POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

 

Date: 12 JUNE 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  21-11  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5103

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

POLITICAL IDEAS OF TAMIL POETS Vs MANU AND OTHER LAW MAKERS (Post No.5103)

 

Professor Bency Kumar Sarkar of Calcutta (Kolkata) has written an article about the political ideas of Cendeswara who has dealt with political thought under sixteen topics. When I read that I did my own quick research with the political thoughts of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar. It is not a comprehensive one but touches all the 16 topics. Ilango of Tamil epic Silappadikaram also make several statements reflecting Tamil political thought.

Candesvara was the author of Raajaniiti Rantnaakaara. He lived in the fourteenth century and served as a minister under king Harisimha deva of Mithila (North Bihar). He was a student of law and so wrote this book. But he never claimed any originality, but collected materials from several ancient authors and produced them as a digest. So his work Rajaniiti Ratnaakara is a digest. In addition to collection Candesvara made comments as well.

 

Unfortunately, we have no law book in Tamil to compare with Sanskrit law books which are umpteen in number. But Sangam Tamil literature has several verses which deal with the law. Post Sangam works such as Tirukkural and 17 other minor works and Tamil epic Silappadikaram deal with law, but not separately. Tirukkural, a didactic work, may come nearer to a law book and Silappadikaram by Ilango is also useful to compare some points.

It is very interesting to see Tirukkural- a single book of the Tamils, covers almost all the topics except Coronation.

The author of the original article B K Sarkar has given the 16 topics and showed how many times Candesvara quotes the books or authors. I will use it as the base for my research and show how many times Tamil poets touched those topics (only a rough figure):-

1.THE KING

Kulluka Bhatta Rajaniiti Kamadhenu (twice); Guru (Brihaspati or Candesvara’s Guru), Yajnavalkya- thrice; Narada Niti aand Mahabharata- twice, Mahabharata – twice, Manu (4 times); Yasa, Naradiya Smrti, Harita

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapters 70, 39, 55, 56 (Total 40 couplets)

 

xxx

2.THE MINISTER

Manu (4), Yajnavalkya, Vysa, Amarakosa, Mahabharata, Harita, Nardas smriti.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 64 (Ten couplets)

xxx

3.THE FAMILY PRIEST-

Vyasa, Manu (2), Yanjavalkya (1)

None

xxx

  1. THE JUDGE-

KaatyaayanaBrihaspati, Pallavakara Lakshmidhra, Harita, Vyasa, Manu, Narada.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 12, 108

 

xxx

5.THE COUNCIL

Manu, Harita, Brhaspati

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 99, 100

6.FORTS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapters 74,75

 

 

7.DELIBERATIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 45

 

8.TREASURE

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Pallava

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 76+ couplet 247

 

 

9.THE ARMY

Manu (7 times), Kamandaka, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

10.THE GENERAL

Manu, Mahabharata, Rajaniti

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78

 

11.THE AMBASSADOR

Manu, Sukraniti, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata, Pallava, Kamandaka

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 69

 

 

12.KING’S  FUNCTIONS

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Maya Maitra

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapter 39, 49, 50, 55, 56

 

 

  1. PUNISHMENT

Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Pallava

Chapters 57, 55,44

 

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH ABDICATION)

Manu, Kandaki, Harita, Narada, Vyasa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brihaspati, Katyayana

N/A

  1. GIVING THE KINGDOM TO HIS ELDEST SON (THROUGH PRIEST)

Manu, Amarakosa, Ramayana, sukraniti, Padmapurana, Lakshmidhara, Narada, Pallavakara

Pathitrupaththu (one of the 18 Major works of Sangam Period)

 

16.CORONATION

Candesvara cites 42 authors or books under this topic.

He quoted Manu 38 times

Yajnavalkya 19

Mahabharata 14

Narada 13

Kamandaka 2

Pallavakaara 8

Lakshmidhara 7

Katyayana 6 Times

Candesvaea did not consider Arthasastra as a dharma sastra. It is not a Law book but a book on politics and economics.

Tirukkural , Naladiyar and 16 other didactic works are called 18 Minor Works. They contain lot of law points.

 

–Subham–

 

 

How many Law Books Hindus have? Why? (Post No.3102)

31oeb-hindu_jpg_645950e

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 29 August 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-41

 

Post No.3102

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks for the pictures.

cover manusmriti

India is the most civilized country in the world? How do we know it? What is the proof?

 

The proof lies in the OLD Law Books Hindus own. Law books are called ‘Smritis’ in Sanskrit.

Manu’s Law Book, known as Manu Smriti or Manava Dharma Sastra, is famous and notorious! Famous because that is the oldest law book, older than the Hammurabi Code of 2600 BCE. The subjects it deals with in 12 chapters in approximately 2700 couplets are wholesome and enormous. Manu has been referred to in the oldest book in the world- The Rig Veda. What we have today is only the latest updated version, because Narada Smriti says the original Manu Smriti contained 100,000 couplets like Mahabharata. It is notorious because of its caustic remarks about the lowest caste of India – the Shudras, which are later additions or interpolations. One who reads the whole book will come to this conclusion.

 

Is it the only law book that Hindus follow? No. Because the cunning and divisive foreigners translated this first to use against the Hindus, the world came to know about it. They knew that most of the Hindus are simpletons and believe whatever written in English by a white skinned man. They also knew Hindus are chatter boxes and talk about anything in the world without reading a single book in full. They also knew that Hindus are very catholic in their outlook and take whatever given to them without knowing that they are actually ‘time bombs’.

The Vedas are called Shruti i.e. that which is heard by the seers. They receive it like we receive different broadcasts or stations on radio. Next in order to Shruti in authority comes the SMRITI i.e. that which is remembered.

So let me tell you how many law books we have and why?

 

manusmriti-the-hindu-law-book-economic-ideas

(1).Manu Smriti (12 Chapters: 1.Origin of the Universe, 2.Duties of the Student, 3. Duties of the householder, 4.duties of the Snataka, 5.Food, impurities, Women 6.Forest dweller, Ascetic, 7.Duties of a King, 8.Administration of Civil and Criminal law, 9.Laws for husband and wife, laws of inheritance, Royal duties 10.rules of Four castes 11. Laws on penances, 12.Transmigration and Supreme Bliss.

(2).Yajnavalkya Smriti consists of 3 chapters (Adyayas) containing 1010 couplets (slokas): 1.Achara (conduct), 2.Vyavahara (Civil Law), 3.Prayaschita (Penance)

(3).Vishnu Smriti

(4).Narada Smriti

(5). Shankha Smriti

(6).Likhita Smriti

(7).Parasara Smriti

 

(8).Apastamba sutra

(9).Gautama sutra

(10).Vasishta sutra

(11).Baudhayana sutra

 

These books deal with Dharma (moral conduct rules). But there are books on economics such as Artha Shastra of Kautilya, Brihaspati Shastra, Sukra Niti which deals with punishments for economic offences. Several of the Law Books are lost.

There is a couplet in Sanskrit which says,

“The Laws of Manu are declared for the Krita Yuga, those of Yajnavalkya for the Treta Yuga; those of Shanka and Likhita are recommended for the Dwapara Yuga, those of Parashara are remembered for the Kali yuga (current yuga)”

Krute tu maavaa: proktaas tretaayaam yaajnavalkyajaa:

Dwaapare shankkalikhitaa: kalua paraasaraa: smrutaa:

 manu 2

Manu smriti says:

“The Veda is known as Shruti, the Dharmashastras as Smriti: these should not be doubted (but carefully consulted and considered) in all matters, for from them Dharma arose.”

Shrutistu vedo vinjeyo dharmasaastram tu vai smruti:

Te sarvaartheshvamiimaasye tabhyaam dharmo hi nirbabhau

Manu 2-10

 

What do they indicate:

1.A community needs different codes of conduct to suit the needs of people living in different areas at different times

2.Change is inevitable; so introduce new books or update the old version; this is used by the foreigners to give a false date for each book.

3.Whenever Hindus met elders or seers they introduced themselves with their names, part of the Veda they are mastering and the Law Book/ Dharmasutra they are following. (For instance, I bow to the elders at my house saying I recite Yajur Veda and follow Apastamba Sutra)

4.Since no country in the world has so many law books during a span of 3000 years, and since nobody recites to his elders what law book he is following we have to accept that Hindus are more civilized and advanced in the area of codifying laws.

yajna smrti

–subham–