POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

 

Date: 12 JUNE 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  21-11  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5103

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

 

Professor Bency Kumar Sarkar of Calcutta (Kolkata) has written an article about the political ideas of Cendeswara who has dealt with political thought under sixteen topics. When I read that I did my own quick research with the political thoughts of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar. It is not a comprehensive one but touches all the 16 topics. Ilango of Tamil epic Silappadikaram also make several statements reflecting Tamil political thought.

Candesvara was the author of Raajaniiti Rantnaakaara. He lived in the fourteenth century and served as a minister under king Harisimha deva of Mithila (North Bihar). He was a student of law and so wrote this book. But he never claimed any originality, but collected materials from several ancient authors and produced them as a digest. So his work Rajaniiti Ratnaakara is a digest. In addition to collection Candesvara made comments as well.

 

Unfortunately, we have no law book in Tamil to compare with Sanskrit law books which are umpteen in number. But Sangam Tamil literature has several verses which deal with the law. Post Sangam works such as Tirukkural and 17 other minor works and Tamil epic Silappadikaram deal with law, but not separately. Tirukkural, a didactic work, may come nearer to a law book and Silappadikaram by Ilango is also useful to compare some points.

It is very interesting to see Tirukkural- a single book of the Tamils, covers almost all the topics except Coronation.

The author of the original article B K Sarkar has given the 16 topics and showed how many times Candesvara quotes the books or authors. I will use it as the base for my research and show how many times Tamil poets touched those topics (only a rough figure):-

1.THE KING

Kulluka Bhatta Rajaniiti Kamadhenu (twice); Guru (Brihaspati or Candesvara’s Guru), Yajnavalkya- thrice; Narada Niti aand Mahabharata- twice, Mahabharata – twice, Manu (4 times); Yasa, Naradiya Smrti, Harita

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapters 70, 39, 55, 56 (Total 40 couplets)

 

xxx

2.THE MINISTER

Manu (4), Yajnavalkya, Vysa, Amarakosa, Mahabharata, Harita, Nardas smriti.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 64 (Ten couplets)

xxx

3.THE FAMILY PRIEST-

Vyasa, Manu (2), Yanjavalkya (1)

None

xxx

  1. THE JUDGE-

KaatyaayanaBrihaspati, Pallavakara Lakshmidhra, Harita, Vyasa, Manu, Narada.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 12, 108

 

xxx

5.THE COUNCIL

Manu, Harita, Brhaspati

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 99, 100

6.FORTS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapters 74,75

 

 

7.DELIBERATIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 45

 

8.TREASURE

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Pallava

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 76+ couplet 247

 

 

9.THE ARMY

Manu (7 times), Kamandaka, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

10.THE GENERAL

Manu, Mahabharata, Rajaniti

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

11.THE AMBASSADOR

Manu, Sukraniti, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata, Pallava, Kamandaka

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 69

 

 

12.KING’S  FUNCTIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Maya Maitra

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapter 39, 49, 50, 55, 56

 

 

  1. PUNISHMENT

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Pallava

Chapters 57, 55,44

 

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH ABDICATION)

Manu, Kandaki, Harita, Narada, Vyasa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brihaspati, Katyayana

N/A

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH PRIEST)

Manu, Amarakosa, Ramayana, sukraniti, Padmapurana, Lakshmidhara, Narada, Pallavakara

Pathitrupaththu (one of the 18 Major works of Sangam Period)

 

16.CORONATION

Candesvara cites 42 authors or books under this topic.

He quoted Manu 38 times

Yajnavalkya 19

Mahabharata 14

Narada 13

Kamandaka 2

Pallavakaara 8

Lakshmidhara 7

Katyayana 6 Times

Candesvaea did not consider Arthasastra as a dharma sastra. It is not a Law book but a book on politics and economics.

Tirukkural , Naladiyar and 16 other didactic works are called 18 Minor Works. They contain lot of law points.

 

–Subham–

 

 

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