Research article written by London Swaminathan


Date: 26 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 16-27



Post No. 4247


Pictures are taken from various sources such as google, Facebook friends, newspapers and Wikipedia for non-commercial use; thanks.

Hindus believed that stars are holy souls or departed souls. In Vanaparva of Mahabharata and Sakuntalam of Kalidasa, Arjuna’s space travel is explained in detail. Please see the links at the end of this article for my old articles regarding this. Read Stars are Gods? We are Stars!


Egyptians, Greeks, Eskimos, Indians of Amazon forest and Australians believed that the heavenly lights have formerly been their ancestors. Hindus have the oldest reference to this in the Mahabharata. We were the ones who gave the Seven Seers (Saptarishis)  a place in the Ursa Major constellation in addition to Dhruva (pole star) and Agastya (canopus).

Stars, known as Nakshatra in Sanskrit, appear in the Rig Veda, oldest book in the world. It slowly increases in number to 28 in the later Vedas. The mystery about the star is its heliacal rising at different times in different periods. That is, they were not in the place where they are today.


Another mystery in the Veda is the beginning of the year. It did not begin in Chitrai (April-May) as we have now.


The study of all these things pushed the date of Vedas to 4500 BCE. Two researchers did astronomical study independently and arrived at a period between 4000 and 4500 BCE for the Rig Vedic hymns. They were Balagangadhara Tilak of India and Herman Jacobi of Germany. The wonder about this research is that they did it independently without  the other knowing such a research!

Satapata Brahmana of Shukla Yajurveda is an encyclopaedia. For the white skinned foreign scholars it is the most childish, rubbish prattle, blabber, jabber and gibberish. For Hindus it is the biggest resource book of Yagas and Yajnas detailing hundreds of rituals.


The half baked western “scholars” were happy to read about the Asvamedha Yajna and Purushamedha Yajna in it. The Purushamedha Yajna lists 179 human beings from different professions to be thrown into fire. But it had never happened anywhere in India. The only reference is about a boy called Sunashepa who was rescued by the great sage Viswamitra. Now they must read this episode in various rituals and they will get gold coins for reciting it! All these things puzzle and confuse the western “scholars”. For us it is great encyclopaedia giving 179 different professions in Vedic period. That shows the Vedic society was a highly civilized and advanced one. Several workers or jobs or professions are heard only through the Purushamedha yajna.


In the same way Asvamedha Yajna lists 200 plants and animals for sacrifice. Nobody knew the meaning of the whole list. They did not even know whether it is a plant or animal or an insect!! No proof is there for to show that all the animals were placed in the fire.

Western “scholars” project themselves as clowns, jesters and Jokers by giving different interpretations for each word. Their primary aim was to confuse the Hindus in every sentence, in every word and in every aspect. The sycophant English educated Indians of the 19th century also wrote lot of rubbish following these “great western scholars”. Marxists gave them the lead by interpreting everything as ‘class struggle’! Now we know those people were pukka idiots because we get a bird’s eye view of the Vedic literature and Sangam Tamil literature.


The amazing thing about the huge and voluminous Satapata Brahmana is about that one  can find any subject from Astronomy to Zoology in it. But most of the things they say wouldn’t mean anything if we take them literally. But we know they were very intelligent because they talk about linguistics, psychology, botany etc.


All these things are said to illustrate that the Satapata Brahmana talk about all the stars we know of in astrology and astronomy. No ancient book, Babylonian, Mayan or Egyptian give such a detailed list. Satapata Brahmana belongs to a period around 1000 BCE. It lists 27 or 28 stars.

Let us start from the Rig Veda:

There are various interpretations abbot the meaning of Nakshatra. The meaning is ‘guardian of night’ or ‘having rule over night’ (Nakta is night).


The star appears in all the passages where this word occurs (2-1-2, 2-1-18)


The sun and nakshatras are mentioned together (AV 6-10-3 and later books)!

Now we know that sun is also a star.

At least three stars are mentioned in the Rig Veda: Tisya (RV.5-59-13, 10-64-8) Aghas and Arjuni (10-85-13). It seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghas and Phalguni. It occurs in the wedding hymn.


Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Nakshatras as 27 in the Rig Veda (1-162-18—34 ribs of the horse=moon, sun, 5 planets and 27 stars); other “scholars” don’t agree with them.

Nakshatras as Lunar Mansions (months)

In later Samhitas (hymn books) the connection of the moon and the stars is conceived as a marriage union. Two samhitas (Khathaka and Taittiriya) state that Soma/moon was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt with only with Rohini)


It is very interesting to note that Tamils and other North Indians did marry only on the Rohini asterism day according to 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and Vedic literature.

It is also interesting to note that Tamils have special names (multiple names) for all the 27 stars 2000 years ago. Some of them are Tamilized Sanskrit words or translated Sanskrit words.


In the second part I will show you how Jacobi and Tilak calculated the age of Vedas on the basis of stars and their heliacal rising.


My Old articles: —


  1. Space Travel | Tamil and Vedas

Matali is always associated with space travel and I have written about Arjuna’s space travel in Matali’s … // …

  1. Did Kalidasa fly in a Space Shuttle? | Tamil and Vedas…

Research Paper written by London swaminathan Post 1284; dated 12th September 2014. Kalidasa gives us an amazing picture of space travel in his most famous drama …

  1. Orion | Tamil and Vedas

There is a fascinating account of Arjuna’s Space Travel in the Vanaparva … The amazing thing about this space travel of Arjuna in … // …


—to be continued


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