What are Panchangam? Panchmrutam? Panchagavyam? Pancha yajnam? (Post No. 2585)

urine of cow

Date: 29 February 2016


Post No. 2585


Time uploaded in London :– 15-15


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Please go to swamiindology.blogspot.com



for more articles and pictures.


‘Pancha’ is a Sanskrit word for number ‘five’. Because of Pancha Pandavas, this word is very familiar to the Hindus. But when it comes to words like panchamrtam or panchangam people struggle to list all the five in that category.


In the olden days everything was taught in verses and so it was easy to remember all the five in a particular order. Here are the traditional verses for these categories:-


What are the five parts of Panchangam?


Panchangam is calendar or ephemeris; it is called so because there are five parts to it; they are

Tithi- Day (a month is divided into two parts with 15 tithis each)


Naksatra- star (moon aligns with a star every day in its orbit)

Yoga- period of conjunction of two stars

Karana – part of lunar day


What is Pancha Amrta?

This nectar or jam or mixed fruit is offered to the god during daily Abishek/anointing/bathing. The five ingredients of pachamrta are:

Dugdham – milk

Sarkara – sugar

Ghrtam – ghee or clarified butter

Dadhi – curd

Madhu – honey

(in some places fruits are mixed)


Dugdham sasarkaranchaiva ghrtam dadhi tathaa madhu

Panchaamrtamidam proktam videyam sarvakarmasu

–Saptakalpadruma 3


What is Panchagavyam?

Panchagavyam is five products that are obtained from cow/gau. It is used for purifying a Hindu before any ritual. Brahmins still use this for purification. The five products of cow are:

Gomuutra – cow’s urine

Gomaya – cowdung (fresh)

ksiiram – milk

Dadhi – curd/ yogurt

Sarpi – ghee

Gomuutram gomayam ksiiramdadhisarpisthataiva ca

Gavaam pancha pavitraani punanti sakalam jagat

–Saptakalpadruma 3-7



Another version from Susruta (Uttara) 39-237

Dadhi – curd/yogurt

Muutram – cow’s urine

Ksiiram – milk

Sarpih – ghee

Sardrasa – cowdung

Manu Smrti also prescribes this for redeeming from several sins 11-92,166, 213.


What is Pancha yajnam?

Hindus are expected to do five ‘sacrifices/rituals’ to propitiate five groups every day. They are

Narayyajna – offering food to the poor

Brahmayajna – study of the Vedas

Daivayajna – offering to gods/doing puja

Pitryajna – offering (water and sesame seeds to the departed souls)

Bhutayajna – offering food to animals

Manu also gives this list in 3-68 to 71

Tiruvalluvar has translated these slokas in Tamil in his Tirukkural.




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