Sanskrit inscription in Delhi Iron Pillar (Post No.9519)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9519

Date uploaded in London – –22 APRIL  2021     

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A lot of us have read about the amazing Iron Pillar in Delhi. But not many people know the origin of it and the inscription on it.

Here is a paper cutting from 16 June 2007

The Iron Pillar next to the Qutab Minar in Delhi has been the centre of attraction for metallurgists from all over the world. For nearly 1600 years, it has been standing undaunted under the open skies, during all types of weather conditions. In so many years it has not rusted; this has been a surprise for the world.

As far as the question of its history is concerned, it was made in the fourth century CE. According to the Sanskrit inscription on it, it was set up as a flag post in front of the temple of Lord Vishnu on the Vishnu mountain in Mathura by Chandra Raj. It may have been made to place a Garuda (Eagle, Vahana of Vishnu)  on top of it. That is why it is also called the Garuda Pillar. It was brought to Delhi in 1050 by Anang Pal, the founder of modern Delhi.

The Pillar is 735.5 CMS tall, of which 50 CMS is below the earth and 45 CMS in the stone platform around it. It has a circumference of 41.6 CMS at the base and 30.4 CMS above. It might once have a statue of Garuda on top of it. The total weight of the Pillar is 6096 kilo.

A chemical examination in 1961 showed that the Pillar is made of surprisingly good quality steel and contains much less carbon in comparison to the steel of today. Dr B B Lal, the chief chemist of Indian Archaeological Survey has concluded that the Pillar is made by joining 20-30 kilos of hot Iron pieces. It is believed to have been manufactured in 15 days by 120 workers.

The fact that 1600 years ago the technique of joining pieces of hot Iron was known to us, is a matter of amazement by itself because not a single joint can be seen in the whole Pillar. The fact that despite remaining in the open and weathering out for 16 centuries, it has not rusted, , has amazed expert scientists . It has more phosphorus and less of sulphur and manganese.

Large quantities of slag by itself or collectively increases resistance to rust. Besides this, a 50-600 micron thick layer of oxide also protects the Pillar from rusting.

By Sri Suresh Soni, RSS Sar Karyavah, Organiser Magazine

SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION IN GUPTA BRAHMI SCRIPT

—subham—

TAGS- DELHI IRON PILLAR, SANSKRIT, INSCRIPTION, GUPTA

Our Heritage- Sanskrit (Post No.9502)

COMPILED  BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9502

Date uploaded in London – –17 APRIL  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

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Date of the paper cutting 29-6-1985, Indian Express

Points from the talks at the Ninth Tamil Nadu State Sanskrit Conference ,Madras June 21-23 (continuation of article dated June 23, 1985)

Sri AV Subramaniam:

According to Acharya Narayana (as reported by Viswanatha); Adbhutarasa with its Sthayi Bhaava as Sismaya (wonder)—

A surprising denouement ( the basis being flash , show or spectacle – Chamatkara- Freshness of concept) adds vibrations to other Rasas to make them more penetrative-powerful. Thus, it is a codaka rasa (Anandavardhana and Abbinava Gupta are in essential agreement.)

He gave instances from Kalidasa’s Sakuntalam,Bhavabuti’s Malati Madhava and Mahavira Charitra;Bhaskaran’s Urubhanga and Murray’s Anargha Raghavan, and Bhatta Narayana’s Veni Samharam —-Swapna vasavadatta  .

Unpleasant things are held as pleasant , bad things as good etc.

A boy losing a job in a distant place is the cause of his returning to his wife in his village, accidental hearing of words as in answer to a doubt or query.

Aswatthama wallowing in grief at the death of his father Drona, is rushed to fury and vengeance by the harsh words of Duryodhana and Karna.

A fine excess or exaggeration is needed to attract attention

Prof S Ramaswami:

To have a bright future for Sanskrit studies, all available facilities should be utilised, it should not be repetitive memory test as it were, but should have a critical and clear approach. Shakespearean studies are still going on, exploring new avenues. Difficulties in propagating Sanskrit are exaggerated. Critical editions have to be brought out by dedicated labours of scholars. Dictionaries of Puranas etc should be published.

Dr S Viswanathan: He made a comprehensive survey of Alankara theories , stressing those of Mammata and Ananda vardhana.

Srimati T V Savitri:

She gave a delectable citation from Mukakavi’s Pancasati Arya Sataka, Padaravinda Sataka— verses in praise of Sri Kanchi Kamakshi.

Dr N Veezinathan:

He spoke on the message of Sri Adi Shankara — his compositions for the enlightenment of the ordinary people— hymns and Prakarna granthas

Dr P K Sundaram:

The spirit of scientific enquiry was evident in early days, but it was not pursued in later times.

Sri B Madhavan:

Speaking generally on Hinduism,he observed

Strictly it is not a religion based on the teachings of a single person. We have only a collection of teachings, discussions, practices etc of several persons— seers, avatars etc with inevitable doubts and contradictions.

Still it has distinctive concepts that can be understood and acted upon, e.g. theory of re births based upon one’s karmas and cyclic civilisation.

The Four Yugas signifying the constant changes from good to bad and viceversa, not uni- directional.

Another concept is that evolution is governed by the three factors- heredity, environment and individuality.

Man has the scope to exercise his free will in a set up which is to a large extent beyond his control.

The concepts are universal in scope, – what applies to the macroeconomic level is applicable to the microcosmic level as well. From the point of view, there should be no room for dogmas. The Bhagavad Gita is a supreme example of being free from dogmas. Do not mislead. Try not to make others fall in line with you BG.3-28.

Of what use is compulsion? BG.3-33

What ever way one tries to meet me, I meet him in his own way BG.4-11

Full freedom of action— no essential ritual.

The final statement to Arjuna is striking,

Act in any manner you want to- the guidelines have been simply presented to you- BG.18-63

Sankara puts this as Smaarakam – na ti karakam- recommendatory and not mandatory.

As religion or philosophy, Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), is all comprehensive- covering all shades of thought, beliefs etc.

Universality, tolerance, accommodation, and freedom are its hallmarks. This is at once its weakness and strength.

It has survived through the ages despite various onslaughts on account of its universality and accommodation, perennial philosophy.

Dr S S Janaki:

She spoke on Sanskrit and Music. This will be reviewed separately.

Xxxx Subham xxxx

ags- sanskrit, conference , madras

SANSKRIT INTERPRETER IN SUMERIAN SCULPTURE (Post No.9267)

RESEARCH ARTICLE WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9267

Date uploaded in London – –15 FEBRUARY  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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Those who are familiar with Sumer (southern Iraq) and Indus-Sarasvati River Bank civilization already know the interpreter sculpture in Sumer. Those who have featured the picture in their articles have shown him as an interpreter from Meluha which they identified with the Indus/Sarasvati river region. They also went to the extent of interpreting the world Meluha as Mlecha. Now my research shows that he is an interpreter speaking Sanskrit language.

The reasons for my conclusion are

1.MENTION OF HALAHALA POISON IN THE YAJUR VEDA and Panini’s ASHTADHYAYI

2.MENTION OF GUGGULU IN THE  VEDA

3.MENTION OF UR AND KISH IN THE RIG VEDA

4.MENTION OF ASURA KINGS (ASSYRIA) IN THE RIG VEDA

5.DISCOVERY OF OLDEST SANSKRIT WORDS IN SUMER INCLUDING NAMES OF KINGS

6.SIMILARITY BETWEEN ‘MANA’(MEASUREMENT/WEIGHT) IN SUMBER AND VEDIC LITERATURE

7. GONI IS GIVEN SUMERIAN ORIGIN? !

(POINTS 2, 3, 4, 5 ARE EXPLAINED BY ME IN THE ARTICLES PUBLISHED ALREADY; PLEASE SEE THE LINKS BELOW).

ANY SCHOLAR WITH A RESONABLE APPROACH WILL NATURALLY GO FOR HE NEAREST (in time and region) PROOF AVAILABLE. THE RESON I AM SAYING THAT THE INTERPRETER FOUND IN SUMER WAS A SANSKRIT SPEAKER BECAUSE WE DON’T HAVE ANY OTHER WORD FROM OUR LANGUAGES SUCH AS PERSIAN ,GREEK, LATIN , CHINESE AND TAMIL. ONLY SANSKRIT HAS THE OLDEST WORD.

THREE OF THESE WORDS ARE NOT FOUND ANYWHERE EXCEPT SANSKRIT; THEY ARE HALAHALA POISON, GUGGULU AND KISH, KISH KINDA AND URU- KISH.

***

WHAT IS MELUHA? WHERE IS MELUHA?

MLECHA IS USED IN TAMIL AND SANSKRIT FOR ANY ONE COMING FROM OUTSIDE INDIA AND SPEAKING A DIFFERENT LANGUAGE OTHER THAN TAMIL AND SANSKRIT. WE HAVE VERY CLEAR PROOF FOR IT IN TAMIL AND SANSKRIT.

If we agree that the word used in Sumer is Meluha for Indus/Sarasvati River basin, then my interpretation is MILAGU/BLAK PEPPER.

Milagu , Tamil word for Black pepper, is utter black in colour. That is why Tamils named it Milagu.

Mala stands for anything that is black or not pure as white.

Mala is used for dirt, excretory materials, impurities in virtues (Saiva Siddhnata) until today in all Indian languages.

Vimala, Nirmala (without Mala) are very common names throughout Hindu world.

Mala, Mela has got cognate words in Melanesia (Island of black people)

Why do I link Milagu/black pepper and Sumer?

Milagu has a synonym in Tamil- KARI which means Carbon, Blach pepper or Black elephant.

Milagu / black pepper was exported to Sumer from Cambay area according to Panini. Katyayana also show that Black pepper came to North India via Dakhshina Patha (Sothern Route)

People name places after the products or plants available from that area. (We have proof for it in Sapta Dwipa of Puranas and Four/Five fold landscape of Sangam Tamil literature.

****

STRANGE WORD FOR POISON!

MAHAA- HAILIHILA

PAGE 124, INDIA AS KNOWN TO PANINI, V.S.AGRAWALA, UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW, 1953

“ Hailihila and Mahahailikila are words of unknown meaning and origin, mentioned by Panini as special names of some article (6-3-38). The word is not explained in any Sanskrit dictionary , nor is there any instance of its being used in literature. It appears that ‘hailihila’ was a Semitic word appearing in Sanskritised form, as the name of a poison which was imported from the West. In Arabic HALAAHILA means deadly poison (cf.Hebrew Halul is deadly poison. Steingass derives it without reason the Arabic word from Sanskrit Halaahala (F.Steingass, Persian -English Dictionary, p.1506).

The Sanskrit word itself is exotica as shown by its various spellings ,eg. Halaahala, Haalaahala, Haalahala, Haala Haala, Haahala, (Monier Williams , A Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899, revised edition, p.1293).

Panini’s HAILIHILA seems to come to the nearest original Semitic  form of the which may have been Armaic, the international language of trade and commerce in the Achaemenian world from Syria to Gandhara. Panini refers to poisons in general called Visha and to the third degree methods of liquidating particulrs persons marked out as Vishaya by the administering of poison.

AGRAWALA IS WRONG, STEINGASS IS RIGHT!

Unfortunately, Agrawala I not a Vedic scholar; so he jumps to conclusions. In fact Steingass is right because we have that word in Yajur Veda, but different “scholars” interpreted the word differently. I have identified HALIKSNA with HAILIHILA OF PANINI.

VEDIC INDEX BY A A MACDONELL AND A B KEITH , PART TWO, P.500

HALIKSNA OR HALIIKSNA is mentioned as one of the victims t the Asvamedha/ horse sacrifice in the Yajur Veda. The commentator Mahiidhara thinks that is a kind of lion,  Sayana that a green  Cataka bird or a lion/ trna himsa is meant.  In the  Atharva Veda  HALIIKSNA seems to be some particular intestine, but  Weber that it may mean ‘gall’

No two clocks agree.

My interpretation is IT IS   Panini’s HAILIHILA. IN TAMIL IT IS KNOWN AS aalakaala visha. When Devas and  Asuras churned the milky ocean to get Amrita/nectar/elixir, AALAKAALA poison also came out and Shiva drank it .Parvati stopped it by  holding his neck. So he is known as NEELAKANTA. Anyone can see the closeness between panini’s word and this word.

Ref. in Vedas –

Maitraayani samhitaa 3-14-12; Vaajasaeyi Samhita24-31 and many more places .

In Tamil Kaari, Kari/black means Poison. So the word must be corrected as KRSNA in Yajur Veda.

***

ANOTHER STRANGE WORD GONI

Goni is mentioned as a container or sack /aavapana made from GONA( 4-1-42), obviously a Cloth. It is unknown in the Vedic literature, but occurs in the BRAHMAJAALA SUTTA XV as gonaka, explained as a wollen cloth made from the long haired goats. It was probably the same as KAUNAKES, ONE PIECE LOIN CLOTH worn by the early SUMERIAS AND ACCADIANS and made of suspended loopsof wool hanging from a  from a woollen skirt (Marshall, Indus Valley Civ., i.33, 342;pl.95,fig.10). the word seems to have travelled to Indiathrough commerce in Pre -Paninian days.

We are enabled to make some idea of the use of Goni, as it is still known by its old name (cf.Hindi gaun or goni) and used to carry grain, salt etc. on pack animals. Panini knows of Goni in two sizes, bigger which was also the standardsize called Goni itself and smaller Gonitarii.the former was naturally used to load on mules and asses and the latter on goats and sheep. The standard one also served as an  article of barter, as shown by the Kaasikaa on the Sutra Id- gonyaah (1-2-50) mentioning a piece of cloth purchased for 5 or 10 gonis.

–From V S Agrawala book.

My Comments

Koni Sakku (sack), Koni Uusi (big needle to stich Koni sacks);

Also Komana fom Sanskrit Kaupeena. So the word must have originated in India and Kaupeena is corrupted as Kaunake in Sumerian.

In Tamil it is Kovanam or Komanam.

****

ASURA KING OF SUMERIA

Pippali, long pepper was exported from Cambay (Gujarat area). Broach (Bharu Kachcha) was a main port. Pepper also came to North india via Dhakshina patha (Southern Route). So this might have led the Sumerians to  call Indi land of Milagu( Meluga)

Finally Ajamiidha and Ajakranda (Under Geographical data in V S AGRAWALA’S BOOK)

LINKS TO MY OLD ARTICLES

OLDEST SANSKRIT WORD IN INSCRIPTION! (Post.9063 …

tamilandvedas.com › 2020/12/22 › oldest-sanskrit-wor…

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22 Dec 2020 — Thanks for your great pictures. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com We know … But what is the oldest Sanskrit word in historical inscriptions? … Musaka for mouse is in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world.



‘UR’ IN RIG VEDA AND TAMIL LITERATURE- HINDU ATTACK …

tamilandvedas.com › 2021/01/27 › ur-in-rig-veda-and-…

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27 Jan 2021 — 17 Mar 2017 — Posts about Sumerian written by Tamil and Vedas. … Some of the images in Sumerian would remind any Hindu the penance …



Did Indra attack Ur in Sumeria? | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com › 2014/10/09 › did-indra-attack-ur-…

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  2.  

9 Oct 2014 — The Eighth Mandala of the Rig Veda is the most interesting and … Scholars who consider Rig Veda as a historical document of Vedic Hindus are … ‘UR’ IN RIG VEDA AND TAMIL LITERATURE– HINDU ATTACK ON SUMERIA …



GUGGULU MYSTERY IN VEDA; GUGGULU TAMIL SAINT …

tamilandvedas.com › 2020/12/11 › guggulu-mystery-in…

  1.  

11 Dec 2020 — Thanks for your great pictures. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com. What is Guggulu? It is a resin extracted from a plant.


ZIGGURAT ZINDABAD! BRAHMINS ZINDABAD!! (Post No …tamilandvedas.com › 2021/02/01 › ziggurat-zindabad-…

1 Feb 2021 — Ziggurat, called Sikhara in Sanskrit, is a step pyramid. It is like a Hindu Temple Tower but squares within squares and not a cone like shape.

Tags – Meluha, Milagu, Goni, Ajaka, Asura King, HAILIHILA, poison, Sumeria, Interpreter, Sanskrit

OLDEST SANSKRIT WORD IN INSCRIPTION! (Post.9063)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9063

Date uploaded in London – –22 DECEMBER 2020      

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge;

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

We know that Rig Veda, dated 4000 to 6000 BCE by B G Tilak and German scholar Herman Jacobi, has 1000s of Sanskrit words. We know that Tamils in the southernmost part of India use 100s of those Vedic words in their day to day conversation now (Please read my over 100 articles on this topic in this blog).

But what is the oldest Sanskrit word in historical inscriptions?

The answer is available from

J Harmatta’s book, The Emergence of Indo Iranians in History of Civilizations, Edited by Dani and Mason, p.374)

Actually reconstructed from a tablet from the Dynasty of Agade that belongs to 2300-2100 BCE. We come across two names-

Ari sen and Soma sena

My research is as follows :–

This is corroborated in the Mahabharata with at least 24 commanders or kings with SENA suffix.

Sen has the highest suffix —

Other suffixes of kings or army commanders are—

Datta-6, Ketu-9, Pathi and Vathi-11+3, Varman -13, Vasu-5, Dyumnan-6, Deva-8, Ratha-5, Mana-3, Ayudha or Yuddha-3, Ashwa-6, Jaya-6, Wana/Vana etc.

xxx

Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994)  has spoken about the Egyptian Pharaohs Ramses. They are Sanskrit names according to him.

Like Ramesh (Shiva) they also have snakes in their heads . Even a Hindu child will tell that the Egyptian King looks like Lord Shiva with snake.

My research shows that  Pharaohs is a Sanskrit word derived from ‘Para raja’. Para raja Simha  name is used by Sri Lankan Tamils even today

xxxx

Another interesting linguistic matter is

Sena becomes Senai and then Thaanai in Tamil.

S=T is in hundreds of English words ending with TION. We pronounce it as SION.

Some Kaasite kings used the name Indrash which is Indra. Like Greeks, they added ‘sh’ sound with all the Sanskrit words

More Sena Kings of Sumeria (South Iraq)

The suffix Sin may mean Sena or Chandra

All years in BCE

Naram sin – 2260 BCE – King of Kish

(It may be even Narasimhan )

Amar sin – 2046

Shu sin – 2037

Ibbi sin – 2026

Bur Sin – 1895 BCE

(These three names are very interesting; all ending with Sena; probably from the same family- father- son- grandson – all have Sanskrit prefixes AMARA, SU, SIBI)

Even if Sin meant Chandra we have equivalent names in Sanskrit History)

Very Fist King of Kish is Enmebara gesi 2650 BCE

We can easily see Sanskrit words Para Kesi

Kings of Larsha

From 1849 BCE to 1741  BCE , we have

Iddinum sin,

Eribam sin

Iqisham sin

Warad sin (Varada or Bharata)

Rim sin – I (Rama Sena?)

Rim sin-  II

In Assyria we have one Naram sin in 1830 BCE

Apart from this, we have Shatrugna (Sargon= Sarkuna?) in 2340 BCE, Sargon I in Assyria in 1840 BCE

xxx

SANSKRIT NAMES IN KASSITE DYNASTY IN SUMERIA


Gandash – GANA DASA – 1729 BCE

Burnaburiash – PURANA BURIASH (Vayu)1530 BCE

Lot of names have Lash or Dash as suffixes equivalent to Sanskrit kai-LASH or Vishnu-DASA.

Vishnudasa is found even in Sangam Tamil Literature; they Tamilized it as VINNAN THAAYAN .

Another notable feature is in all cultures first king is named Manu (Menes) in Egypt and other places. Similarly, ‘Kali Yuga first year is the start of calendars in Egypt and Mayan (3100 BCE)

It shows the Exodus from India happened after the Great Bharat War (Maha Bharat War- 3200 BCE)

Xxx

SECOND OLDEST SANSKRIT WORD

Again in 1600 BCE we find Sanskrit words in Kassite inscriptions in Babylonia or modern Iraq. The oldest inscription in Iraq with Sanskrit words have Suryash and Maruttash. They are in the Rig Veda as Surya and Maruts. Even today people living from Nepal in the Himalayas to the Southern most part of Sri Lanka use

Surya and Marut/wind. Maruti, son of wind god, is Hanuman.

In the Kassite language Wind God is called Buriyash. Vayu/wind god is called Bayar in North India. How B changes to V or vice versa is given by me in my articles. Now Bengalis change all V sounds into B.

Varanasi- Benares (V=B) is another example from English period.

I have shown Kassites are from Kasi (Varanasi/Benares) and Hittites are Kshatriyas (khattis) and Hyksos are Yakshas.

xxx

Mitannian 1400 BCE

Mitannian civilization of Turkey/Syria have pure Sanskrit names which are acknowledged by the whole world . We have Dasaratha, Pratardhana etc.

And the Dasaratha letters (also known as Amarna letters) are very clear proofs. More details are in Wikipedia.

Turkey – Turaga- Horse land

Iran – Aryan – land of Cultured people

Syria – Surya – land of solar race kings

Lebanon – Lavana, country  where white rocks and salts are found.

Xxxx

Kerala Mushika Vamsa – Phyrgians ???

I am able to justify my hypothesis that Phyrgians are Mushika Vamsa/dynasty people of Haihayas.

We have the history of Rat Dynasty from 1000 CE in Kerala. It is called Mushika/Rat Vamsa/dynasty.

Musaka for mouse is in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world. We derived the word mouse, mushika etc from that Vedic Sanskrit. The reason for someone calling themselves Mouse people is that they had Mouse as their totem symbol.

We have such examples in

Jambhavan – Bear people  in Ramayana

Jatayu – Eagle people in Ramayana

Hanuman – Monkey people in Ramayana

Kaushika – Owl people in Vedic literature

Manduka – frog people in Vedic literature

Kasyapa – tortoise people in Vedic literature

Bharadwaja – crow people in Vedic literature

Kapeya , kappiya – ape people in Vedic literature

Chandilya – un identified bird

Asvalayana Grihya sutra mentions 47 names derived from animals and plants. So all the Rishis and Kings used some sort of symbols, totems, tattoos in their life. We read about Matsya (Fish) kings in Mahabaharata. They probably had Fish as their symbol like the Pandyas of Tamil Nadu.

xxxx

Now back to Mushika / Phyrgian research

M changes to P all through the Sanskrit literature from ancient period.

The Phyrgians also spoke the Indo-European language and their inscriptions appear in Turkey (Anatolia) from eight century BCE. They are first mentioned as enemies of the Assyrian (Asura is the Vedic word for them) empire. An Assyrian inscription of the 12th century BCE mentions that a tribe called Muski invaded Assyria with 20,000 people. The Muskis have been identified with the Phyrgians . Cognate words of Musaka are found in Latin, Slav and other European languages.

Mouse was the totem symbol of Muskis.

–from ‘In search of Indo- Europeans’, page 258

I identify this Mushika tribe with the Mushika Dynasty of Kerala. Though we have historical records from around 900 CE only, their history goes back to Ramayana period.

Wikipedia says

Origin of the dynasty

…you should not take your own unhappy life,
Nor yet ought you to obstruct this offspring
left like this in you by your husband.

Mushika-vamsha introductory verse, describing how the royal preceptor dissuaded the queen from committing suicide[9]

Atula provides a mythological origin of the Mushika dynasty, tracing its descent to a Heheya queen, whose family was killed during Parashurama‘s slaughter of the Kshatriya rulers.[10] The pregnant queen initially wanted to commit suicide, but her family preceptor dissuaded her from doing so, encouraging her not to destroy her unborn baby.[11][9] With the help of the preceptor, the queen fled southwards, and came to the coastal region that later became the Mushika kingdom.[10] There, she was attacked by a huge rat (mushika), who was actually the divine spirit of the Eli mountain (Ezhimala), and had been cursed by the sage Kaushika to become a rat. The queen burned the rat to ashes with the flame emitted from her eyes: the rat was thus redeemed, and became transformed into its original form.[12][13]

Rama, the dynasty’s founder

At the request of the divine spirit, the queen started living in a cave of the mountain, protected from Parashurama.[13] There, she gave birth to a boy, who received education from the preceptor. By the time the prince grew up, Parashurama had wiped the Kshatriyas from the earth 21 times. Feeling sorry for their widows, he decided to perform a ritual sacrifice to absolve himself from the sin of killing the Kshatriyas at the Eli mountain. For one of the sacrificial ceremonies, he needed a Kshatriya prince.[13] The divine spirit of the mountain brought to him the Heheya prince, who belonged to the lunar dynasty.[14] After the end of Parashurama’s ceremony, the prince was crowned as a king, and thus, became the founder of the Mushika dynasty. Since Parashurama performed his consecration with the holy water from a ghata (earthen pot), the king came to be known as Rama-ghata-mushika

Xxx

Woman means Vamana, i.e. Leftist

Man came from Sanskrit ‘Manu’, first man.

Wo- man came from the left rib of first man Adam according to Semitic people.

Actually they took it from Hindu Story of Ardha Naari (Half Woman form of Lord Shiva, where woman is in the left part; Vaama means left). In Northern Europe in the fourth millennium BCE Corded Ware people buried males on the right side and females on their left side. This is also true of Nalchik, a north Caucasian site, of about the millennium BCE. It also applies to the Tazabhagyap culture south of the Aral Sea and the Tulkhar burials of Tajikistan (Stan is a Sanskrit suffix that is affixed to many countries in this area, which shows all these people were Sanskrit speakers) , both of which were the variants of Andronovo Culture.

The Tulkhar culture burials show rectangular hearths for males and round hearths for females.

This reminds of three different fire places in every brahmin house in ancient days. They were in different geometrical shapes – Ahavaniiyam, Garhapatyam and Dakshinagniyam.

Xxx

Sati , wife dying in the funeral pyre of dead husband, is not found in the Rig Veda or Manu Smrti. But this custom of burning wife is found in 5 or 6 verses of 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature. We find some evidence in Poland and Baltic states. We also see it in the Danube region in the third millennium BCE and in Italy.

But we may never know that both of them died at the same time or one dead and the other climbed the funeral pyre.

I have used the following books with my inputs for this article –

Looking for the Aryans by R S Sharma, Orient Longmans, Hyderabad 1995

The Indo Iranians in the History of Civilizations, J.Harmatta

In Search of the Indo Europeans, Mallory

Ancient Iraq, Georges Roux

–subham—

tags- oldest word, Sanskrit, Totem symbols, Agade dynasty, Inscriptions

RARE SANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS WITH MEDICAL INFORMATION (Post No.5052)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 27 May 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 20–39

 

Post No. 5052

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

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RARE SANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS WITH MEDICAL INFORMATION (Post No.5052)

 

Thailand has several inscriptions with interesting information. They provide documented history. Like India the donations to Brahmins and temples stand as historical documents. A very interesting inscription is the Hospital Inscription.

The Stone inscription is in Sanskrit language. Its from the Ku Noi Hospital, Khonkaen Museum. It belongs to Jayavarman VII of 13th century CE. The inscription was discovered in the excavations at Kunoi.

 

It states that the site was a hospital at the time of Jayavarman VII. The bottom part of the stele is broken and missing. There are three different sizes of stone inscriptions- large, medium and small. Ku noi is in the middle group. All the stone inscriptions gave details regarding the hospital, such as the number of doctors, nurses and types of offerings etc.

 

The earliest inscriptions of Khmer history in Northern Thailand dated to the end of the 6th century CE. One found in the province of Surin, north of Ta Muen, was erected by a king called Mahendravarman. The inscription written in Sanskrit, commemorates the installation of Shiva’s bull Nadin. Mahendravarman ordered the inscription carved after he has conquered ‘all the country’.

 

The interesting coincidence is that at the same time the great Pallava King Mahendravarman was ruling from Kancheepuram in South India.

 

There is another stele in Bangkok museum, a Sanskrit inscription  giving the details of land given by the King Udyadityavarman II. Land was donated to priestly family of Brahmins. It is in Prasat Sdok Kok Thom.  This is one of the most important inscriptions for the study of the Khmer history. Now housed in the National Museum in Bangkok, it dates to about 1052 CE and chronicles the history of Shivakaivalya dynasty of priests who served the King Jayavarman II, founder of the Khmer Empire in 802. It relates how Jayavarman arrived from Java, became king of Indrapura and later moved his capital to Hariharalaya, close to Angkor on northern shore of the Tonle Sap.

 

In addition it also provides information on subsequent Khmer history, the Khmer system of kingship, the various beliefs adhered to and details about the Brahmin family and their involvement with later Khmer kings.

 

11 Inscriptions in Phnom Rung

The inscriptions of Prasat Phnom Rung offer a unique insight into the nature of Khmer rule in Northern Thailand between the 10th and 13th century CE. They record the family history of Narendra Adiytya and his son Hiranya. They were independent rulers and not the vassals of king at Angkor. Altogether 11 inscriptions were found at Phnom Rung. The name Phnom Rung itself occurs once on a stele inscribed with a Sanskrit eulogy and several times in Khmer inscriptions.

 

The earliest inscriptions found at Prasat Phnom Rung is in Sanskrit. It is only four lines, but has been dated to 7th century CE. This inscription might have been shifted from another site, because other structures at the site are of later periods.

 

Of the other Sanskrit inscriptions, the most important bears the inventory no K.384. It is also the biggest measuring about 27X 53 centimetres. Another inscription is also in Sanskrit. Hiranya is talking about installing a golden image of his father. The inscription commemorates the new additions to Saivite monastery in Phnom Rung. Hymn to Shiva is in the beginning which praises Shiva as Maha Yogi.

 

Among other inscriptions, however are fascinating details of the religious practices of the monastery on Phnom Rung Hill. One inscription with an inventory no. BR 14 is carved on a round stone slab almost a metre high, a shape associated with sema stones of boundary markers. The 12th century Inscription refers to a pool called Sri Surya as well as setting up the images of gods Shiva, Vishnu, Linga etc.

 

Sanskrit inscriptions in Thailand serve as a great source of history.

Source book Palace of the Gods, Smiththi Siribhadra and Elizabeth Moore; photography Michael Freeman Year 1992.

–subham–

Similes in Sanskrit Literature

mbh1

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1489; Dated 15th December 2014.

Appaayya Diksita’s ‘Citramimamsa’ gives the definition of simile as follows,

“Tad idam citram visvam
Brahmajnanad ivo pamajnanat
Jnatam bhavati’ ty adau
Nirupyate nikhilabhedasahita sa
Upamai ka sailusi
Samprapta citrabhumikabhedan
Ranjayati kavyarange
Nrtyanti tadvidam cetah”

Meaning :–As this diversified universe is known by the knowledge of Brahman, so all the figures are known by the knowledge of the simile. Thus the simile with all its varieties is described in the very beginning. The simile alone, an actress dancing in different kinds of costumes on the stage of poetry, taking different shapes of figures, delights the heart of those who know it.
Jayadeva defines the simile (upama) as a figure of speech in which the beauty of similarity exists between two objects, as between the two breasts of a woman (Candraloka 5-3)

In the Mahabharata gods are used as similes. Indra tops the list of Gods. This shows that Mahabharata was written nearer to Vedic times. Had it been written in the Common Era (CE), Siva or Vishnu would have topped the list. As per the statistics available, the frequency table shows the following:

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Indra (brilliance and prominence) – at least 247 times
Surya (splendour) –164 times
Agni (Fire; for splendour and destruction) – 155 times
Yama (destructionand terror) 104 times
Gods (Devas) (Brilliance) – 81 times.

Siva, Vishnu and Brahma are way down below in the frequency table and so the Mahabharata was written long before the Puranas which glorify Siva or Vishnu.

The name Upama occurs as early as the Rig Veda (5-34-9; 1-31-15). Yaska quotes the grammarian Gargya’s definition of Upama.
The oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam also used the Sanskrit word Upama (uvamam).
Ramayana has more than 3400 similes. Kalidasa has used more than thousand similes.

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Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older?

tamil-letters

Questions answered by London Swaminathan
Post No. 1176; dated 16th July 2014.

Dear Swamy

It appears that you are not inclined to clear my doubts. However, I started reading your posts regularly and trying to find answers’
Recently I read your following post

https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/07/15/basic-questions-about-tamils-hinduism/

Here too I wish for clarification for the following
Regards
N K M.
(This is the Second e mail from NKM)

nagari
Dear NKM,

I have given my answers below:

Qestion1.What is the difference between Panini grammar and Tolkappiyam Grammar?

Answer: I am not an expert on Paninian Grammar. My Sanskrit knowledge is limited. I have passed five Sanskrit Examinations and Five Bhagavad Gita exams conducted by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai. When I was a school boy I passed all the five Sanskrit exams conducted by Chittoor Samskrutha Bhasa Pracharini Sabha. I can claim some authority on Sangam Tamil literature. I have read the 27,000+ lines four times. It will take 2 years if you devote some time every day to complete one round. I have read Post Sangam books and Valmiki and Kamba Ramayanam and all the Saivite and Vaishnavite scriptures only once. With my limited knowledge I answer your questions:

Paninian grammar was written around 7th century BCE. Tolkappiyam was written around 1st century BCE or CE. My estimate is 5th century CE in the present form. I have given the reasons for it in my five articles in English and Tamil on Tolkappim and the author Tolkappian. If you hold the word index of Sangam Books and Post Sangam works in your hand, you can see lot of Tolkappian words are found only in Post Sangam Tamil literature. That is why no Tamil scholar dares to compare them.

Porulathikaram of Tolkappiyam is a later addition according to many scholars. My opinion is all the three Adikarams belong to fifth century CE. In short there is a 1000 year gap between Tolkappiyam and Panini.

Wikipedia also listed the name of the authors and their dating.

Paninian Grammar is far superior to Tolkappiam in structure and construction. (If I remember correct Kamil Zvelebil mentioned something like that in his book The Smile of Murugan).

Q2. Do Panini’s grammar has all three viz Sollathigaram. Porul adhikaram and Ezhuththu adhikaram?

Answer : Panini’s Ashtadyayi (Eight Chapters) is not divided in that way. In short there is no Porul Adhikaram which is unique to Tolkappiam. Patanjali’s Mahabhasya gives lot of examples in the commentary on Panini. So we come to know more about Panni’s India. Please read the book “India in Panini”. I borrowed it from University of London (SOAS) Library. A very interesting book.

Sol (Syntax) and Ezuthu (Alphabet, formation of Words) are dealt with by Panini, in addition to several other topics.

kalvettu

Q3. What is the difference between Vedic language and classical Sanskrit?

Answer : The difference between the Vedic Sanskrit (1500 BCE) and the classical Sanskrit ( from 3rd Century BCE) is the difference between the Sangam Tamil ( First Century BCE to 3rd Century CE) and Modern Tamil (18th Century CE). Without Tamil commentaries we would not understand the Sangam Tamil literature, particularly the iraichi porul (hidden meaning, implied meaning etc). There was no present, past, future tenses in Sangam Tamil. Vaiyapuri Pillay has given lot of examples about the development in Tamil Grammar when he dated Tirukkural and Tolkappiam. Please read Vaiyapuri Pillay’s works.

The natural law is “CHANGE IS INEVITABLE. EVERYTHING MUST CHANGE. NOTHING CAN REMAIN STATIC in THE UNIVERSE”. Whether it is Nataraja’s dance, or the simplest Hydrogen atom or the Universe or my wife’s blouse or our food habits everything is changing/moving.

A language changes every two hundred miles and every two hundred years. This is the thumb rule used by Max Muller for dating the Vedas.

Q4. While I understand Sanskrit words are in Tamil and Tamil words are in Sanskrit, how Sanskrit was considered as Deva basha and Tamil as common man language

Answer : You don’t need to worry much about this nomenclature. It is very simple. All the ancient Hindu scriptures are in Sanskrit. So people may call it a Divine language. No one said that Tamil is not a divine Bhasa. Kanchi Paramacharya says Tamil has more devotional hymns than Sanskrit, which is correct. The word “divine” is used for the Tamil language by many poets. I have given it in my blog.

Patanjali called Panini ‘Bhagavan Panini’ (divine Panini). Kamban called Valmiki ‘Divine Valmiki ( Deiva Maa Kavi)’. Valluvar is called ‘Deiva Pulavar’ in Tiruvalluva Malai. Homer is called ‘Divine Homer’ in Greek. I will call Subramanya Bharati a ‘Divine Poet’.

Patamala-1 000

Regarding Tamil words in Sanskrit:

No language is pure in the world. Our forefathers were NOT language fanatics. They freely used Sanskrit words in Sangam literature and later Tirukkural. In the same way Tamil words are in later classical Sanskrit. But I doubt about it in Vedic Sanskrit. I have shown that even great linguists like Suneet Kumar Chatterji are wrong to claim that ‘Neer’ (water) in Rig Veda is Tamil. I have shown that it is in the oldest Greek mythology (Nereids=Water Nymphs). When a word is found in other Indo European languages it is not counted as Dravidian even in etymological dictionaries. But old linguists misled many others and so ‘Neer’ is shown as Dravidian. I have also shown that Kapi, Tuki in the Bible are Sanskrit words. Please read my article “Sanskrit in The Bible”.

In this context, my pet theory is Tamil and Sanskrit originated from a common source on the Indian soil. This is what saints like Paranjothy Munivar and others believed 300 years ago. If we believe our Puranas and Tamil commentators, we accept that Agastya from the north came to South India and codified grammar for Tamil. He was sent by Shiva to balance the population (Please read my article “Population Explosion: Oldest Reference is in Hindu Scriptures”; posted on 2nd February 2013). Naturally Agastya would have done it on the basis of Sanskrit grammar. But even Shiva accepted Tamil as a separate language and entrusted the grammar work to great Agastya. Even Lord Shiva recognised the greatness and uniqueness of Tamil. Do we need any other certificate?

Q.5. Yet the literature in Sanskrit or other classical languages are equally comparable with Tamil literatures in richness and depth of literacy.

Answer : Tamil is one of the richest languages in the world. My opinion is that it will come next to Sanskrit and Greek in the quantity and quality of the literature. Then only Hebrew, Chinese and Latin will come. But among these languages Tamil is the junior most language except Latin. But Sanskrit literature is enormous like an ocean. No one has listed all the books in Sanskrit. In Tamil we have listed all the lost and available books. It will come in a handy book. But if you just compile the names of the Sanskrit books only, it will come in several volumes. In Tamil we have not got anything before 1st century BCE. But Sanskrit had a huge, very huge literature even before Homer started writing his first book in Greek language. Around that time, we had great women philosophers Maitreyi and Gargi attending World Philosophers Conference in Mithila. Even before Moses issued Ten Commandments all those Ten Commandments were in the Vedas.

sanskrit14

Q.6. Even though Kalidasa is controversial, why you are not providing constructive arguments for the Tamil poets antiquity?

Answer : Date of Kalidasa is not controversial. Though it is debatable, great art historians like Sivaramamurthy and several foreign and Indian scholars have dated him in the Pre Christian Era. Reverend G.U. Pope dated him Pre Kabila as soon as he read Kurinjipattu.

Though we date the Tamil poets around first century CE references in Mahavamsa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Kalidasa and Asoka’s epigraph show that the Tamils existed long before the Sangam Period. I have written the following articles about Tamil antiquity in this blog:

Dravidian Queen (1320 BC) in North India (Posted April 14, 2012).

Valmiki in Tamil Sangam Literature (posted on 27 June 2013).

To Master the Tamil Language ……Keep a Calculator Handy! (12 Sept. 2011)

20000 Tamil Proverbs (1 June 2012)

Pandya King who Ruled Vietnam

How old is Indian Civilization? (Posted 25 September 2011).

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