Rig Vedic King and Sumerian King 2600 BCE!

Sumerian fish god

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1411; Dated 14th November 2014.

Are Matsya Sammata in the Satapata Brahmana,
Dumuzi in the Sumerian King list,
Tammuz in the Bibile,
Sumuka of Manu Smriti ,
Maha Sammata of Mahavamsa, one and the same?
Yes, they are same!

Matsya Sammada is a mysterious name in the Satapata Brahmana. Rig Veda (RV 7-18-6) has a reference to a fish, but no one knows whether it is a fish or a King of Matsya Kingdom. Fortunately Satapata Brahmana (800 BCE) throws more light on this king. Vedic Index of Keith and Macdonell gives the following meaning for the word:–

“Sammada= descendant of Sammada; is the patronymic of mythical Matsya in the Satapata Brahmana 13-4,3,12.
For Sammada Angirasa it says descendant of Angiras. It is the name of a sage or a Saman hymn in Panchavimsa Brahmana 15-5-11”

“Satapata Brahmana Xiii 4,3,12 says King Matsya Sammada and his people are water dwellers. This cannot refer to Matsya country for their country was anything but watery. It appears in Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana about a Rishi called Saubhari. He saw a happy fish(man). He married fifty daughters of Mandhata”.
Satapata Brahmana gives another name of a Matsya King, Dhvasan Dvaitavana .
In short there was a king named Matsya Sammada, long ago.


From Manu Smriti

Manu Smriti gives a list of bad kings in 7-41 and one of them is Sumuka. No one knows anything about this Sumuka. But this is found in Sumerian lieterature ( See my earlier post: “Sanskrit Words in Sumerian Culture: Sumukan Mystery “ – posted on 12 May 2014)

Mahavamsa (chapter 2) says that Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha, was born in the race of a great sage called Maha sammata. Nobody knows who he was.

Sumerian king list has two kings with the name Dumuzi. One was a shepherd and the second one was a ‘’fisherman’’. He ruled from Uruk around 2600 BCE just before the legendary Gilgamesh. His city was Kuara and he captured En-mer-baragesi single handed, says the cuneiform inscription. He ruled for 100 years. Dumuzi’s name is used for God, Goddess and several other people in Sumeria. So there is confusion about who did what.Indra in the Rig Veda is a god as well as a title for the king.Foreign scholars interpreted the hymns according to their whims and fancies. In the same way Dumuzi is also interpreted variously.

Dumuzi is also called Tammuz in Sumerian literature and the Bible (Ezekiel). There are lot of things about him like the visit to underworld, Resurrection, Women Weeping for him similar to Hindu Mahabali’s Onam (Kerala) story and Kaman Festival (Manmatha burning by Shiva and Rathi’s lament). Actually it is a Spring festival, saying good bye to cold and drought.

But our Dumuzi is not the consort of Inana or Ishtar, but a historical Dumuzi in the King’s list. His name corresponds with Matsya Sammada. Both are fisherman (Matsya in Sanskrit means Fish).

Both are nearer to the time of Great Floods. In other words he is linked to the Flood story. Flood story is in every ancient culture. He may be the one who asked Manu (Nova in Bible) to select the best species from the world to survive the floods. But I don’t want to go deeper into the story and compare each and every detail.


Other than the fish and the floods, Dumuzi was also a gate keeper in the heaven according to the Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. And in Hindu agama Kumara Tantram, Sumukan was one of the two Dwara Palaks (gate keepers).

Sumerian kings were ritually married to Sumerian goddess Inana. There the kings are identified with Dumuzi. There are a number of rituals attached with different Dumuzis. One must be careful to compare Dumuzi with anything else.

Tammuz is Sumkua in Sanskrit (T and S are interchangeable in many words. See English words with tion ending pronounced sion).

My point is that there are amazing similarities between Dumuzi and Sumuka at one level and Dumuzi and Sammada at another level. Tammuz has been already identified with Dumuzi by all the scholars in the field. To sum it up, Dumuzi, Tammuz, Sumuka, Sammada and fish (Matsya) king are all one and the same. Since fisherman king Dumuzi ruled from Uruk at 2600 BCE we may give the same age to Matsya Sammada.


What are the implications?

Mr S B Roy has identified Emissum of Larsa with the Emusa of our Puranas and gave him a date of 2000 BCE. Emusa’s name occurs in the Varaha Avatara story. This Dumuzi is associated with earlier Fish/Matsya Avatar and so the date 2600 BCE is reasonable (The date of Dumuzi is taken from Wikipedia).
Does it mean that Hindu Varaha Avatara and Matsya Avatara took place in Sumeria?

The answer is YES and NO.

Since Sumerians are considered migrants from a foreign country by many scholars, the story must have happened in India and they took their memory to Sumeria. Another possibility is that a section of Sumerians might have migrated and settled in India and their story got amalgamated into Hindu Puranas.
The interesting thing in the study is the occurrence of Sanskrit words Sumuka, Emusa, Su Meru, Tiamat, Azigi, Vizigi (of Athrvana Veda)in the Sumerian literature. Since there are 60,000 lines of Sumerian inscriptions, the more we study them, the more similarities may come to the fore.

Read my earlier articles on the same subject:
Mysterious Fish God around the World (posted on 27 October 2012)
3000 Gods in Mesopotamia! Similar to Hindus ( 18Sept.2014)
Did Indra attack Sumeria?
Hindu Vahanas in Iraq
Sanskrit words in Sumerian culture: Sumukan Mystery (12 May 2014)

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Mysterious Fish Gods around the World



The Story of Floods is in every culture. The first incarnation of Hindu God  Vishnu known as Matsya Avatar (Fish Incarnation) has spread to different parts of the world. We read about it in Sumerian Atrahasis /Ziusudra/Gilgamesh, Biblical Nova and other cultures including Mayan culture. One fact is very clear in all these stories. There was a civilization before. That civilization was very good in Marine Engineering. They were able to build a big ship so as to accommodate all the species. The thought of preservation for the posterity was also there. So it must be an intelligent society. Otherwise they would have perished without trace. Now who was that intelligent person or god who instructed them to build a ship? That person must be a scientist and must have Tsunami monitoring equipments. Otherwise he couldn’t have forecast a catastrophic event. All fingers point to India. No one has that intelligence in maths or calculation in those times.

1. Every other culture stopped with fish and flood story. But Hindus developed it logically to Ten Incarnations of Lord Vishnu. From water born fish they took it to amphibian turtle. From Amphibian turtle, they took it to the next level of land animals- ‘pig’ avatar. Then half man half animal (Lion) Narasimha avatar, then humans with more and more intelligence. They beat Darwin by 2000 years in proposing the Theory of Evolution. That is why I said only a Hindu mind can do it. The mathematical (decimal) calculations in the Vedas and the invention of Game of Chess show that we could do it.

2. Hindus First in Biology

The Hindu classification of plants and animals as 84 lakhs is the closest to science. The latest count is 8.7 million (87 Lakhs) species of plants and animals on earth. Hindus had an amazing knowledge about this number, thousands of years before our time. It is a big puzzle to modern science. No wonder we were able to forecast a big rise in sea level—Great Floods.

In Hindu myth, Lord Vishnu took the form of a fish in order to save Manu, the ancestral father of the human race. Every Manvantara (Period of one Manu=306,720,000 years) will have a new Manu.

3. Sumerians, Mayans and Egyptians say that they did not belong to the land they lived. Either they said that they came from a far off place or someone from a far off place came and taught them civilization. Another strange thing about this Great Floods is that this happened in South India. Sanskrit and Tamil Books are unanimous in pointing the direction to south. Tirugnana Sambandha, a Saivaite saint who lived 1400 years ago, even called his own place Sirkazi as Thonipuram (Boat Town). He sang about the great floods and he praised Lord Shiva for making the town safe during the deluge.

4. The gradual development of Fish to fully fledged, civilized man show that the story started its circulation from Indian soil. The scriptures and sculptures stand as a proof. Hindus believed that TIME is cyclical. Civilizations start from Golden age (Krita Yuga) and deteriorate into Kali Yuga/Black age. So even before the Great Floods, there was civilization.

5. Fish Gods

Apart from Matsya Avatar of Lord Vishnu, we hear about other Fish Gods such as Oannes, Dagon and Sindhi saint. Berossus (Vararuchi ?) was a scholar/priest who lived in Babylon in 3rd century BC. He wrote the history of Babylonia. He gave us the story of Oannes. Oannes was a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom. He had the body of fish, but underneath the figure of a man. He taught arts, science and writing. Oannes came from the Uanna, another name for Adapa. Akkadian connects this word to Um Manu. I guess this name as Indian Law Giver Manu. Adapa was a sage according to Sumerian legends. Going by this version I will take it as Manu or a sage from India who taught them Manu Dharma.

Berossus said that the half man-half fish creature was attended by other monsters called Apkallu. Apkallus are Sapta Rishis of India. The Sumerian legend says Seven Apkallus (sages) were created by Enki to establish culture and give civilization to mankind.

First King Narmer ( Nara Meru also knowns as Menes=Manu) was called Catfish Chisel. In other words he was also called a fish. Perch fish was sacred to Goddess Neith.


He was called Dagon in the Bible. He was worshipped throughout the near east from 2500 BC. He was considered god of rain, corn and death. The kings of third dynasty of Ur established for Dagan an official state cult and a sanctuary to him was constructed at Nippur. From fourth century AD, he was considered a fish god.

7.Sindhi Saint on Fish

Sindhi saint Jhulelal is depicted riding a fish. He saved the Sindhi people from a tyrannical ruler called Mirkshah. He was considered a man sent by Vedic God Varuna. He convinced the ruler that God is one and he is common to everyone.


8.Turtle Gods

Following the fish come turtles in the Hindu myths. When the Devas and demons churned the ocean god took the form of a turtle (Kurma) and gave stability. He supported the mountain Mandara that acted as the churning rod while Vasuki the snake was used as the rope. This turtle also figured in the world of mythology in the names of Ao (China), Ataentsic (North America), Bedawang (Bali, Indonesia), Gong Gong (China), Sciron (Greece), Xbalanque and Hunaphu (Mayan Twins).

The Atlas like Mayan deity Pauahtun who supported the world on his shoulders is sometime depicted wearing a turtle shell on his head. Turtle shells are also associated with altars in some contexts, and the maize god is sometimes shown emerging from turtle shell.

9.I reproduce the following passages from my earlier post, ”SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION AND MAGIC SQUARE ON TORTOISE”:

Hindu Gods are associated with all the important birds and animals. They are associated with insects and reptiles as well. Take any animal whether it is elephant or rhino, snake or scorpion, fish or crocodile, eagle or crow, boar or tortoise —they are all associated with Hindu gods. We see it in the Vedas, in the Indus valley civilization and in the temple Vahanas. But when we read that even the Chinese, Mongolians and other cultures believed in such things we raise our brows. When we see Sanskrit inscription on a tortoise statue,that too in the remotest part of the world, we are wonder struck!!

Kurmavatar, the Tortoise incarnation of Vishnu is the oldest tortoise we know. But we have even Rishis (seers) in the name of frog (manduka)owl (Uluka) and tortoise (Kasyapa)in Vedic literature. Kasyapa is one of the Vedic Rishis. Kasyapa means tortoise. Kashmir is named after Kasyapa Rishi. Kumaon hills in the Himalayas is named after Kurma Avatar. If you read the history of Kashmir and Kumaon in Uttaranchal state you will find more surprising things. We have Kurmavatar statues in Kahajuraho Lakshman temple (M.P) and Osiyan temple in Rajasthan. One exclusive temple for Kurmavatar is near Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh .


Three thousand years ago a Chinese king found a turtle with a magic square on its back. The magic square will add up to number fifteen whichever way you add the numbers. From that day it was considered a lucky square and people believe that they will get money etc. It is called Lo Shu. Hindus also believe this as money making square and call it Kubera Kolam. Egyptians and Hindus used the magic squares. Even the Vedic mathematics has magic squares.

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