar (Matsyaavatar) of Lord Vishnu.


The water coming from a vase is also a typical Hindu story. Hindus believe that the South Indian River Kaveri came from the vase of a great sage named Agastya. Ganges is also represented in a vase in every Hindu house.


Some of the images in Sumerian would remind any Hindu the penance done by the King Bhageeratha to bring the celestial Ganges to earth. This is a story about geology and a great engineering marvel. Around 1800 or 2000 BCE, big natural catastrophes happened in the Himalayan region. As a result of this great Saraswati river disappeared; Ganges changed its course; Indus valley civilization disappeared because of drought and floods. At that time Bhageeratha,who was a great engineer diverted the Ganges towards bay of Bengal via the modern Gangetic plain.


Like the Egyptians relocated Abu symbol  from the course of Nile river, Bhageertha removed a big blockage in the course of Ganges which was considered a big Engineering marvel. This is depicted in Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu Pallva Monuments) and other sculptures. Puranas say that Ganges comes from the head of Lord Shiva. Sumerians also has depicted this scene.

Enki and Egypt

Michael Rice, in his book Egypt’s making, writes,

“In Egypt the hieroglyphic symbol – ‘foot with a jar’ from which water is pouring, meant PURE, CLEAN.

The Pyramid text Utterance 513says,

“Be pure; occupy your seat in the bark of Re; row over the sky and mount up to the distant ones; row with the imperishable stars, navigate with the Unwearyingly Stars.”

(my comments: Hindus also place Ganges at two levels; one is Ganges on earth/Himalayas

and the second is Aakasa Ganga (Sky Ganga). The Milky Way galaxy that contains solar system is called Akasa Ganga in Sanskrit literature)


“One of Enki’s shrines is described as ‘the clean place’ and ‘pure’ and the idea of distant journeying is compelling, at least in the context of a review which started out on this voyage through the Egyptian perceptions of their island connections. The association with purity and water is also notable”.

(My comments: The words clean, pure etc show that they meant only Ganga; this confirms Enki is Ganga; Hindus sprinkle Ganges water on the day of Purity Ceremony known as Punyaaha Vachana)


Dictionary of Ancient Near East adds,

“Enki’s most important cult centre was the E-abzu at Eridu. As a provider of fresh water and a Creator God and determiner of destinies, Enki was always seen as favourable to mankind. In the Sumerian poem ‘Inana and Enki’, he controls the ‘me’ concerned with every aspect of human life and in ‘Enki and the World Order’, he has the role of organising in detail every feature of the civilized world. He also appears as a powerful and cunning deity in several Hittite Myths”.


New Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology adds:

“Enki or Ea, god of the Apsu, was the principal divinity of the liquid elements. But he had a daughter, the goddess NANSHE who shared his functions. She was the goddess of springs and canals. Like her father she ws particularly honoured in Eridu, the holy city, which was situated at the mouth of Apsu. She was also worshipped at Lagash each year, on a canal near the city, there was a procession of boats to escort the sacred barge in which the Goddess rode”.

(My comments: In addition to Sanskrit words used in the above (enki=Ganga, Ea=Toyam, Apsu=apa), note that Eridu is considered Gangotri of Sumerians. Lagash is Kailash. Sumerians vaguely remembered all the Indian place names and they changed or got corrupted in course of time. even today famous city Madurai in Tamil Nadu is called Marudai; no wonder Kailsh became Lagash! The boat festival is the Ganaga mata festival with Goddess Ganga on the boat.)

“Nanshe’s emblem was a vase in which a fish swam. Finally the rivers were deified. They were invoked not only as the creators of all things but also the instruments of the Gods’ justice”.

(My comments: India is the only country in the world where all the rivers are deified; even today they worship the rivers. There are even statues for all the River Goddesses and festivals around the year. They considered famines, droughts and floods are God’s punishments for their evil deeds; now environmental scientists agree with the Hindus: if we abuse Nature it punishes us!)


Ganges is praised in the Rig Veda. When Saraswati River existed Ganges occupied a secondary place. When Saraswati river disappeared, Ganga came to first place. So Ganges and Enki can be used to find out the periods of civilization. My guess is that Sumerian, Babylonian and Mesopotamian civilizations came when Ganga was considered most sacred. That means Rig Veda is earlier than all these civilizations. Nicholas Kazanas, greek scholar, proved that Rig Veda was composed before 3300 BCE through linguistic research. Herman Jacobi of Germany and BG Tilak of India have dated Rig Veda before 4500 BCE through astronomical data.

Now  the samples of underground Saraswati River proved scientifically that  the Vedic civilization was older than the previous conjectures.






Latest News on Ganges water

Towering peaks

Flowering meadows

Raging waterfalls

Rushing rivers

Dark and Mysterious caves

Strange Hot Water Springs

Snow clad mountains

Ethereal beauty

Divine atmosphere

Invisible Holy men along the 1500 mile Ganges river.

A study by the National Environmental Engineering Institute (NEERI) claiming that water in the Ganga has unique “anti-bacterial” properties has put a question mark on at least three important hydro electric projects on the Alaknanda in Uttarakhand. And forced Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to depute an official emissary to explain matters to environmentalist and former IIT professor G D Agrawal — later rechristened as Swami Gyanswaroop Sanand — of the Ganga Seva Abhiyanam who claims that the river will lose these properties if hydro electric projects come up on its upper reaches.

Mahakumbh is held once-in-12-years on the banks of the river Ganga. This largest religious congregation on earth will be held next year -2013.

The NEERI study, commissioned by the Tehri Hydel Development Corporation and submitted last November, has become a key document for the protestors. It states: “The present study confirmed that the uniqueness of the River Bhagirathi/Ganga lay in its sediment content which is more radioactive compared to other river and lake water sediments.

It has bactericidal properties and can cause proliferation of coliphages that reduce and ultimately eliminate coliforms from overlying water column (a Bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria and ultimately kills them. Coliphages infects a particular type of bacteria and kills them) Investigations revealed that particulate matters of Alaknanda have identical anti-bacterial property as that of Bhagirathi.”

Holy Shrines on the river

There are more than 6000 temples dotting the hills of Himachal, built with typical Himalayan timbers. You may visit Pancha Prayags, Panch Kedars, Four Dhams, and Five Hot Springs in the Garhwal hills.

Panch Prayags: Deo Prayag, Rudra Prayag, Karna Prayag, Nand Prayag and Vishnu Prayag

Four Dhams: Yamunotri,  Gangotri, Badrinath and Kedarnath

Panch Badris (Vishnu Temples): Badrinath, Pandukeshwar, Adi Badri, Bavishya Badri and Vridha Badri (Ani math)

Panch Kedars: Kedarnath, Madhya Maheswar, Tunganath, Rudranath and Urgam

Hot Water Springs in the snow: Yamunotri (surya kund), Badrinath, Son Prayag, Madhya Maheswar and Tapovan

Ice Lingas, like the Ice Linga of Amarnath Cave (Kashmir), are formed along the Khatling glacier. The main ice linga of the Garhwal hills is located between Gangotri and Kedarnath. (facts collected from the book on Garhwal Hills)

More about Ganges

In his book “Dictionary of Bhagavad Gita”, R J Venkateswaran says:

Jahnavi is another name of Ganges. Tha Ganges is the 39th longest river in the world and the fifteenth longest in Asia with a length of 2506 kilometres. But from the point of sacredness, it is river without a rival. Lord Krishna says in the Gita (10-37), “ of rivers I am the Ganga”. Sankara, the great philosopher, has praised Ganga as a goddess endowed with remarkabl powers. In his prayer to Mother Ganga, he has said that those who drink her holy waters will have gateway to the highest destiny open to them and that death will not dare to come near them. Sankara has described the river as the holy stream, issuing from Lord Hari’s blessed feet, spotlessly pure. And prays to her to destroy his sins and take him across the ocean of worldliness. Sankara paid his tribute as the saviour of the fallen, mother of great hero Bhisma, blessed you in all the three worlds”.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa was also a staunch believer in the greatness and goodness of the Ganga Master. Sri Ramakrishna used to describe the water of Ganga as Brahmavari,that is Brahman in the form of water.

Mr Venkateswaran continues, “ The Ganga has fascinated not only the sages and savants of India, but also scholars, philosophers and adventurers from all parts of the world. One of the most authoritative books on the river has been written by Dr Stevan G Darian, Professor of Linguistics at Rutgers University, entitled The Ganges in Myth and History. The author says, “From the time of Vishnu Dharma Shastra in the third century AD, Ganga has played a vital role in Hindu ceremony, in rituals of birth and initiation of marriage and death”.

But Ganges is praised in the Rig Veda and all the Hindu scriptures. Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil literature also attest to its holiness. So we can boldly say that the river has been venerated by the Hindus for more than 3000 years.

(Please read the earlier posts “Holy River Ganges in Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature” and “Great Engineers of Ancient India” to know more about the greatness of the Ganges).




Ganges in Kalidasa & Sangam Tamil Literature

(This is the fourth in the series of Kalidasa and Sangam (Cankama) Tamil literature- part of my thesis proving that the Date of Kalidasa was around First Century BC-Pre Sangam period-S swaminathan)

No river on earth commands so much respect and reverence as the Holy Ganga. We see this river in Rig Veda, the oldest religious scripture in the world, the great Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, Kalidasa’s works and in the ancient Sangam Tamil literature. The Tamils considered it the holiest river. Whenever they want to say something holy they always compared the Ganges. Just to exaggerate they used to say X or Y is holier than Ganga. All the rivers are considered mother in Hindu mythologies. But Ganga Matha( Mother Ganges)  has a very special place in the minds of Indians.

Ganges water was praised as the purest and cleanest water with miraculous properties even by the East India Company 300 years ago. When their ships were loaded with Ganges water for drinking purpose it never became stale (putrefy) even after several months where as other water loaded in different parts of the world went stale within a month. The Hindus knew its properties for thousands of years. The powerful Tamil kings went all the way to Himalayas and embossed their seals on the rocks there. When they came back they brought Ganges water after taking a holy dip. In the middle ages the Vaishnavite Alvars and the Saivite Nayanmars sang its praise in their hymns.

Cheran Senguttuvan of Sangam period brought stones from Himalayas twice for his mother Narchonai and another chaste woman Kannaki. Both the times he washed the stones in the Holy Ganges and made idols from them.

Even today Hindus fill in Ganges water in bottles and pots and bring them home to use it on special occasions. Even before bottling water became a roaring business, Ganges water was sold or distributed free of cost by the Hindu Charities. Everyday Madurai and Rameswaram temples use Ganges water for Abhishekam (bathing the gods). Truck loads of Ganges water come all the way from Himalayan destinations to these temples.

In Haridwar and Varanasi (Kasi), an evening Arthi is performed to Ganga Matha which is watched and worshipped by thousands of people. No river in the world has this type of daily worship. The world’s largest religious festival Kumbhamela attended by  twenty million people takes place every twelve years on the banks of river Ganges.

No wonder this mighty river finds a special place in every literary work of India. Kalidasa, the greatest of the secular Indian poets, even praises the Milky Way in the sky as Akasa Ganga (Ganges in the sky).

Hidden Treasure Under the Ganges

Tamil literature reveals some unknown, secret information about the Ganges. Poet Mamulanar in Akam 265 says that the Nanda Kings have hidden enormous treasure under the Ganges in Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar). He compares the mighty Himalayas and the enormous hidden treasure to the wealth the hero went after leaving the heroine all alone. Since there was no supporting information from other historical sources, the commentators also left us skeleton details only.

Kalidasa’s references to Ganges:

Mega 45, 65

Vikra. I -7 ,II 15, III-6, V-22

Kumara I-30, 54; VI 38, 57, 70; VII-41, 42;VIII-16

Ragu. II-26,IV 32, 36, 73,V 48, X 37, 63;XIII 20,54 to 57; XII-66;XIV-3, 52;XVI 33,34, 71;XVII 14

From Kumarasambhavam

“To her, those impressions were permanent, the lore  acquired in the past life, came at the time of instruction, as do the flocks of swans to the Ganges in autumn, or their own lustre to the medicinal herbs at the night” (1-30) I have already given the verse by Paranar (narri.356) where he sang about the Himalayas and the swans.

“O you, the most eminent of the twice born, I consider myself sanctified by these two only, by the fall of Ganges on my head, and water from your washed feet”(6-57)

“Just as Ganga is lauded by the foot of the supreme lord, so is she by you of lofty peaks, who are her second source” (6-70)

Ganga and Yamuna also, assuming visible forms and holding Chauries, served the god (7-42)

Mega. 51

The dark clouds at the top of the mountains look like dark elephants bathing in the Ganges.

The shadow of the dark clouds and the crystal clear Ganges water makes us think that river Yamuna mingles with the Ganges in a different place (Yamuna water is darker than Ganges).

Ragu 13-54 to 57

Kalidasa employs seven similes in this description of White Ganges and Dark Yamuna. The joining of the two rivers looks like a necklace of pearls and blue sapphires. Then it looks like a garland of white and blue flowers. In another place it is like white swans and black swans swimming together. In another place it likes the Rangoli on black agar wood with sandal paste. It also looks like the white moon light peeping through dark tree leaves. In another place it is like dark clouds floating in blue sky. Ganga and Yamuna together look like Shiva smeared with white ash with the snake around his neck (Ganges is Shiva and Yamuna is snake).

Paranar also follows Kalidasa and employs nine similes in Akam 178, but on a different theme.

Ragu 17-72

The clouds are praised for showering water on parched fields. But they are that generous only because of the sea. People forget the sea. King Athithi gave so much to the poets who in turn donated them to others. Though they were praised the original philanthropist Athithi was forgotten like the sea.

Tamil poets and Kalidasa knew that the sea was the source of clouds and rain. Kapilar in Puram 107 sings about it. People praise rain (Mari) when King Pari is more generous.

Tamil poets’ references to Ganges

Patti.190 (articles produced in the valleys of the Ganges and the Kavery)

Narr.369 (Nalvellaiyar);189 (Anonymous)

Puram 161 (Perunchittiranar)

Madu.696 Mankudi Maruthan (1000 branched Ganges)


Akam .265 (Mamulan)

Pari. 16-36

Post Sangam works: Silappadikaram mentions Ganges in 15 places; Manimegalai -4 places

Tamil literature uses Ganges as a simile for the generosity and philanthropy of kings and chieftains. They came to know about the river only from Kalidasa and other Sanskrit works.

Katiyalur  Uruttiran Kannanar (Perum. 429-431) says

As men who flee from peril slumber as they wait

For the boat that will ferry them across

The unfordable Ganga, scattering gold as it tears down

The lofty crest of the Himalaya where the gods dwell,

Lighting it up with its silvery billows (Perum. 429-431)

Vikramorvasiyam I-7 refers Ganges breaking its banks which is echoed by Tamil poet Perunchittiranar. He describes the mighty flow of Ganges in Puram. 161: the clouds raise from the sea, gather themselves, appear dark and huge like mountains in the sky, roar with thunder and pour the torrents; when such a rainy season is past and when the summer reigns supreme making the tanks and rivers everywhere dry, the Ganges flows full of water for the benefit of the whole of mankind. The poet compares Ganges to the generosity of Kumanan, a Tamil chieftain. The Ganges descending from the Himalayas is always overflowing its banks, he says.

Narrinai poet Madurai Nalvellaiyar (verse 369) used Ganges in a statement by a heroine. The heroine feels that her love is so powerful and influential that it over comes her self- control like the great floods in the Ganges that overflows the banks and smashes the dams in its course. Another anonymous poet says that the hero might have gone somewhere by a boat in the Ganges. Nal Velliyar just echoed Kumarasambhavam verse VIII-16 and Raguvamsam verse XII-66.

Tamils even knew that the Ganges branches into thousands of smaller streams just before entering into Bay of Bengal . Sangam poet Mankudi Maruthan compares the lively Madurai market to the Ganges. Saivite saint Appar also refers to it as thousand faced Ganges.

Milky Way

Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. There are 200 to 400 billion stars. Astronomers estimate that there are ten billion habitable planets in the Milky Way galaxy. If the night sky is clear we can see this galaxy with a lot of stars with a background of white light patch. Kalidasa refers to it in several places. In Tamil we come across it in Paripatal (16-36).

Ka lidasa refers to the Milky Way as Chaya Patham, Vyoma Ganga, Thri Marga, Thri Divasa and Akasa Ganga in Ragu I-78, XII-85, XIII-2, Kuma. I-28, IV-37.

NB: The Ganges has become more polluted in recent years. So readers are warned not to drink water  without boiling it. This is because of the industrial wastes mixing into it along its 1500 mile route. The medicinal qualities are still maintained at the source or very near the source in the Himalayas.

Supporting information from another website

The Ganges is 2525 kilometres long. Along its course, 27 major towns dump 902 million litres of sewage into it each day. Added to this are all those human bodies consigned to this holy river, called the Ganga by the Indians. Despite this heavy burden of pollutants, the Ganges has for millennia been regarded as incorruptible. How can this be?

Several foreigners have recorded the effects of this river’s “magical” cleansing properties:

  1. Ganges water does not putrefy, even after long periods of storage. River water begins to putrefy when lack of oxygen promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which produce the tell-tale smell of stale water.
  2. British physician, C.E. Nelson, observed that Ganga water taken from the Hooghly — one of its dirtiest mouths — by ships returning to England remained fresh throughout the voyage.
  3. In 1896, the British physician E. Hanbury Hankin reported in the French journal Annales de l’Institut Pasteur that cholera microbes died within three hours in Ganga water, but continued to thrive in distilled water even after 48 hours.
  4. A French scientist, Monsieur Herelle, was amazed to find “that only a few feet below the bodies of persons floating in the Ganga who had died of dysentery and cholera, where one would expect millions of germs, there were no germs at all.

More recently, D.S. Bhargava, an Indian environmental engineer measured the Ganges’ remarkable self-cleansing properties:

“Bhargava’s calculations, taken from an exhaustive three-year study of the Ganga, show that it is able to reduce BOD [biochemical oxygen demand] levels much faster than in other rivers.”

Quantitatively, the Ganges seems to clean up suspended wastes 15 to 20 times faster than other rivers.

(Kalshian, Rakesh; “Ganges Has Magical Cleaning Properties,” Geographic, 66:5, April 1994.)

From Science Frontiers #94, JUL-AUG 1994. © 1994-2000 William R. Corliss


Tamil References:

நாள் தர வந்த விழுக் கலம் அனைத்தும்

கங்கை அம் பேர் யாற் கடல் படர்ந்தா அங்கு

அளந்து கடை அறியா வளம் கெழு தாரமொடு

மாங்குடி மருதன் (மதுரைக் காஞ்சி 695-697


இமையவர் உறையும் சிமையச் செவ்வரை

வெண் திரை கிழித்த விளங்கு சுடர் நெடுங்கோட்டுப்

பொன்கொழித்து இழிதரும் போக்கு அரும் கங்கைப்

பெரு நீர்ப் போகும் இரியல் மாக்கள் (பெரும்பா.429-432)


“நீண்டொலி அழுவம் குறைபட முகந்துகொண்டு;

ஈண்டுசெலல் கொண்மூ வேண்டுவயின் குழீஇப்

பெருமலை யன்ன தோன்றல் சூன்முதிர்பு,

உருமுரறு கருவியொடு, பெயல் கடன் இறுத்து,

வளமழை மாறிய என்றூழ்க் காலை,

மன்பதை எல்லாம் சென்றுணக் கங்கைக்

கரைபொரு மலிநீர் நிறைந்து தோன்றியாங்கு,

எமக்கும் பிறர்க்கும் செம்மலை யாகலின்” (புறம் 161)


மலர் மார்பிற் சோர்ந்த மலரிதழ் தா அய்

மீனாரம் பூத்த வியன் கங்கை நந்திய

வானம் பெயர்ந்த மருங்கொத்த லெஞ்ஞான்றும்

(பரிபாடல் 16-35/37 நல்லழிசியார்)


ஞெமையோங்கு உயர்வரை இமயத்து உச்சி

வா அன் இழிதரும் வயங்கு வெள் அருவிக்

கங்கையம் பேர்யாற்றுக் கரையிறந் திழிதரும்

சிறையடு கடும் புனல் அன்னவென்

நிறையடு காமம் நீந்துமாறே (நற்றிணை 369)


Appar :

நேர்ந்தொருத்தி ஒரு பாகத்து அடங்கக் கண்டு

நிலை தளர ஆயிரமா முகத்தினோடு

பாய்ந்தொருத்தி படர் சடை மேற் பயிலக் கண்டு

பட அரவும் பனி மதியும் வைத்த செல்வர் (அப்பர் தேவாரம்)