Soma Yaga in India and Iran- part 2 (Post.10,658)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 10,658

Date uploaded in London – –    14 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Soma Yaga in India and Iran- part 2

This is the second part of Soma Yaga in India and Iran .

The Barsom or the bundle of twigs which is indispensable at the time of reciting Ijashne, is to be traced to one of the sacrificial rites at the great Soma. It was erroneously identified with the Barhis or sacred Kusha grass. Brahmins used to spread the sacred grass and invoke deities. Martin Haug thinks that it may be some unknown custom in the Soma sacrifice.

(Barsom or Baresma is a bundle of twigs. Parsi priests do the rites by holding them in their hands. Hindu priests also carry bundle of ficus tree (asvatta) twigs, but they don’t hold it in their hands. They place it in the fire one by one with ghee accompanied by mantras).

At the time of soma libation called Savana, which is to be performed three times on the same day , the three Sama Veda priests, the Udgata, ,the Prastota and the Pratiharta require a certain number of wooden sticks to be placed in a certain order when chanting the Samans. They use for this purpose the Udumbara tree, and call them Kusha, which is generally given to the sacred grass.

In the Agnishtoma 15 such sticks are required at the morning libation.17 at noon and 21 in the evening.

In other sacrifices such as Aptoryama, even a much large number of such sticks is required. The three singers then sing successively, one by one, in a very solemn manner the FIVE parts into which every Saman or verse adapted for singing is divided at certain sacrifices, while putting some of the sticks into a proper order. This ceremony is most essential, and unless observed and properly performed, all the effects of the Samans is lost.

The five parts of Saman mentioned above is called Pacha bhaktika. Performing of Saman chants is believed to take the sacrificer to the heaven. Most important of these is called Rathantaram (Carriage).

At the same time another peculiar custom is to be observed, which may be traced in the Yasna also. As soon as the singers chanted their verses , one of the Hotas must repeat a series of mantras from the Rigveda in order to praise and extoll the Saman. This ceremony is called Shastram.

This can be compared to a chanting in the Parsi religion.

At the end of the different Has of the Yasna, especially its Gatha portion, verses of the three hymns are often invoked as divine beings.

In Yas 19-6 we have seen that it is considered very meritorious to worship the Ahura Vairya formula after having repeated.

With regard to the division of the Samans into FIVE parts, it may be remarked that the Ahuna-vairya formula which is as important for the Parsi s as the Rathantaram Saman was for the Vedic Hindus, was also divided into FIVE parts.

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APRI Ceremony

In the Afringan ceremony of the Parsis there may be discovered a trace of Vedic ‘Apri’ ceremony, which is preparatory to the killing and offering of the sacrificial goats. The name is the same; Apri in Sanskrit, Afri in the Avesta, which initially means to invite; with which invitation the name of the being or beings, in whose honour the ceremony being performed, must always be mentioned. The Parsis mention the name of a deceased person or of an angel. The Vedic Hindus insert the names of different deities who are expected to come and enjoy the meal prepared for them. These solemn invitations being accompanied with a blessing, the Parsis understand by this ceremony a benediction . There are 11 Apri invocations.

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Darsa Purnamasa

The new moon and full moon sacrifices known as Darsa purnama Ishti seems to correspond with the Darun ceremony of the Parsis, both are very simple; the Hindus use chiefly the Purodasha or sacrificial cakes, the Parsis the sacred bread Darun, which corresponds to the Purodasha.

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The Chaturmasya Ishti

Chaturmasya Ishti is offered every four months or two seasons, corresponds to the Gahanbar ceremony of the Parsis. They celebrate it six times a year. Sacrificing animals was essential for these ceremonies among the Parsis until recent times; so it is with the Hindus also.

But as to animal sacrifice there is a great difference between the Hindus and the Zoroastrians / Parsis. Hindus must throw some parts of the sacrificed animal, such as the vapaa- peritoneum- , into the fire; while the Parsis simply consecrate the flesh and eat it as a solemn meal. They don’t throw it into the fire.

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Go Mutra or Cow urine ceremony

The great purification ceremony by means of cow’s urine is practised by the Parsis until this day . Hindus also do it. Pancha gavyam- five products of the most sacred animal cow — is used by the Hindus. One of the five products is cow’s urine.

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Kushti or Sacred thread ceremony

Hindus and Parsis wear sacred thread. Parsis call it KUSTI, aiwya aonhanem in the Zend Avesta. (Probably a corrupted form of Yajnopaveetham in Sanskrit).

As long as this ceremony has not been performed, one is no real member of the Parsi or Hindu community. The time for performing it lasts from 7 years to 16; the Parsis are invested with it in their seventh year.

(Manu Smrti gives different ages for sacred thread for Brahmana, Kshatriya and Vaisya communities).

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Funeral ceremony

About the funeral rites, some similarities may be pointed out. After the death of a man, Hindus as well as Parsis must pray to raise the soul of the deceased up to heaven, which is the third day ceremony for the Parsis . On the tenth day after the death, Parsis perform certain ceremony and the Hindus do Kaka sparsha ceremony, that is they expose a ball of rice to be taken by a crow.

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Meru mountain

As to cosmological opinions the Hindus divide the whole world into seven dvipas, the Parsis into seven Keshvars- karshvare in the Avesta- regions. Both acknowledge a central mountain, which is called Meru by the Hindus and Albright by the Parsis . Haro barezaiti in the Avesta.

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My comments

Six seasons are seen only in India, where as only four seasons are clearly marked in the Western countries, particularly colder countries. Since Hindus migrated to Iran from India they retained the six seasons. So they have nothing to do with any other areas in the world.

Kusti ceremony is also seen only in Iran and India. So they are the original inhabitants of India. This sacred thread ceremony is not seen anywhere in the world. So Hindu migration from India is confirmed.

Soma juice usage and fire worship are seen only among Hindus and the Parsis in the world. Not even a trace of it is seen anywhere else.

Full moon, new moon fire worship is mentioned in the Vedas and the Parsi religion only. This also confirms that it originated in India and spread out side.

Funeral rites, marriage rites and wearing pure white clothes during the ceremonies also proved it Hindu based. Cotton clothes and white silk are used from time immemorial by the Hindus.

Milk, Cotton, paddy and seasame seeds used in Hindu ceremonies also proved hinduswere original inhabitants of India. These plants are tropical.

Above all these things, Vedic Sanskrit and Vedic customs are seen only in Iran and India. They are more fully developed in India than in Iran for over 2000 years. Vedic Sanskrit also was well developed with grammar and etymology and pronunciation guides, which is completely absent in Iran.

I will give the list of Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan language words separately.

Gatha for song and Manas for mind are seen in the oldest part of the Zend Avesta. Manas, Mind, Manam are seen in English and ancient Tamil literature. These words also proved Hindus migrated to Iran. Because words like manas, gatha were used in a vast geographical area in Indian subcontinent even before 2300 years. So the base was India and not Iran, certainly not colder areas of Asia or Europe.

I have found Gatha verses like the Bhagavad Gita and Rigveda and Atharvana Veda in the oldest part of the Zend Avesta.

–subham—

tags-  Kusti, Parsi, Apri, Soma, Saman, Barsom, Kusha, Go Mutra

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