ADVANCED ARCHITECTURE DURING MAHABHARATA PERIOD (Post No.10,603)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 10,603

Date uploaded in London – –    27 JANUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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This is the second part of my article ‘Were Greeks Asuras? Strange information in Upanishad’ posted yesterday.

Hindus were great civil engineers long before any other civilization in the world. This is proved by continuous references to architectural matters in our literature. In Ramayana we come across building a bridge over sea. In addition, we hear about the spatial palace of Ravana.

In Mahabharata , we hear about the Wax Palace (House of Wax- Lakshagriha= House of Lacquer) with tunnels. But the description in the Sabha Parva about the palace built by Maya Danava at Indraprstha is extraordinary. What period was it? 3000 years ago or 5000 years ago? Or is it just later interpolation?

If one puts all the building references from Hindu scriptures in chronological order, we know that it is not an interpolation.

Rig Veda has references to 1000 Pillar Hall. But they did it with wood not stone. 2700 years ago, Panini wrote Ashtadhyayi, first grammar book in the world. Interpreting on some Sutras( pithy rules) later commentators add owl shaped buildings, eagle shaped buildings etc. (Please see the links below)

Later we come across in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature that Mauryans laid road route in mountainous area to come to South India. That should have happened during Maurya Chandra Gupta time (3rd century BCE).

Before that, Agastya laid a road route though the Vindhya Hills to South India. The Puranas describe it Agastya subduing the arrogance of Vindhyas.

We also saw two great River diversions in the stories of Bhageeratha and Agastya. Bhageeratha diverted River Ganges and Agastya diverted River Kaveri. Greatest engineering feats in the ancient world.

If we arrange all the great engineering feats then we know that the description of a Glassy / Crystal Palace in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata is neither imaginary nor a later day interpolation.

Danavas/Asuras/Daityas is the community who specialised in this area. They were part of Hindu society according to our scriptures. It looks like they lived in the heart of Uttar Pradesh during Mahabharata time.

Two important words in the World Dictionary entered because of them

Maya- Mayan- Great builders of South and Central America came from the building community whose chief was Maya. He was the one who built the most famous building in the epic. Immediately Dhritarashtra also wanted one such building with 1000 Pillars. The 1000 pillar halls in many Tamil Nadu and Andhra temples today are engineering wonders of the world. This is also in the Rig Veda; but in those days it was constructed with wood; during Nayak period they did it with stone.

The second word the world dictionary got is Gondwana Land. It is a geological term now. Actually, it was Khandava Vana land. (Khandavavana= Gondwana)

The burning of Khandava Vana near Delhi was a historical event. That lead to a big clash between the Kuru Dynasty and the Nagas who were living in the forest. Maya who was also living in the Khandava forest was rescued by Arjuna and Krishna. Here is the discussion they had after the Forest burning incident.

Mahabharata Palace

We come across thousand pillared buildings in the Rigveda, in the second book of which we read,

“Those two kings…..take their seat in the supremest house , the thousand pillared, firmly based.” R V 2-41-5; 5-62-6.

In another place we read of Varuna’s house with 1000 pillars: RV 7-88-5

In a third place we have a reference to a hundred stone built towns RV 4-30-20

This reference is very important, as showing stone built towns were known even in the Rigveda times. .

xxxx

In the Apastamba Sutra 2-10-25

The king is directed to build a Royal Town and a palace House for himself, so that the palace shall stand in the heart of the town and in front of it, there shall be a hall, called the Hall of Invitation.

In chapter 228 of Adiparva of Mahabharata, called Maya darshana parva, we are told while Khandava forest was being burnt an Asura, by name Maya came out of the dwelling of Takshaka and begged Arjuna to protect him.

The words in the epic,

Then Madhusudana Krishna saw an Asura named Maya, running away from the dwelling of Takshaka. Then fire, with wind for its charioteer, wanted to burn him. So he assumed a body and putting on matted hair he thundered like a cloud. Knowing that he was Maya, who was the best of chief Dana and the best of Architects. Vasudeva stood with a chaktra lifted up.

Arjuna saved him.

Maya tells Arjuna,

I am the all doer, a great sage of the Danavas. O Pandava, I desire to do something for you

Aham hi visvakarma vai danavanam mahakavihi

Soaham vai tvatkrute kartum kinchit ichhami

Then Arjuna answers

O Danava I do not want to frustrate your intentions; do something for Krishna, so that I shall myself requited.

Krishna says to Maya,

O Best of Architects, if you desire to do me a good turn, O then, Daitya build such a hall for Yudhisthira that no one in the whole world will be able to imitate it.

Then Maya who was pleased accepted his word and made Pandavas beautiful hall of the form of a balloon.

In Vasa’s words

Pratigruhya tu tatvakyam samprahrusto mayasthatha

Vimanaprathimam chakre pandavasya Subham sabham

Then Maya began to build the palace hall.

According to the intention of the Pandavas and the high minded Krishna, the illustrious did auspicious acts. Then having satisfied thousands of Brahmins with sweet drinks and giving them various kinds of wealth , that strong one measured the ground, 10000 arms square , which was beautiful, heaven like, full of merits in all seasons.

Further up we are told that the throne hall was built in 14 months.

Xxxx

Katha Sarit Sagara,a later work by Somadeva of 12th century, described Maya as a devotee of Lord Shiva. Rishi Kasyapa blessed him with some boons.

Passages quoted by Curtius and Strabo from Megasthanes show big buildings, pavilions,gardens, palaces belonging to the court of Chandtagupta in Pataliputra.

In Mahabharata there is a beautiful description of Indraprastha, city of the Pandavas,

It was adorned with a ditch as deep as the sea, and was surrounded by a rampart wall, which reached the skies. It shone with doors as be

as the wings of Garuda bird and with tall houses. it was closed by gates which reached the sky and resembled Mandara mountain. It was shining with several white mansions. It resembled heaven and called Indraprastha.

There all architects came to reside. On all sides of the town there were delightful gardens. It shone with houses as pure as looking glasses, with vine pavilions of various kinds, with picture houses and artificial mounds. Beautiful lotus ponds of various kinds, covered over with lotuses were there. And also many large and delightful lakes.

All of us know how Duryodana and his brothers visited the palace and mistook glassy floors for water ponds and water ponds for glassy floors. When they fell in one of the ponds Pandva brothers except Yuthisthira laughed. Whether Draupadi was there and laughed or not is still debated.

In the Sabha parva, 49th chapter ,we read

Dhriarashtra says,

Let architects quickly build for me a large, pretty and beautiful hall with one thousand pillars and one hundred doors. Another passage adds

With pictures of gold and lapis lazuli, with crystal festoons.

We can imagine Indraprastha and Hastinapura were with thousands of Taj Mahal like buildings. I

LINKS TO MY OLD ARTICLES (If the links dont work please go to swamiindology.blogspot.com and try or Copy and paste it in google)

Vedic Origin of Thousand Pillar Halls in Indian and Mayan …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2014/07/05 › vedic-origin-…

5 Jul 2014 — One of the architectural wonders of the world is Thousand Pillar Mandap (hall) in South Indian Temples. It originated in the Rig Vedic …

Mayas and Tamils

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › mayas-and-tamils

28 Apr 2012 — Posts about Mayas and Tamils written by Tamil and Vedas. … 1000 pillar mandap is mentioned in Vedas and it is found in Madurai and other …

BEAUTIFUL SRIMUSHNAM TEMPLE (Post No.4844) – Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/03/23 › beautiful-sri…

23 Mar 2018 — … Tiruvannamalai, we have 1000 pillar Mandap/hall here. … 16 pillar mandap; here we have one Purushasukta mandap where Vedic recitation …

NAZCA LINES- Part 1 (Post No.8847) | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2020/10/23 › hindus-solve…

23 Oct 2020 — WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN Post No. 8847 Date uploaded in London – –23 OCTOBER 2020 Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com Pictures are taken from …

NAZCA | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › nazca

24 Oct 2020 — That is a few hundred years before the date of Nazca lines and figures. So now the mystery is solved. Like the army engineers and …

Peru | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › peru

24 Oct 2020 — Now I will explain that and add more points from Paninian grammar and Hindu Salagrama worship in South America. When we look at these together …

Vedic Origin of Thousand Pillar Halls in Indian and Mayan …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2014/07/05 › vedic-origin-…

5 Jul 2014 — One of the architectural wonders of the world is Thousand Pillar Mandap (hall) in South Indian Temples. It originated in the Rig Vedic …


Mayas and Tamils

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › mayas-and-tamils

28 Apr 2012 — Posts about Mayas and Tamils written by Tamil and Vedas. … 1000 pillar mandap is mentioned in Vedas and it is found in Madurai and other …


BEAUTIFUL SRIMUSHNAM TEMPLE (Post No.4844) – Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/03/23 › beautiful-sri…

23 Mar 2018 — … Tiruvannamalai, we have 1000 pillar Mandap/hall here. … 16 pillar mandap; here we have one Purushasukta mandap where Vedic recitation …


NAZCA LINES- Part 1 (Post No.8847) | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2020/10/23 › hindus-solve…

23 Oct 2020 — WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN Post No. 8847 Date uploaded in London – –23 OCTOBER 2020 Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com Pictures are taken from …


NAZCA | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › nazca

24 Oct 2020 — That is a few hundred years before the date of Nazca lines and figures. So now the mystery is solved. Like the army engineers and …


Peru | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › peru

24 Oct 2020 — Now I will explain that and add more points from Paninian grammar and Hindu Salagrama worship in South America. When we look at these together …

-SUBHAM-

Tags- 1000 pillar Hall, Palaces, Mahabharata, architecture, Vedic, Halls

MESOPOTAMIAN AND VEDIC MEDICINES! (Post No.7165)

Goddess Gula with her Dog
Gula

WRITTEN  by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 1 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 17-49

Post No. 7165

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

from Babylon in Berlin Museum

There are lot of similarities between the Mesopotamian and Vedic beliefs regarding diseases and medicines. Atharva Veda has more similarities than other Vedas with the Mesopotamian Cuneiform tablets. Only in Hindu religion God is called Doctor and Medicine (Bishak and Beshajam). After the Vedic period Hindus advanced with great speed. But Sumerian, Babylonian and Akkadian stopped growing. We see the same old belief prevailing in 6th and seventh century BCE in Babylonia. That was the time of Buddha, Mahavira, great physicians Susrutha and Charaka in India.

Following are notable similarities between the Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Vedic India:–

1.They believed that diseases are caused by Gods and Evil spirits

2.They used magical spells to drive away the disease causing demons.

3.They wore talismans made up of animal, plant and inanimate objects to protect them from the demons or evil spirits

4.They worshiped Gods or Goddesses in charge of medicines.

5.They thought Gods who become angry send the diseases to earth to punish people.

6.Both the cultures did surgeries and had surgical instruments.

7.To some extent they used herbal medicines.

8.They had trained medicine men, magicians to cure diseases.

There are dissimilarities as well.

First let us look at the Vedic literature.

Atharva Veda is dated around 1000 BCE or earlier. This Veda consists mostly of charms, spells, incantations, magic, sorcery, demonology and witchcraft. It deals also with plants and vegetable products as helpful agents in the treatment of diseases and for the prolongation of life.

In Atharva Veda we have even remedy for promoting the growth of hair (AV 6-163-1/2)

In the Atharva Veda the hymns for the cure of diseases and of possessions of demons are known as BHAISAJYANI, while those for prolongation of life and preservation of youth and health are known as AYUSHYANI.

It can be compared with the tasks of two types of medicine men ASU and AASIPUS in Mesopotamia.

Ritual healers or exorcists were called Aasipus and other healers were called Asus. They were highly respected during Neo Assyrian period (About 900- 612 BCE) . They were employed by kings along with astrologers, diviners and scholarly professionals.

Mesopotamian gods were short tempered and they signalled their displeasure by sending diseases. The Asipus were experts in reading them and they mediated between the victims and gods. The gods had the power to provide well being and plenty and bring about disaster if they so wished.

A catalogue from the first millennium BCE lists the texts expected to be mastered by a ritual healer. It features several series of incantations and rituals for healing and protection from various evils, handbooks on diagnostics and physiognomy, and medical remedies as well as descriptions of plants and stones used as therapeutic substances.

But the ‘Exorcist’s Manual’ as the catalogue is now called now, also registers various types of omens dealing with signs in heaven and on earth. The physicians performed basic surgeries

Hammurabi’s Law

According to Laws of Hammurabi (1800 BCE), the physicians also healed broken bones and performed eye surgery as well as veterinary care, for which he could charge a fee of ten shekels of silver, depending on the social status of the client.

The laws also specify the punishments (either financial or physical) that a physician could face if his interventions appeared to  injure or kill a patient.

India had great eye surgeons like Jeevaka during the time of Buddha. He charged a very high fee for surgeries Susruta is the first one to talk about artificial plastic nose. He lists lot of surgical instruments. Asvins of Vedic literature were experts in treating patients and providing them artificial limbs. Dhanvatri is the God of  Medicine in Hindu scriptures. A Tamil Pandya king was given an artificial hand and he was called ‘Pandya with a Golden hand’ 2000 years ago. These are just a few examples.

Charaka and Susruta, two great physicians, list the qualifications of physicians.

Mesopotamian Gods and Demons

While the ritual healers regarded the gods of wisdom and magic, Ea (Enki) and Marduk (Asalluhi) as their guardians, physicians especially  venerated the heling goddess Gula and her consort Damu.

Goddess Gula was known as ‘Great Physician of the Land’ and was portrayed as applying bandages to treat skin sores, operating with surgical instruments ,reciting incantations, and performing midwifery. She was often shown with a dog. Like Hindu Yama and Bhairava she was accompanied by a dog.

The cures for snake bites are similar to cures in the Atharva Veda. Mesopotamians feared Lamashtu, the baby snatching demoness. This type of belief is in India as well. Tamil Skanda Sashti Kavasam hymn mentioned the child devouring  demon. Tamils used white mustard seeds to drive away the demons from pregnant women and new born babies. Manasa Devi is worshipped in Bengal to get protection from snake bites.

Source Books:

Ancient Mesopotamia Speaks Yale University, 2019

History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India, P Ray, 1956

Brain Surgery | Tamil and Vedas



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17 Jun 2015 – Posts about Brain Surgery written by Tamil and Vedas. … Brain Surgery in Ancient India: Bhoja and Indus Valley … Jeevaka’s Eye Operation.

Upamanyu | Tamil and Vedas



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25 Feb 2013 – Picture shows Kannappa Nayanar placing his foot on Shiva to mark the place for placing the second eyeJeevaka’s Eye Operation. There is a …

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3 Feb 2018 – Sushruta was the Father of Surgery. He describes a lot of surgical instruments. On the basis of his description, model instruments were created.

Sushruta | Tamil and Vedas



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4 Feb 2018 – Sushruta who lived 2600 years ago in India is the Father of Surgery. He described over 100 medical instruments. He was famous for nose …

Charaka | Tamil and Vedas



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In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of …. A lot of surgical instruments, surgeries like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery for …

Susruta | Tamil and Vedas



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Posts about Susruta written by Tamil and Vedas. … Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon. Sauryam– … Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments

—subham–

Picture of Theseus killing Minotaur

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 13 FEBRUARY 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 9-44 am

 

Post No. 3633

 

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Vedic Hindus’ great discoveries include the decimal system, domestication of cow, bull, horse, the use of wheel, the concept of time, marine trade, divinity of man and arts. The proof lies in the 10,000 hymns of the Four Vedas. They are considered the oldest records of religious experience of human beings. Jacobi and BG Tilak dated them 6000 BCE. Others dated them 2000-1500 BCE.

 

Cows and bulls have more references in the Vedas than any other religious literature in the world. They gave them a holy status. They used them as similes for the affection and heroism. Indra is praised as bull among the humans in the Vedas. Later bull was made the vehicle of Lord Shiva. Every temple of Shiva has a big bull statue (Nandhi) in front of him. Though we have references to the bull in other civilizations, if we accept the date of the Vedas as 6000 BCE, then that is the oldest literary record.

 

“There were bulls which had massive strength, youthful and intoxicated bull, a bull with a steady gait, a vagabond and a forest bull, a fleeting bull, billowing bull in search of a mate. Indra is compared to a massive bull.” (Animals in Sanskrit Literature by Dr M K Sridhar)

Vrsabha (Bull) is referred to in the Rig Veda 1-116-12; 2-5-6;1-94-10; 1-160-3; 6-46-4;7-101-1;2-16-5;

 

Valmiki in his Ramayana aslo called Rama, a bull among men.

In Sangam Tamil literature which is 2000 year old, we see at least 70 references. Kings and heroes were addressed as Bulls.

In Kalidasa

Kalidasa used bull as a simile to the heroism or force of a leader in Raghuvamsam.

 

“He who has a befitting physique for his heroic deeds in kingship, with a sizable chest, bullish shoulders, tallish stature like a sala tree, and with dextrous arms, abided as a personification of the devoir and valour of kshatriya-s. [1-13]

 

As a calf attains the build of an impetuous bull, or a calf of elephant donning the build of an impulsive young elephant, raghu steadily attained a majestic and pleasing build when his adolescence is bested by his youthfulness. [3-32]

Oh, curvaceous lady, this chitrakUTa mountain with its mouth of a valley sending forth gurgling sounds of rapids, mud-like rainclouds attached to its horn-like apices, thus resembling a proudish bull whose cavern mouth sends forth a continuous bellowing and the tips of whose horns are smeared with mud dug up while indulging in butting against the side of a mountain, rivets my sight. [13-47]

 

“I have a wife, young girl; you may therefore resort to my younger brother…” Thus bull-shouldered Rama directed that lustful sUrpaNakha.(12-34)”

6b63d-bull-seal_0

Bull in Indus Valley

We have excavated more seals with bull figure in Indus valley than other animals. Surprisingly no seal with cow or no figure of cow is discovered in the valley. This shows the reverence they gave to the cow.

Sumerian Bull

Cattle evolved from the now extinct aurochs; water buffaloes are common in the seals of third millennium BCE Mesopotamia and it has been argued that they were imports from India.

 

0c090-ibni-sharrum-seal

Egyptian Bull

In Egypt, the king was hailed a s a Mighty Bull and his people were The Cattle of God.

Apis was the bull god worshiped as symbol of natural forces.

 

One of the most ancient of all the evidences of funerary cults comes from the very distant past in the extreme south, from Tushka in Lower Nubia, where burials have been excavated from the twelfth millennium BCE which were surmounted by the skulls of the wild bull, the aurochs, Bos primigenius, which roamed the valley until it was exterminated by the kings of the New Kingdom, ten thousand years later.

In Mithraic religion in Rome, a bull was killed.

 

Cretan ritual had the artistic leaping dances in which the humans imitated the bulls. The bull faced demon Minotaur of ancient Crete was killed by the hero Theseus.

 

In astrology, the bull is represented in the zodiacal sign of Taurus.

 

Bull in Tamil Literature

The primeval bull must have been a powerfully impressive symbol of vitality and masculine strength. The bull is of particular importance in the history of religion; bulls were worshiped in various cultures. There were symbolic rites in which a bull is defeated or sacrificed. Lord Krishna defeated seven bulls according to Hindu mythology. Tamils have the heroic game of Bull Fighting known as Jallikkattau or Manju Virattu. Unlike the Spanish bull fighting, here the bull is not killed but only tamed.

a09b5-bull2bsand

Tamil poets describe the bulls goring the wet ant hills with their horns and with mud on the horns accompanying the cows (Akananuru 64)

 

A fish caught in the fishing rod fights like a bull tied to ropes (Akam.36)

 

The tall black bull with white legs looked like a mountain with waterfalls.

The white bull with dots over its body resembles the twilight sky with shining stars.

The red with its curved horns appears like the God Siva wearing the crescent moon on his head. (Kali 103)

 

The bells on the horns of the reddish black bull are like the bees humming over the Naravu flower buds. (Kali 105)

 

Sources:

The Treatment of Nature in Sangam Literature, M.Varadarajan, 1969

Dictionary of Symbolism, Hans Biedermann, 1992

Who is Who in Ancient Egypt, Michael Rice, 1999

The Imagery of Kalidasa, Dr(Mrs) Vinod Aggarwal, 1985

Dictionary of the Ancient Near Eas, British Museum, 2000

sanscritdocuments.org

4e4b2-apis

Picture of Apis of Egypt

–Subham–