22 Sanskrit words for Sky !

Point Reyes Sunset1

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1394; Dated 6th November 2014.

Amarakosha is one of the celebrated dictionaries in the world. It is a thesaurus that gives several words with the same meaning. Several scholars date this Sanskrit work to fifth century CE. It has been commented upon by excellent scholars. Ksheeraswamin, Rayamukuta, Linga Bhatta, Bhanuji Dikshit and several others commented on the work from ninth century onwards. This is also called Nama linga anusasana. In the Sanskrit language, so far over 100 versified vocabularies and commentaries have been discovered. Sanskrit pundits always quote Amarakosha , Vaijayanti and Sasvat kosha.

Amarakosha gives 22 words for the sky and the atmosphere. One of them is a word which says about sky route for transport! 1500 years before the invention of aeroplane Amarasimha called sky is used for transport!!


When Brahmins do Tarpana for the departed souls over ninety times a year, they pray to the departed souls to come by the sky route (Deva Yanai: or Puurvyai Pathibi: in Sanskrit). Tamils also believed that Gods and angels (Deva) reside in the sky. Famous Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar refers to the deity in the sky (heaven) in his Tirukkural (couplet 50). All the pictures, calendars, sculptures show God as descending from the heaven (Eg. Gajendra Moksha sculptures, paintings etc.from Guptas period). In short, God has to use the air route! That is what humans believed. Famous Tamil poem Kutrala Kurvanji of Trikuda Rasappa Kavi says that Siddhas use sky for their travel (Gagana Siddhar).

Following are the words for the Sky given in Amarakosha:
1.Dyau = which can’t be filled, which will never be full. Dyaus is father and Prthvi (earth) is mother. Dyau became Zeus in Greek. That gave the word Jupiter.
2.Diva =place of divinities
3.Abram = touching the sky; filled with water clouds
4.Vyoma = that which surrounds us
5.Pushkaram = that which gives water.
6.Ambaram = sky or covers earth like clothe.
7.Naba: – surrounded by the clouds
8.Antariksha = atmosphere
9Gagana = fit for transport
10.Ananta = endless
11.Suravartman = devas reside there
12.Kam = that which supports
13.Vihayasi = air; atmosphere; aerial
14.Vihayas= suspended in air; aerial
15.Tarapatha:= path of stars
16.Naka = heaven
17.Meghadva = cloud bearing
18.Akasa = Open space
19.Viyad = intermediate area between heaven and earth; part asunder
20.Vishnupadam = vishnu’s place, vishnu’s foot
21.Mahabhila = great hole
22.Dyu: = See Dyaus

When Amarasimha lists the words in his Amarakosa he gives the gender of the words as well. In the olden days whoever goes to Gurukula will be asked to memorise the 2000+ lines at young age. By the time s/he becomes a youth he would have learnt 10,000 synonyms!


vyomavargaḥ (Namalinganusasana)
Sky or atmosphere (26)
(1.2.167) dyodivau dve striyāmabhraṃ vyoma puṣkaramambaram
(1.2.168) nabho ‘ntarikṣaṃ gaganamanantaṃ suravartma kham
(1.2.169) viyad viṣṇupadaṃ vā tu puṃsyākāśavihāyasī
(1.2.170) vihāsayo ‘pi nāko ‘pi dyurapi syāt tadavyam
(1.2.171) tārāpatho ‘ntarikṣaṃ ca meghādhvā ca mahābilam
(1.2.172) vihāyāḥ śakune puṃsi gagane puṃnapuṃsakam

sky at sunrise

There are more words for the sky in other books. It shows the richness of the language.

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Mahabharat names Vs Indus Valley Names

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1392; Dated 5th November 2014.

I was going through the names of Mahabharata characters in “Who is who in the Mahabharata?” by Subash Mazumdar. An approximate list of suffixes or surnames is as follows:

Sena — 24 names, e.g Chitrasena, Shursena, Dhumatsena, Sinsena, Bhimasena
Ketu – 9 names, E.g.Shvetaketu
Varman –13 names, E.g Ketuvarma , Kshatravarma, Kritavarma,Dhritavarma ,Satyavarma
Pati+Vati — 11+3 names, Madhravati, Mayavati, Prabhavati
Datta — 6, Vygradatta, Bhanudatta, Bhagadatta
Dyuman – 6, Dhrstadyuman
Ratha – 5 e.g.Chitraratha, Jayadratha (Indus Valley area), Bhagiratha
Mana – 5 Anshumana, Shrenimana
Ayudha/Yudhdha -3, Halaydha

Vasu – 5
Asva – 6 E.g. Brhadasva, Vyusistasva
Wana – 6 E.g. Sharadwana, Rumanvana
Ayana – Krishna Dwaipayana
Deva—Sahadeva, Vasudeva, Shrutadeva,Shakradeva

Sena ending, Ketu ending and Pati/Vati ending names are in the Vedic literature as well. This shows that these names are being used for thousands of years. Even in the Kathasaritsagara and Vikram and Vetal we come across same suffixes like Sena and Varman and Datta. So if at all we look for some names in the Indus valley it should be Sena, Varman, Ketu, Pati, Vati, Mati ending names. If we keep it in mind and identify these suffixes in the Indus valley script, we can succeed in the deciphering it.

I have already written an articles about Pati, Mati, Vati ending names in Vedas and Epics.
We have to prepare a list of Vedic names and epic names and compare it for further research.

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Eighteen groups of Indians!

Devas and Asuras churning the milky ocean

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1390; Dated 4 November 2014.

Foreign “scholars” and foreign invaders like the British, French, Portugese and the Dutch divided Hindus into four groups : Aryans ,Dravidians, Mundas and the Kiratas. This is not found anywhere in the Vedas or ancient Tamil literature. The words were used here and there to mean cultured (Aryan), southerner (Dravidian), tribe or hunters (Kirata) etc, they were never used as four groups together. But Tamil and Sanskrit literature divided the ancient people of India into 18 groups. They were called the children of a Hindu god or a sage. They were never described as foreigners who migrated into India. On the contrary Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians and several other communities said that they came from a far away land to those places. They described their place of origin was similar to paradise.

We read in the Sanskrit Ramayan and Mahabharata about these people and the Tamil literature (Nachinarkiniar’s commentary on Tolkappiam and Puram. Verse 201) also said that 18 groups of people were brought to South India by Agastya. They were

11.Siddhas and Saranas
18.Bhogabhumi dwellers

There are some lists with some minor changes. Nachinarkiniyar commentary did not give the list. But Tamil Nighandu ‘Pinglam’ has given the above list.

They are broadly grouped them into four groups
1.Yakshas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, vidhyadharas, Siddhas
2.Rakshas, Asuras, Daityas, Danavas
3.Bhuta, Pisacas, Naitruta/Niruthar
6.Devas, Munis, Bhogabhumi dwellers
Vishnu Sahasramnama shortens the list to seven groups:
Sura (Devas or sages),
Nara (civilised humans),
Kaga (people wearing bird/Garuda symbols like Jadayu, Sampathi),
Go (people with animal symbols like Vanaras with monkey symbols, Jambavan with bear tattoo),
Bogi (people with snake totems),
Gandhrva / Apsaras (Indus to Tibet dwellers),
Daityai: (uncivilised city or forest dwellers).

Samudra manthan

Samudra manthan (Churning the ocean)

During the Upanishad period we heard about only three groups: humans (Nara), Devas (Sura) and Asuras (demons) and they got the Magic word “Da” (Datta, Damyata, Daya) from the god. They went together to God. It shows all the Hindus or living beings were classified into only three groups and they were treated equally.

Later they were divided into more groups. This is similar to four Vedic castes branching out into thousands of castes and sub castes in today’s India. But one thing is very clear in our literature. Either they are black or white, demon or deva they were all called sons of sages or sons of Prajapati. All blacks were made supreme gods: ugly black skinned Vyasa and Agastya were typical examples. Women refused to come to bed with them. We knew why Pandu was born pale, Dhritarashtra was blind and Lopamudra gave Agastya an impossible task. Black Krishna, Black Draupadi, Black Rama, Black Vishnu, Black Kali, Black Vyasa and Black Agastya were all worshipped as Gods or great Rishis. This shows that all foreign propaganda about the superiority of white skinned Aryans over the black skinned Dravidians of India was false.

The Eighteen Ganas (Janas) have various interpretations. Are they all humans? or some of them Semi divine? or Divine?

The answer is both human and divine.

Asuras are historical. All the Assyrian kings and Persians called themselves Asuras or descendants of Asuras.

Yakshas are also historical, who resided in Sri Lanka once and then driven out by Ravana. Mahavamsa says that the first wife of Vijaya was a Yakshini. It also described how Buddha terrified the Yakshas and drove them out of the island.

Assyrian king Asura Banipal

Gandharvas and their associates occupied Indus valley, Kashmir and part of the Himalayas. Only when the Indus script is deciphered we will know the truth. Nagas are also historical and they are well attested in Sangam Tamil literature, Gupta inscriptions and several other documents. Over twenty Tamil poets have Naga suffix. Gonds are all Nagas. I have explained already that the word Gond came from Khandava Vana residents and the land was called Gond wana= Khanda vana. Tamil literature gives more information about Nagadwipa. They used the word for any land that existed in the sea far from the eastern shore of India. If anyone leaving from any Indian port like Kolkatta or Tutukkudi in Tamil Nadu and travel through Bay of Bengal (Indian ocean) then they are said to have travelled to Nagadwipa. If they travel beyond that point they were said to have travelled to Patala Loka (South America, Central America and United States of America). Any place south of equator was called Patala in general.

I have already written a post about Kanchi Parmacharya’s 1932 Chennai talk on Kapila Arantya becoming California (USA). Please read “ Is California, Kapilaranya?”

Most of the 18 Ganas are historically documented and recorded in Indian, Sri Lankan and South East Asian inscriptions and literatures. If anyone reads our literature, particularly Valmiki Ramayana, with these 18 Ganas in mind and note all the references to these groups, new history will emerge.

So, let us drop the racist words like “Aryan, Dravidian, Munda and Kirata” and rewrite the Indian history. If we do it, we will come across many more wonders. These racist words have prevented us from deciphering the Indus script. These racist words have placed Indian History only from the period of Buddha. But Glorious India existed thousands of years before the Buddha!
Rewrite Indian History!

(Pictures are used from various sites;thanks)

Bhumi Dundhubi: Drums in Rig Veda and Sangam Tamil Poems

modi in Japan
Prime Minister Modi in Japan with Japanese PM.

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1385; Dated 2nd November 2014.

Very interesting information about musical instruments is available in the Rig Veda, oldest book in the world. Sangam Tamil literature which came 1700 years after the Rig Veda, adds more interesting details about Drums!

Bhagavad Gita begins (1—12 to 19) with musical instruments that were used on the battle ground! “Conches, kettledrums, tabors, drums and trumpets blared forth and the noise was tumultuous. And the terrible sound, echoing through heaven and earth rent the hearts of Dhrtarashtra’s sons”. When we read this description we can imagine the noise it created in the battle field.

(English word tumultuous is derived from the Sanskrit word Dumula)

The use of drums in the war started in the days of the Rig Veda and continued through the Sangam period. Sangam Tamil poems were composed in the first three centuries of modern era. The most interesting information comes from the Rig Veda about Bhumi Dundubhi! It means Earth Drum.

Temple Drum in Jaffna in Sri Lanka

Dundubhi is an onomatopoetic word : Dum Dum = dum dum dhubi= drum. (The English word drum must have come from this). It is mentioned in RV 1-28-5; 6-47-29; 6-47-31. Atharva Veda and other Vedic literature repeat it many times. A special sort of drum was the earth drum, made by digging a hole on the ground and covering it with a hide. This was employed in the Mahavrata, a rite performed at the winter solstice, for the purpose of driving away the influences hostile to the return of the sun; bhumi dundubhi is mentioned in the Samhitas and Brahmanas. Taitriya Samhita vii.5-9-3 and other books refers to it. Though drums are found in all ancient civilizations from Egypt to Peru, no where we come across earth drums. Other references in the Rig-Veda are about war drums.

( From Vedic Index by Keith and Macdonell)

Drums in Kollam, Kerala

Rig Vedic Word Adambara in Tamil!

Another interesting word is Adambara. Even modern day Tamils use this word for pomp and ostentation. Not many people know that it came from the Rig Veda. Tamils say that they celebrated the marriage with Adambara. Actually it was the drum used in such ceremonies. It occurs in Vajasaneyi samhita 30—19
Lambara and Vanaspati are other drums mentioned in the Vedic literature. Of all the Hindu gods, Shiva was the one who is associated with drums like Damaruka. Tamil and Sanskrit language came from this Damaruka sound according to Panini and Tamil poet Paranjothi. The basic 14 sounds of Sanskrit language called Maheswarani Sutrani came from Shiva’s drum.

The English word tomtom also came from India. In India, kings’ and governments’ announcements came through tom toming. I myself have seen it in Madurai during my childhood days. When there is a breakout of infectious disease or 144 ban they announced it by tomtoming! We, children used to stand round the drumme,r and look at him curiously!

chenda vadhya
Chenda Vadhya in Kerala

Vedic Orchestra

During Mahavrata festival, grand music festival was organised. Agnihotram Ramanujachariar gives the following information:

“We have concrete information from the Vedas of prevalence of the orchestral music. A grand music festival with different instruments is associated with the Mahavrata Yaga. In this yaga (fire ceremony) the Udgata is seated in a chair, the Hotha in a swing and the Adhwaryu on a plank. Hotha prays to god while swinging. The wives of the performers of the Yaga sing along with the Udgata with a variety of instruments. The following instruments are mentioned in this connection:

A Vana with 100 Strings ( my comment: Vana might have given the Tamil word Pana- singer; Yaz Pana; P=V=M are interchangeable)

Naady (pipe), Thunava (wooden lute), Shanka (conch)
Kanda Veena, Godha Veenaka ( a small veena covered with the skin of godha)
Agati (cymbals), Pichchola, Apa Ghatalathika, Karkarika
Ghata karkarika, Shambala veena Ghatari with vandanam (plectrum)
Thaluka Veena, Alabu, Kapisharsaki etc.

At the same time women standing in a circle with water pots on their heads singing rhythmically, keeping time with their feet. This is like modern Tamil Karakam dance”
(From “The Hindu Speaks on Music”)

garo tribals of meghalaya
Garo Tribes of Meghalaya, India

Interesting Information on Ancient Tamil Drums

Sangam Tamil literature has hundreds of words about drums (Murasu, Parai, Kinai and Panai). A lot of percussion instruments are listed in Amarakosa and other Nighandu dictionaries in Sanskrit and Tamil.

1.Tamil forts had drums on the top floor of the forts near the entrance. Kamban in his Tamil Ramayana says that the drums were beaten on top of the gate at Ayodhya. Sangam Tamil literature says that there were three types of drums constantly beaten and they were Kodai, Padai, Mana Murasu meaning Donation, Army and Auspicious messages (Pathitru pathu 2- 4/9). In another place in the same book, they are described as Tyaga, Veera, Nyaya Murasus.

2.Drums were considered dwelling place of deities. They were worshipped with flowers and rice and meat balls (Pathitrupathu 2-17 lines 5 to 8).

3. When the person in charge of worship of drums chanted the Mantras holding the offering in his hands, even the ghosts were trembling. Those meat balls mixed with blood and rice won’t be touched even by the ghosts and ants says Pathiru pathu 3—30/39.

4.Murasu or Drum was considered one of the ten royal symbols. When Saivite saints sang about Shiva as a King they included drum in one stanza. Tamil poet Bharati who composed “Bharat Mata Dasanga”, sang about Drums as one symbol of Bharatmata.

Drums in Japan

4. One of the Sangam poets who came to see a king was dead tired and he slept on the cot meant for placing the drum. It is a crime fit for capital punishments. But the king was sympathetic to the poet and rewarded him amply.

5.War drums will be covered with the hide of a heroic bull. The hide of a bull which killed a tiger will be chosen for this purpose. This is repeated in several places in Sangam literature.

6.Abithana Chinthamani, Tamil encyclopaedia, adds that the drums were decorated with garlands, peacock feathers and Uzinjai flowers and took it in a procession.

chinese drums from incredipedia
Chinese drum from increpedia

Communication through Drums
African countries are for famous for communication through drums. The tribes exchanged information through drum beats. It is like a language understood by the tribal communities. Tamils also followed such a system and the poets were aware of it (Akam.63 and Kuruntokai 390). When the robbers saw a caravan of business people crossing through the forest or arid land they started beating the Thannumai drum and attacked the merchants. Even the sound will shake anyone. So they sent waves of fear by beating the drums – say Tamil poets.

The most popular book of Tamil language Tirukkural which is called Tamil Veda was written by a drummer. The author Tiru Valluvar belonged to Valluvar caste who used to announce the orders of the king by beating the drum from top of an elephant. Though he belonged to Pariah caste he held a high position is the caste. Valluvars used to be priests for the caste. The word Parai means a drum and Pariah means an announcer (by beating the drums).

Hundreds of different percussion instruments are available throughout India.

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Date of Mahabharata War

mbh-war cambodia
Mahabharata war in Angkhor wat Temple, Cambodia

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1383; Dated 1st November 2014.

Mahabaharata stands out in the epic literature of the world for various reasons:

1.This is the longest epic in the world with one hundred thousand couplets.
2.It is said that all the subjects under the sun are dealt with by the author Vyasa and the saying goes “Vyasochchishtam Jagath sarvam” i.e. The whole world is the spit of Vyasa. That is nothing is untouched by Vyasa. In the epic itself it is said that what you find elsewhere in the world is already here.
3.The date of the great war is debatable because there is no archaeological proof to confirm the traditional date.

Hindus strongly believed in the traditional date of the war around 3100 BCE. But scholars who believed in archaeology of Gangetic plains think that it was fought around 1500 BCE. Either way it is interesting.

Two inscriptions give the date of Kali Yuga. Both of them believed that Kaliyuga commenced around 3100 BCE!
a)Aihole Inscription of Chalukya King Pulekesi II stated that the inscription was made in the year 3735 of Kali era when the Saka era was 556. This meant that the Kali era began in 3101 BCE.
b)Parthivasekarapuram copper plate Tamil inscription of Ko Karunathadakkan gave the number of days of Kali passed as 1449087! The inscription is dated around 865CE.

Ellora - Mahabhatara
Mahabharata war in Ellora caves

This shows that Hindus believed in the date of 3100 BCE as Kaliyuga year 1. Till this date all South Indian Panchangs (traditional ephemeris) give the date of Saka, Vikrama and Kali era faithfully. Hindus believe that the war happened just before the Kali Yuga began.

Now I will summarise the views of some scholars who attended seminars on Mahabharata or contributed articles on this subject:

16th century Abul fazal’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ – the 40th year of din-I Llahi 4696 years have elapsed from the beginning of Kali Yuga. This means war took place in 3137 BCE

12th century Kalhana’s Rajatarangini – Kali 653 i.e 2500 BCE. So the war took place before 2500 BCE.

Kalhana was the first historian according towstern scholars. That Kashmiri Brahmin was the first one to write Indian History with dates. But he did a blunder in calculating the Kali Yuga. Still scholars wonder how he committed this mistake. There are various theories about it.

Mahabharata war in Halebedu

R.Morton Smith – 1050 BCE
Srinivas Raghavan 3067 BCE
P C Sen Guptas 2449 BCE
Dr Sankalia – later than 15th century BCE
S B Roy on the basis of astronomical calculations – 1424 BCE
S B ROY in his book “Date of Mahabharata Battle” has beautifully summarised the views of scholars in this field as follows:–

Group A who believed in the date 3100 BCE
D R Mankad- 3201 BCE
M M Krishnamachari – 3137 BCE
C V Vaidya – 3102 BCE
V B Athvale – 3016 BCE

Chakra vyuha
Chakra Vyuha in Bharata battle

Group B (2500 BCE)
Varahamihira (Brihat Samhita)
Kalhana (Rajatarangini)
P C Sengupta (Indian Chronology)

Group C (1450 BCE)
A.Cunningham – 1424 BCE
K P Jaiswal – 1424 BCE
Tarakeshwar Bhattacharya – 1432 BCE
Giridra Sekhar Basu – 1416 BCE
Bankim Chandra Chatterji – 1400 BCE
Swami Vivekananda – 1400 BCE
(Complete Works, Vol.II, PP 27,29
A D Pusalkar 1400 BCE
Bala Gangadhara Tilak – 1400 BCE (in his book Gita Rahasya)
H C Deb – 1400 BCE
B B Ketkar – 1267 BCE
Shri Aurobindo -1191 BCE
(in his book Vyasa and Valmiki)
K L Dapthari 1197 BCE
K G Shankar – 1197 BCE
Sitanath Pradhan – 1151 BCE

Arjuna or Bhageeratha doing penance, Mahabalipuram

Group D (950 BCE)
Pargiter – 950 BCE
Roy Chowdhuri – 900 BCE

My comments: Tamil inscription and Pulikesin’s Aihole inscription confirm the traditional date for Kaliyuga i.e.3100 BCE. Our Panchangam also sticks to the traditional date. They were not influenced by the concocted and outmoded theory of Aryan Invasion. They were of pure and unpolluted mind. Moreover Megasthenes of third century BCE said that 143 generations had passed before his time. His statement is repeated by other Greek authors. Even if we give 20 years per king then it would add up 2860. This gives the traditional date 2860+Appr.300 BCE). Inscriptions never lie. Kalhana and Varahamihira lost 600 years in their calculations because of some vague astronomical positions.

It is very interesting to note that scholars differ widely even after several seminars. We must hold one more seminar or conference in the light of new evidence from the submarine Dwaraka, underground Sarasvati River and the revised date of Rig Veda from Shriknat Talegari and American Sanskrit scholars.

Bhisma on acupuncture treatment (Bed of Arrows)

The following three books give lot of information on this topic:
Mahabharata Myth and Reality – Differing Views, Agam Prakashan, New Delhi
Age of Bharata War, Edited by G C Agarwala, Motilal Banarsidas, 1979
Date of Mahabharata battle, S B Roy, The Academic Press, Gurgaon, 197
Long live the Greatest, Oldest and Longest Epic Mahabharata!!

krishna war
Lord Krishna, Military strategist and main architect of the great war.

Who is a Demon? Asuras,Rakshas, Danavas and Daityas

Bhutan masked dancers  4
Bhutan Mask dance; they are not demons.They dress like demons.

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1381; Dated 31 October 2014.

Hindu epics and mythology give a good description of the demons. Those who read them will see how much the foreign “scholars” have distorted and mis interpreted these people. Anyone can see their evil designs in dividing the Hindus. In fact, there is no culture in the world without demons. Every culture has demons.

The wonder of wonders, the greatest wonder, is that they are always described as sons of seers like Kashyapa or born out of Prajapati. In all the Hindu scriptures they are described as part of Hindu society. Vishnu Sahasranama and Bhagavad Gita describe them as part of the human beings or semi divine beings: Sura-Nara- Kaga- Go-Bogi-Gandharva-Daityai:

Kerala Onma dance with masks.

Even according to the Upansishads they went along with the Devas, humans and received the mantra Da—Da—Da—( Read my earlier post about Datta, Damyata, Dayatva).

Even in the churning of the ocean episode they were called to participate in the task together with the Devas. The Ramayana described the different masks they wore like elephants, horses etc like our children wear during fancy dress competition or festivals.

Even today the country where the masks are worn is called Bhutan meaning Bhutastan. But the only difference is they went against the rules. We can compare them to the criminals of today.

All the Asuras, Daityas, Danavas and Raksasa were connected with either Brahma, Brahmin seers Kasyapa or Pulastya, Prajapati. But the foreigners deliberately described them as Dravidians and aborigines. Those who study the Puranas, epics and earlier Brahmanas like Satapata Brahmana or Taitriya Aranyaka will understand what they meant by these terms.

There is a difference between Asuras, Raksasaas, Danavas and Daityas, though the English translation for all of them is demons!!!

Amarakosa, the oldest dictionary in the world, gives ten names for Daityas and Danavas; but it has grouped them together:

Daitya : Descendants of Diti and Kasyapa
Daiteya : same as above
Danujendra: Descendants of Danu
Danava : descendants of Danu
Sukrasishya: Brahmin Sukra was their Guru
Ditisudha: Descendants of Diti
Purvadeva: Originally started as good and then degenerated

Bhutan mask dance

Amarakosa gives 15 names for Rakshasaas

Raksasana = should be protected from
Konapan= dead body
Kravyat = raw meat eaters
Kravyata: = raw meat eaters lie animals

Asrapaka: = Blood suckers
Asara:= one who tortures
Ratrinchara: = roaming in the night; also Naktan chara
Ratrichara:= roaming in the night
Karpura: = Black; they came during night with their face painted with black ink. E.g. In London criminals come with their hoods on the head. So, now the shops have banned the hoodies. This is what the criminal Raksasas did in the olden days.
Nikasatmaja: = Nikasha’s children
Yatudana: = nourishes his own (Yatu) kind; E.g. in London we have lots of gangs. Gangsters get support only from their own group.
Punya jana:= never does anything good, an irony; a parody; E.g.Cobras are called “Good” snakes in Tamil! They wouldn’t tell the name in the night time. They say “Goodies” may come. Because some people, particularly children, get scared if you say Snake!
Nairuta: = descendents of Nitruti
Yaturakshasi = protects their own kind.

Villain Jaws in James Bond film.

They have more epithets descriptive of their actions or character: Hanuushas= killers or hurters; Ischipachas= stealers; Sandhya balas= strong in twilight; Samani sadas= night walkers, Nri chaksas= cannibals; Paldas= carnivorous; Raktapas= blood drinkers; dandasukas=biters; Praghasa=gluttons; Malina mukhas= black faced ; they applied black paint on the faces for camouflage effect during darkness
Asura : In the early part of the Rig Veda Indra, Varuna and Agni are called Asuras. Only in the later parts of the Rig Veda and the Atharva Veda Asura got a bad connotation. This is because one splinter group migrated from Saurashtra area to Iran. According to Kanchi Parmacharya, Saurashtra was called Zoaroastra. When Iran was occupied by the Muslims they came as refugees back to Saurashtra! Because of this division, the word Asura changed its meaning in India. Their Guru was a Brahmin- Sukra Acharya!!
E.g. We see the same thing when political parties divide and splinter groups form; the previous good leaders become bad to another group.

Dracula film

Quotations on Demons

The following quotes will fit with all the fraudsters and criminals in the modern world; when bad thoughts or violent thoughts come to us, if we write them on a sheet of paper, we will also be dubbed a Raksasa!
(From the book Sukti Sudha of Chinmaya International Foundation)
Demons will always be devious — Valmiki Ramayana 6-50-54
Nityam jihmaa hi raakssasaaha

Negotiations do not augur well with ogres — Valmiki Ramayana 5-41 -3
Na saama rakshah su gunaaya kalpaté

Devils are naturally treacherous in war — Valmiki Ramayana 6-50-53
Prakrtyaa raaksasaa sarvé sangraamé kuutayódhinah

Ogres become invincible at twilight — Valmiki Ramayana 1-26-23
Raksaamsi sandhyaakaalé tu durdharsaani bhavanti hi

Demons brim with bestial strength – Valmiki Ramayana 1-20-15
Viiryootsiktaa hi raakssasaaha

Demons are extremely deceitful – Bharat Kthamanjari
Asuraasca bahucchaalaah

Demons are treachery personified — Ramyana Manjari3-24-768
raakssasaaha bahucchaalaah

So, all the immoral, deceitful, violent and fraudulent people who disturbed or troubled good people were called demons. We can compare them to the villains of today’s films. Foreign scholars deliberately concealed what Hindu scriptures told about them: they were our own children, but mislead and mis guided by bad people.

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Rig Vedic Hariyupia and Indus Valley Harappa: Rig Veda Mystery 7


Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1379; Dated 30th October 2014.

Please read the earlier posts covering from Rig Veda Mystery 1 to 6.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are two major cities of the Indus valley civilization. Harappa is in East Punjab (now in Pakistan). It is on the banks of River Ravi. Ancient name of the river is Parusni.

There is a similar sounding word Hariyupia – in the Rig Veda. Few scholars identify it with Harappa of Indus Valley Civilization. Rig Veda describes it a as a Vedic city with Yupa posts of golden colours!!

Rig Vedic Index by A B Keith and A A Macdonell gives the following information:


“Hari-yúpíyá is mentioned in a hymn of the Rig Veda (6-27-5) as the scene of the defeat of the Vrivavants by Abhyavartin Caayamana. It may denote either a place or a river, since many battles seem to have been fought on the banks of rivers.

Ludwig took it as the name of a town on the river Yavyaavatii, which is identified in Sayanas’ commentary on the passage.

Hillebrndt thinks it is the river Iryaab (Haliab), a tributary of the Kurum (Krumu), but this is not all probable”.

The above passage from the Vedic Index shows that a big difference in views! It is very common in the Vedic interpretation. That is, no one can understand the Vedas!!!

Ralph T H Griffith’s translation of the hymn runs like this:
RV 6-27-5/6
“In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of Varasikha.
At Hariyupia he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the rear fled freighted

Three thousand, mailed, in quest of fame, together on the Yavyavati, O much sought after Indra
Vrcivan’s sons, falling before the arrow, like bursting vessels went to their destruction”.

harppa mohanjo

Griffith added foot note:
“Hariyupia (having golden sacrificial posts), the name of a town or according to others, a river.
Yavyavati: the name of a river, according to Sayana, identical with Hariyupia of stanza 5”.
So, according to Sayana, it is a river. Whether it is a river or a city, the meaning of the word “HARIYUPIA” is not disputed. It means place of golden Yupa posts.
A few people have even connected the word Hariyupia with Europa/Airoppa!!

Samudra Gupta gold coin with Asva and Yupa post

What is a YUPA? — From Tamil Literature

Yupa is a post made up of wood from the tree. There are two purposes: one is to tie the animal to be sacrificed at the fire pit (Yaha Gunda) and the other is a victorious post installed after each big Yaha like the Asvamedha or Rajasuya.

Kalidasa mentioned it in Raguvamsa 1-44 and several other places.

2000 year old Sangam literature mentioned Yupa with the same Sanskrit word “YUPA” in at least 4 places:
Purananuru verses 15 and 224
Maduraikanci line 27
Pathtrupathu 67-10

Nettimaiyar, one of the oldest poets of Sangam period, wonders ,“Oh! Pandya! please tell me whether the number of Yupa posts you installed more? Or the number of enemies you defeated more? Or the praises by the poets more?”
Verse 224 parised the greatest of the Chola kings Karikalan for installing the tall Yupa post.

Ujjain coin with yupa post

Tamil Kings Karikalan, Perunarkilli and Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi have done so many Yajnas according to Sangam Tamil literature. So the Rig Vedic word YUPA is very popular in Tamil Nadu even 2000 years ago. Karikalan and Mudukudumi are the two oldest Tamil kings we knew.

Kanchi Paramacharrya Swamikal in his 1932 lectures in Chennai pointed out that archaeologists were surprised to see the Mulavarman’s Yupa post in the “virgin” forests of Borneo, now part of Indonesia. He belonged to fourth century CE. It shows the word Yupa is known throughout South East Asia.

Now going back to Hariyupia, if it is Hari+Yupa, then Harappa is a Vedic city. The battles that happened there did not give the name to the place. It is only the Vedic Yajnas gave that name to the city – Harappa. So the battles may be described as internal wars among local kings. Tamils fought among themselves continuously for 1500 years, though they worshipped the same Hindu gods, spoke the same Tamil language, upheld the same values Dharma, Artha and Kama according to the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam. Words Dharma, Artha, Kama is repeated several times in Sangam and later Tamil books (but the words are in tamil Aram, Porul Inpam).
So, my argument is that the word Hariyupia confirms the Vedic presence in East Punjab during Harappan period.


INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Read my other 30 posts on Indus:

Indus Valley-Brahmin Connection (Post No 1034, Date 10-5-14)
Bull Fighting: Indus Valley to Spain via Tamil Nadu (posted 21/1/12)
Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt (posted on 31/10/12)

Ghosts in Indus Seals and Indian Literature
Flags: Indus Valley- Egypt Similarity
Tiger Goddess of Indus Valley: Aryan or Dravidian?
Indra on Elephant Vahana in Indus Valley
Indus Script Deciphered

Human sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt 0ct.31, 2012
Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana Dec.18, 2012
Open Sesame’: Password to Heaven Post No 756 dated 23rd December 2013
Change ‘’Indus’’ valley civilization to ‘’Ganges’’ valley civilization! Ulta! 29-3-2014
Indus Valley Case: Lord Indra Acquitted Post No 764 dated 28th Dec. 2013
‘Sex Worship’ in Indus Valley

harappa well

Flags: Indus Valley – Egypt Similarity (15/1012)
The Sugarcane Mystery: Indus Valley and the Ikshvaku Dynasty
Vishnu in Indus Valley Civilization (posted on 19-10-11)
Serpent Queen: Indus Valley to Sabarimalai 18 June 2012
Fall of Brahmin Kingdoms in Pakistan and Afghanistan 23-3-14
Indus Valley Civilization- New Approach , posted on May 29, 2011

என்னுடைய முந்தைய 30 கட்டுரைகள்:
சிந்து சமவெளியில் பேய் முத்திரை
சிந்து சமவெளியில் ஒரு புலிப் பெண் Aug.23, 2012
‘எள்’ மர்மம்: ரிக் வேதம் முதல் சிந்து சமவெளி வரை! Post No 755 dated 23/12/13

தேள்— ஒரு மர்ம தெய்வம்!
சிந்து சமவெளி & எகிப்தில் நரபலி1 November 2012
சிந்து சமவெளியில் செக்ஸ் வழிபாடு (26/7/13)
கொடி ஊர்வலம்: சிந்து சமவெளி – எகிப்து அதிசய ஒற்றுமை (15/10/12)
‘திராவிடர் கொலை வழக்கு: இந்திரன் விடுதலை’ Post-763 dated 28th Dec. 2013.

சிந்து சமவெளியில் அரசமரம்
சிந்து சமவெளி நாகரீகம் பெயரை மாற்றுக! march 29, 2014
1500 ஆண்டு பிராமண ஆட்சியின் வீழ்ச்சி 24-3-14
சிந்து சமவெளி – பிராமணர் தொடர்பு (Post No 1033, Date 10-5-14)
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Interesting Facts about Vayu Bhagavan!

vayu in NY
Vayu Deva in Brooklyn Museum, New York

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1376; Dated 28th October 2014.

Vayu is one of the Vedic gods that Hindus worship every day. Brahmins do Sandhyavandhanam thrice a day in which they worship Agni, Vayu, Arka, Vageesa, Varuna, Indra, Visvedeva:. Not only Brahmins but also those who do Havan or Homam or Yagam through a priest also do it. Vayu Bhagavan is installed in the Havan fire pit. He occupies the north western corner. Vayu is the god of air or wind. People of all castes in India perform Vastu Puja, Bhumi puja, Graha Pravesam, Vivaham (wedding) etc. in which all the Vedic gods are invoked. So, Vedic religion is a living religion. Vedas are recited in all the temples rituals all over India.

Hindus divided the breath into five different airs:
Prana – comes from heart
Apana – bottom
Samana– neck
Udana – belly button
Vyana — whole body

vayu in nilali shobaneswara tem
Vayu in Nilali Shobaneswaram Temple

Mahabharata santi parva gives another category of seven types of winds –
Avahan = oxygen
Pravahan = produces rain bearing clouds
Udvahan = produces rain – probably cold air
Samvahan = makes everything dry – probably hot air from the desert
Vivahan = this supports the water in the heaven ( only now NASA talks about some water elsewhere in the universe; when we get more information we may be able to understand certain words)
Parivahan = this supports sun and moon
Paravahan = not controlled by anything or anyone; beyond control

Whether the above classification is scientific or not, one can boldly say Hindus started thinking in a scientific way to classify all the plants, animals, continents etc. In the same ways they are the first in etymology, logic, poetics, sexology, astrology, decimal system, psychology, linguistics, grammar, metaphysics, universal welfare, religion, philosophy etc. To attain such a height in all the fields even before the Greeks and other civilizations they must have lived and matured for a longer period than any ancient civilization. This serves as a proof for the antiquity of the Hindus.

Vayu in Birla Museum

Colour of Vayu is dark blue in Hindu mythology – probably they mean the clouds through which the presence of wind is noticed.

His vehicle was deer (antelope)
Vayu is worshipped by the Buddhists and Zoroastrian religions.
Greeks worshipped him as Eolus or Aeolus
Vedic Hindus worshipped him as Maruts
Mesopotamians worshipped him as martu (Marut got corrupted into martu)
Many Hindu temples such as Guruvayur, Kalahasti and Vayu lingam of Tiruvannamalai are associated with Vayu.


Vayu on his vahana gazelle

Twenty names of Vayu

Amarakosa, the first thesaurus cum dictionary in the world, gives 20 names of Vayu and they are as follows:

Svasana: one who helps to breathe; also the name of a tree called Mathana vrksa

Sparsana: one can feel it when it touches one
Vayu: Vathi means that which blows
Matariswan – that which travels in the anthariksha – in between – atmosphere
Sathagathi: always moving
Prushathasva: that which sprays; that which is grey; also one who has rain drops as his vehicle

Gandharba: one who carries sweet smell
Gandhavaha: one who carries sweet smell; also the name of musk deer
Anila: that which is not stable
Asuka: quick, fast
Samiira: that which spreads quickly
Maruta: that which helps living beings
Marut – one who causes mrtyu by stopping air
Jagatprana: — breathe of the earth
Samiirana — that which spreads quickly

Nabaswan/vath — one who travels in sky
Vata: one who blows
Pavana: one who purifies everything; also kitchen, potter
Pavamana: one who purifies
Prabanchana: that which causes destruction

Vedic gods

Maruts or Marut gana are gods of wind.
The sons of Rudra and attendants of Indra are called Maruts .
There are a few hymns addressed to Vayu in the Vedas. In the Purusasukta hymn, Vayu is said to have sprung from the breath of Purusa .He is also called the son in law of Tvashtri.

Maruts are storm gods in the Vedas. Maruti, also known as Hanuman, got his name from this word. Their weapons are lightning and thunder and they are called friends of Indra. Their number is given as thrice sixty in one place and 27 in another place. In the Ramayana, Indra is said to have created 49 Maruts from the unborn son of Diti by his thunderbolt. Indra said to them “weep not” –“ma rodih” — and it became Maruts.

Maruts are said to have deformed the 100 daughters of Kusa Nabha and they became Kanya-kubja (hunch backed).
All these stories are episodes convey some geological or medical facts in the way of popular stories. Puranas use a funny way of saying all the historical, medical and geological facts. Perhaps the ancient Hindus understood in the proper way.
Indian Air Force Bomber Marut

Vayu created Sri Lanka

Bhagavatha Purana gives an interesting story of Vayu. Narada asked Vayu to break the summit of the Meru mountain and the gale force wind / Vayu broke down a part of Meru. That part fell into the ocean and became Sri Lanka.
Ramayana’s Hanuman and Mahabharata’s Bhima are considered sons of Vayu. Vayu always stand for tremendous strength.
Vayu is one of the deities with a Purana in its name- Vayu Purana. it is devoted to the praise of lord Siva.
Martu is a Mesopotamian storm god; the patron god of the city of Ninab mentioned in the texts. I guess this is the Vedic god Maruts.

Greek Vayu deva Aeolus

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Haha and Huhu: Famous Musicians!

kinnara in thailand musuem
Kinnara in Thailand Museum

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1374; Dated 27th October 2014.

“Gandharvanam (aham) Chitra ratha:”
—Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita 10-26

Gandharvas and Kinnaras are celestial musicians in Hindu mythology.

Very interesting information about celestial musicians is available in Hindu literature. Not much research has been done about these semi divine beings. One must be very careful about this word ‘Gandharva’. It is used at two levels to convey two different messages. One is about the mythical semi divine beings in the heaven. Very often saints mentioned that they listened to such music. Sri Seshadri Swamikal of Tiruvannamalai was one who referred to their music (Please read my post about the miracles of Seshadri Swamikal, who was senior to Ramana Maharishi).

Thai bronze Kinnaras

The second meaning is at terrestrial level about some race or community who occupied Indus valley. Several castes in India trace their origin to Devas or mythical beings or Hindu deities. We need more research in this area for two reasons:

1.Gandharvas are associated with the Indus Valley area.
2.Muscial instruments around the world have their names.

Amarakosa, the first dictionary cum thesaurus in the world, written by Amarasimha in Sanskrit, gives lot of interesting information about Hindu deities. In the sloka on celestial musicians known as Gandharvas, it gives the names of Haha and Huhu. We don’t know about these Gandharvas. But in the Bhagavad Gita Krishna mentions Chitraratha whom we know.

Chitraratha tried to stop Pandavas on their way to Punjab, but Arjuna defeated him and later released him at the request of his wife Kumbhinasi. Chitraratha thanked him by teaching him the art of Gandharva style of warfare and gave him divine horses. This is in the Adiparva of Mahabharata. Another chief of Gandharvas, Chitrasena taught Arjuna music in the heaven where he stayed for sometime before the great war. Later it helped him to become a music teacher during the 13th year of his stay (incognito) in the forest. This is in the third section of the epic. The same section adds one more bit of information about the fight between the armies of Kauravas and the Gandharvas. Duryodhana was captured alive and Karna ran for his life. Arjuna came and released Duryodhana through his good offices with his old friend Chitraratha.

Box with Kinnara, Ashmoloean Museum, Oxford, UK

Gandharvas in the Ramayana
Following is from my previous post: Ramayana Wonders Part 5 posted by me in this blog on 18 December 2012

Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana
The “destruction of Indus Valley cities” was debated by scholars at one time. The latest theory is that the civilisation declined not because of attacks by foreigners but by natural catastrophes. The changing course of Saraswati River and the resultant drought may be one of the causes. Ramayana gives valuable information about Indus valley. It was ruled by the Gandharvas and Rama sent Bharata to conquer the cities. The description of the Indus cities by Valmiki matches very well with Harappa and Mohanjo Daro. Gargya says these words:

“There is a country of Gandharvas, rich in fruits and roots, situated on the banks of Sindhu River; that the country is extremely fertile. The Gandharvas, armed and skilful warriors , defend it. When you have conquered them and destroyed their magnificent CITADELS, take possession of their CITIES, which are WELL CONSTRUCTED , none other can achieve this; the country is extremely beautiful.(Uttara Kanda, chapter 100)
Rajavalia, Sri Lankan history book, puts Rama’s date as 1844 years before the Buddha. This means Rama lived in2500 BC which coincides with the Indus Valley Civilization. Since information given by Rajavalia and Valmiki coincides we may consider it authentic. Later Lahore ( in Pakistan) is called Lava puri, named after Lava, son of Rama.

The information about the Gandharvas in the two epics shows that they were a powerful force in the western part of India. It is history, not mythology.

Musical Instruments

One of the famous Gandharva singers was Tumburu. Narada, the Inter- galactic traveller of Hindu mythology, learnt music from Tumburu. Several musical instruments in Asia are named after Tumburu. Kinnaras also gave the name to several musical instruments around the world:

Eg.Tambura, Tamborine, Tambora, Kinnari; we can trace more musical instruments to Kinnari and Gandharva.

Gandharva and Kinnaras are depicted in pictures and sculptures throughout South East Asian countries. In fact, we find more figures in Thailand, Cambodia and Indonesia than India.

Gandharva myth travelled to other parts of the world and the name and story got corrupted slowly. Greeks called them Gantharus (Mycenaean civilization) and it became Centaurs in the classical Greek civilization. Like Tumburu of Hindu mythology, Chiron is portrayed as half horse and half human with a lyre in his hand.
Apsara women, the consorts of Gandharvas, are celestial dancers. The art of music and dance are categorised as Gandharva Veda in India.

Greek Chiron with Horse body

Vedic Gandharvas
Urvasi is known from the Vedic days. There is another Gandharvayena Baleya Agniveshya in the Baudhayana Srauta Sutra (20-25). Interesting coincidence is he also belonged to Punjab (Pancala). So the Gandharava rule of Indus area is attested even by the Vedic literature.

Mythological Gandharvas
Gandharvas are singers and Kinnaras are accompanying artistes. They are called Gatus and Pulakas. They were the offspring of Kashyapa and his wife Arishta. Another version is that they came from Brahma
Kinnaras play on instruments. The cities of Gandharvas are often referred to as being “very splendid”. This is the reason I believe that Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are Gandharva cities. We have even recovered the dancing girl bronze from the place. Vishnu Purana described a fight between the Nagas of Narmada River basin and the Gandharvas. In this battle Gandharvas were defeated. Kinnaras were portrayed as half horse and half human or half bird and half human. They are sculpted in all the temples of India and South East Asia. History is mixed with myths and a scholar can filter the facts from the myths easily. One has to gather all the available materials from the Mycenaean Cantharus and Greek Chiron to Vedic literature for the research.

kashmir Kinnara_600x450
Kinnara from Avantipur, Kashmir

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Gandharvas from Mamallapuram

17 Names of Kubera in Amarakosa

Kubera on Naravahana in Tala, Chattisgarh

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1372; Dated 26th October 2014.

Amarakosa is the world’s first dictionary cum thesaurus. It was written by Amarasimhan in Sanskrit. As usual the date of the work is uncertain. But in its current from it must have existed before seventh century. Tradition says that Amarasimha was part of Emperor Vikramaditya’s court. So it may be dated to first century BCE. Date is immaterial for such a scholarly work.

All Sanskrit students are supposed to memorize it. All the little children are asked to repeat every line of it in the class room for ten to 15 minutes every day. Sanskrit lesson starts with grammar and dictionary in the elementary school which is a world wonder!! Its other name is Namalinganusasanam. Amarakosa has

29 names for Brahma
46 names for Vishnu
52 names for Siva
21 names for Devi/Amba
8 names for Ganapathy
17 names for Skanda
35 names for Indra
34 names for Agni
14 names for Yama
15 names for Rakshasa/demons
5 names for Varuna
20 names for Vayu
17 names for Kubera
37 names for the Sun
17 names for Balarama
19 names for Manmatha
14 names for Lakshmi
18 names for Jina (Jain)
7 names for the Buddha

adilabad dt three legs
Kubera with three legs and eight teeth, Adilabad Dt.

Though the author was a Buddhist he gave Hindu gods more importancethan any other God by giving over 400 names of Hindu Gods. This is the first dictionary of synonyms. Over 2000 lines are there in Sanskrit. Several commentaries are written on it. Those who study the commentaries would become a master of Sanskrit language and Hindu religion.

I have already given the names of Indra and Agni. Let us look at the names of Kubera.

Kubera – one who has a vile body (ugly)
Trayambakasaka — Friend of Shiva, one who has three eyes
Yaksharat – king of Yakshas
Guhyakeswara – – one who keeps himself secret in the underground caves
Manushyadharma — one who follows morals of human beings
Danada: — one who gives wealth
Rajaraja:– king of kings
Danadipa: — lord of wealth
Kinnareswara: — lord of Kinnaras
Vaisravana – descendent of Visravas
Paulastya – belongs to Pulastya gotra
Naravahana: — carried by humans
Yaksha: — worshipful
Ekapinga: — looked at by the corner of Devi/goddess
Jadavida: — who came through Ida and Pingala or mother’s name Idavila
Sridha: — one who has Sri=Lakshmi
Punyadineswara: Lord of Punyajanas

Biddhist Kubera

Garden of Kubera – Chaitra ratha

Children of Kubera: Nala kubara (Mayu raja) and Manigreeva (Varna kavi)
Daughter’s name: Minakshi
Wife’s Name: Charvi or Kaveri, daughter of Danava Mura.
Capital : Alagapuri in Kailash in the Himalayas
Plane owned by him – Pushpaka
Attendents – Kinnara, Kimpurusha, Thurangavathana: and Mayu:
Treasures held by him : Nidhi:, Sevadhi:, Bedha, Padmanidhi, Sanganidhi

Navanidhi of Kubera:Nine Kinds of Treasures
Mahapadma, Padma, Sankha, Makara:, Kachchapa:, Mukunda:, Kunda/Nanda, Neela, Kharba

2200 year old Kubera in West Bengal

Story of Kubera
Kubera was the half brother of Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Sri Lanka. Ravana drove him out and confiscated his Pushpaka airplane. Then Kubera migrated to Tibet in the Himalayas. Even Buddhists scriptures like Mahavamsa confirmed the presence of Yakshas in Sri Lanka. They were there even before Vijaya landed in Sri Lanka. And Vijaya’s first wife Kuvenna belonged to Yaksha race. This shows that there is historical information in Hindu mythology.

Mahabharata says that Kuvera (Kubera) was the son of Pulastya, but the sage being offended with with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma reproduced the half of himself in the form of Visravas and had Ravana and other children.

He is the guardian deity of North. Hindus worship him when they install Yaga Kunda (Fire Pit). He is compared with Pluto, the God of Underworld in classical mythology.

Yaksha Stamp of India

He is very short and with a big belly. He is decorated with lot of ornaments. He is also known as Mayuraja (King of Kinnaras), Ratna garba( Belly of jewels),Nara raja (King of men), Ichchavasu (who has wealth at will) and Isasakhi (Friend of Siva). In the Vedas (Atharva Veda and Satapata Brahmana) he is shown as chief of the evil beings or spirits. He is shown with a mongoose. He carries a money bag and a pomegranate. He is worshiped by the Jains and Buddhists as well. Hindus always identify him with wealth. He is proverbial for anyone with wealth.

Hindus worship Kubera with magic square of numbers (Yantras) and mantras.

Japanese also worship Kubera as Bishomonten. Japanese god of rice Daikoku also looks like Kubera. Kubera figures are found in Thailand and other countries.
Kubera in Nepal

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