VALLUVAR’S TIRUKKURAL AND KAMA SASTRA COMPARED (Post No.4539)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 24 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-35 am

 

 

Post No. 4539

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 5 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar ; in this Kamasastra is compared with Tirukkural along with other books.

 

Please read first four parts posted in the past few days and continue here:–

 

So far we have seen the comparison between Tiru Valluvar’s Tirukkural with Bhagavad Gita, Manu Smrti, Arthasastra of Kautilya/Chanaya, Kamandaki, Ramayana and Mahabharata. In this section we will look at the Parnellism between the Kamasastra in Sanskrit with Tirukkural

 

Following is from the book Studies in Tamil Literature by V R Ramachandra Dikshitar:

 

Book III of Tirukkural- Kaamattuppaal

 

There are two views with regard to this particular section. One is that Valluvar gives expression to purely Tamil aspect of Kama (sexual desire). According to this whole can be conveniently divided into Kalaviyal and Karpiyal, and these again are based on the five tinais peculiar to the Tamils.

 

But the celebrated commentator of the Kural, Parimel azagarwould again find correspondences between this subject of the subject and that in Sanskrit literature. According to that authority, Kalaviyal and Karpiyal correspond to the Samyoga and Vipralambha of the KAMASUTRA treatises.

 

In the Karpiyal section again Parimelaalagar would find corresponding terms for the different incidents like

Selavu =Pravasa

Arraamai= Viraaga

Viduppu = Ayogam

and Pulavi= Maanam.

The Sanskritists add the fifth incident Saapa.

As this is quite uncommon , says the commentator, Valluvar did not include it in his treatment of the subject. While the Chapter 116 Pirivarraamai is devoted to selavu, the chapters (117-126) deal with the Arraamai.

 

Viduppu is dealt within three chapters (127-129), while the last four chapters (130-133) are devoted to the incident of Pulavi.

 

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Porutpaal continued…………………

Kural 586 to 589 ( Spies/ Detectives)

 

As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,

A spy whatever men do must watchful mind display.

 

A spy must search each hidden matter out

And full report must render, free from doubt.

 

Spying by spies, the things they tell,

To test by other spies is well.

 

One spy must not another see: contrive it so;

And things by three confirmed as truth you know

 

The Arthasastra has the following:

The king shall send fraudulent and ascetic spies who have been tried for their loyalty and skill.

The class of officers who went by the name of Tiiksanas ascertained their outward conduct. The satri spies carried this information to the district quarters. The residential officers therein made it known to the headquarters through signs and cipher writings. This is to be done without the knowledge of the respective samsthas. If the information is corroborated by three independent sources, it is taken to be confirmed.

(Book 1, Chap.11 and 12)

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Kural 581 (Spies)

These two: the code renowned, and spies

n these let king confide as eyes

 

Tha Kamandaki saysA king should get at the movements of the adversary through the medium of his cautious and secret spies. That king one of whose eyes is caara or the spy is awake even in sleep (13-29)

 

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Kural 602 and 604 (Sloth)

Let indolence, the death of effort, die,

If you’d uphold your household’s dignity.

His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,

Who, sunk in sloth,  for noble objects doth not strive

 

The Bhagavd Gita gives similar ideas:

Know, og Bharata, inertia born of ignorance and the deluder of all beings, is bound by sloth, indolence and sleep (BG 14-8)

 

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Kural 628 and 630 (Fortitude)

He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;

Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes

 

Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire

The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.

 

The Gita says similarly,

You grieve for things not fit to be grieved for and yet indulge in wise sayings. The wise never grieve either for the living or for the dead.

 

He who sees his self in everything and looks upon pleasure and pain equally, is a perfect Yogi

–BG 2-11 and 6-32

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Kural 631 (Ministers)

A minister is who grasps, with wisdom large,

Means ,time, work’s mode and functions rare he must discharge

 

The Arthasastra says,

The ministers shall engage in the following five duties: commencing a work, finding out resources, fixing it according to place and time, protecting against possible dangers, and final consummation Book 1-15

 

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Kural 645 and 646 (Eloquence)

Speaking out your speech, when once it is past dispute

That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.

 

Charming each hearer’s ear, of others words to seize the sense

Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.

 

A good illustration of this maxim is found in the Mahabharata. Here the kingdom is threatened with a invasion, the king goes to the country and begs for war loans and benevolences by speaking out in sweet, soft and convincing style.

–Santi Parva 88,26,34

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Kural 669, 670 (Firmness)

Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,

And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.

 

The world desires not men of every power possessed,

Who powers in act desires not, crown of all the rest

 

is expressed in other words by the Bhagavad Gita:

Do not get vexed. This is unbecoming of one like yourself. Give up the detestable weakness of the heart and gird up, oh slayer of foes –BG 2-3; 4-20

 

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Kural 681, 682, 683, 684 (AMBASSADOR)

 

Benevolence, high birth, the courtesy kings love

These qualities the envoy of a king approve

 

Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things

Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.

 

Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be

Midst javelin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory

Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite

Who hath these three for envoy’s task is fit.

 

similar ideas are expressed by the law giver Manu:

The king shall appoint him an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who can read the gestures and signs, pure, skilled, of noble family

That ambassador, who is loyal, honest, intelligent of excellent memory, who acts according to time and place, of good physique, bold and possessed of good powers of speech is applauded – Manu 7-63/64

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Kural 685, 686, 688, 689, 690 (AMBASSADOR)

In the Kural

In term, concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word

An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord

 

An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye

Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency

In the Athasastra,

The message is to be delivered in toto, even at the cost of life……….When questioned by the enemy king as to the strength of the lord’s forces, pretend ignorance and simply say, you know better! – Book 1-16

 

Again in the Kural,

Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness;

Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.

 

His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,

Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king

 

Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;

The envoy gains assured advantage for his king

 

The Rajaniti Rantnakara quotes Sukra,

The ambassador, though a mlechcha, shall not be killed

Hence the duta/ambassador is the king’s eye. Even when the arms are raised aloft in the act of striking him, he should faithfully deliver his message.

 

From the words of the duta/amabassador who would think of his own defects and of enemy’s strength? For the duta  speak always anything he thinks – page 46 of Rajanitiratnakara

 

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Kural 698, 699, 700 (On Serving the King)

Say not, ‘He is young, my kinsman’ despising thus your king;

But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.

The following may be parallel,

A king should not be despised even though a child. he is a great divinity in the form of a man Manu 7-8

In the Kural, we have gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do

So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.

 

Wh think we are ancient friends, and do unseemly things;

To these familiarity sure ruin brings.

 

Similar ideas are found in the following discussion in the Arthasastra,

says Bhardvaja,

The king shall appoint as his ministers his classmates as he would have understood their honesty and tact. They could be easily trusted. No says Visalaksha, ‘as playmates they would not respect him. He shall therefore appoint those whose secrets are well known to him. Possessed of conduct and defects in common with the king those do not entertain harm lest their secrets should be divulged. This is very common, says Parasara, for the king may follow them in their good and bad actions lest his own secrets be divulged Arthasastra Book 1, Chap.8

 

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Kural 731, 732 (A Prosperous Nation)

The Kural defines,

Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,

Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land.

 

That is a land which men desire for wealth’s abundant share,

Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare

Baudhayana says:

A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass and garlands are plentiful, access to which is easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people and where Aryans (noblemen) form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers—Baudhayana 2-3-51

S B E Volume 14 pages 243/4

Kural 737 (Nation)

What the Kural says,

Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;

These make a land with fortress sure defence

 

is also mentioned by Kautilya

The fortress of rivers and mountains are sources of defence to the country parts.

Arthasastra Book 2-3

Chapter 74 of Kural entitled Nation corresponds roughly to the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

Durga= Fortress

Chapter 75 of Kural entitled Fortification corresponds roughly to the the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

 

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Kural 751 (WEALTH)

Nothing exists, save wealth, that can

Change man of nought to worthy man

is tus explained in the Ramayana

To a man of wealth, there are friends, and relatives. He is the worthy man of the world, and becomes a Pandita. He is a man of prowess and wisdom. He is a great man of good qualities.

Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana chap.83-35/36

 

Kural 760

What the Kural says,

Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,

By them the other two are easily obtained

 

is explained thus by Vaatsyaayana,

Between wealth and kingdom, wealth is superior. Though the means of wealth, Lokayaatraa and Kaama are realised. This is the position of Trivarga.

–Kamasutra book 1-2-15/17

 

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Kural 861 (ENEMIES)

With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;

With weaker shun not, rather court the fray

Kautilya prescribes,

Court agreement of peace with equal and superior foes. Fight with the weaker.

–Book 7-3

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Kural 920 (PROSTITUTES)

According to the Kural:

Women of double minds, strong drink and dice;

to these given over,

Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.

 

In the Arthasastra,

Public censure and loss of wealth are due to Kama ( desire).

….Kama comprises hunting, gambling, women and drinking.

–Book 7-3

 

In the chapter on the Purusa vyasana varga, Kautilya referes to the four-fold vice under the category of Kama. These are hunting, gambling, women and drinking. The effects of these evil habits are discussed I detail. Tiruvalluvar, on the other hand devotes two chapters on the Vyasanas of women (91being ruled by the wife, 92 prostitutes) one chapter ( 93 ) on drinking and one chapter on (94) gambling. Apparently, the author of the Kural does not treat hunting as such a vice as the other three. In fact hunting is recognised as a valuable form of exercise to kings by Kalidasa in his Sakuntala. Nor is Kautilya unaware of its beneficial effects.

Arthasastra book 8-3

 

My comments:

V R R Dikshitar has done very good research in Tirukkural. I have not seen any such comparisons in any other book. One must be a good scholar in both Sanskrit and Tamil and well read. I have already given my comparisons of Dhammapada and Tirukkural, Panchatantra and Tirukkural in separate articles.

 

—SUBHAM–

Valentine Day and Hinduism

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By London Swaminathan
Post No.840 Date.14th February 2014 (valentine day)

“ And of feminine beings I am fame (Kirti), prosperity (Sri), speech (Vak), memory (Smrti), intelligence (Medha), firmness (Dhrti) and patience (Kshama) – Bhagavad Gita 10—34

47 years ago, I and my brothers attended a meeting organised at Madurai Victoria Edward Hall (also known as Regal Talkies). Dr Ushar Budh of Sanskrit Department of Minnesota University addressed the gathering (Later he has become a Sanyai). He gave us an inspiring talk. He quoted some hymns from the Vedas and challenged the crowd to show a more beautiful love duet from any Indian film. Hindus never saw sex as a taboo, unlike other religions. But they were against any public display of it, which we see in today’s Western Valentine Day parties.

Marriage Hymns

The Vedic hymns used in the Hindu weddings are beautiful ones. They praise the bride as a Maha Rani (Great queen/Empress.

A few Vedic Wedding Mantras
सखा सप्तपदा भव ।
सखायौ सप्तपदा बभूव ।
सख्यं ते गमेयम् ।
सख्यात् ते मायोषम् ।
सख्यान्मे मयोष्ठाः ।

You have walked seven steps with me; be my friend. We have walked seven steps together; let us be friends. Let me get your friendship. Let me not part from your friendship. May you not part from my friendship. [ Note: This is recited by the groom after taking the seven steps around the altar. (विवाह कर्मकाण्ड – vivaaha karmakaaNDa) ]

— ॐ —
धैरहं पृथिवीत्वम् ।
रेतोऽहं रेतोभृत्त्वम् ।
मनोऽहमस्मि वाक्त्वम् ।
सामाहमस्मि ऋकृत्वम् ।
सा मां अनुव्रता भव ।

I am the sky and you are the earth. I am the giver of energy and you are the receiver. I am the mind and you are the word. I am (saama) music and you are the song (RRik). You and I follow each other. [ Note: This is recited by the groom after taking the seven steps around the altar. (विवाह कर्मकाण्ड – vivaaha karmakaaNDa) ]

— ॐ —
चित्तिरा उपबर्हणं चक्षुरा अभ्यञ्जनम् ।
ध्यौर्भूमिः कोश आसीद्यदयात्सूर्या पतिम् ॥

Thought was pillow; and the sight the collyrium of the eyes; heaven and earth were her treasure box, when Surya went to her spouse.
(Matras are taken from samskrutam.com;thanks).

Sex is sanctified in Hinduism. We can sing sexy songs like Gita Govindam in public. We can enact sexy acts in street corner dances known as Kama Dahanam, one day before Holi.

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Lover/Beloved simile in Bhagavad Gita

Even in a religious book like the Bhagavad Gita we read a simile about lover and beloved! Arjuna says (11-44):
Therefore bowing down and prostrating my body before you, Adorable Lord, I seek thy grace. Thou ,O God shouldst bear with me as a father to his son, as a friend to his friend, as a lover to his beloved.
These human relations find in God their fullest realization and later Vaishnava literature utilizes these ideas more fully, says Dr Radhakrishnan in hiss Gita commentary.

Rishi Status to sex writer
Vatsyayana , author of the Kamasutra and grammarian Panini were given the status of divine poets. No other religion gives so much importance to sex. But they always keep it within a limit. Family life is one of the four stages of a human being’s life. Brahmacharya, Grihastha (Married life), Vanaprastha (retired or forest life) and Sanyasa ( renunciation) are the four stages prescribed in Hindu scriptures.

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Dharma Artha Kama & Moksha
Hindu’s four goals in life are Dharma (religious law) Artha (wealth) Kama (Pleasure) & Moksha (liberation). The great Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar also divided his book Tirukkural into three parts Dharma, Artha and Kama in the same order. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam also refers to it. They never excluded Kama/ pleasure through married life.

Sex in Tamil Veda Tirukkural

Tiru Valluvar, author of Tirukkural, used the Sanskrit word Kama though out his book (Kama gave the English word Amorous). Early Christian missionaries refused to translate the third chapter of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural, written around 5th century AD (31 BC is a fake date given by the Tamil enthusiasts. See my earlier posts).

The last couplet in the book runs like this,
Sweet are quarrels in love when the quarrels end in the bliss of a close embrace — Kural 1330
Is there a heaven happier than the sulking here of hearts that unite in love like water and earth — Kural 1323.

Roman poet Publius terentius afer (190-159 BC) sais in Latin
‘Amarantium irae amoris integrationist’

“The quarrels of lovers are the renewal of love.” Andria. Act iii. Sc. 3, 23. (555.)
Another quote giving the same view

The quarrels of lovers are like summer showers, that leave the country more verdant and beautiful.
—Madame Necker

Gita Govindam of Jayadeva
Jeyadeva’s Gita Govindam is sung in all the traditional Bhajans in South India. Some of them are considered very sexy. But that was divine love, far above the carnal love. Swami Vivekananda, in his lecture on Gopi’s , says that their love towards Krishna was divine. Even to understand this love one’s heart must be as pure as Sukha’s, Vyasa’s son. Incidentally the earliest reference to Gopis is in the 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature!

tamil puu parithal

The devotional movement laid several paths to reach God. One can see God as his master or a lover or a friend. In the Nayaka- Nayaki (hero/heroine) Bhava one can see God as a lover. In Tamil Nadu Saivite and Vaishnavite girls fast during a particular month (December/January) singing the glory of Shiva and Vishnu as lovers. Manikka Vasagar’s Tiruvembavai and Andal’s Tiruppavai have such songs.

Though we have some sex manual in Greek and songs similar to Nayaka/Nayaki in the Bible, they were no comparison to what we have here in Sanskrit and Tamil literature.

Love marriage is one of the eight types marriage approved by the Hindu scriptures. Swayamvaram, which is not found anywhere in the world, is a unique Hindu way of a woman choosing her would be husband from among her suitors. This was mainly done by the royal families.

Except the public display of sex, all the modern methods were tried and tested in India.

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from the news papers and Souvenirs.

Techniques of Secret Writing in India

Techniques of Secret Writing in India

During war times and military expeditions, army personnel use coded language so that the enemies wouldn‘t understand the message. But in the ancient world this secret language was used for different purposes. According to encyclopaedias it was used in Egypt 5000 years ago followed by Greece. Though the Vedic seers sang that they delight speaking in secret language we are not able to give concrete examples. Scholars have acknowledged the symbolism in the Vedas, but not the encrypted language.

 

When Vyasa requested Lord Ganesh to write the longest epic in the world, Lord Ganesh agreed to do it on a condition. He will have to write it without stopping. If it all Vyasa couldn’t compose the couplets that fast, he has to find another person to do the job. Clever Vyasa agreed to do it, but put one condition to Lord Ganesh that he should write only when he understood what he wrote. There started the puzzles, encrypted language etc. Once again we have no proof for the puzzles or encrypted language from Mahabharata, though this story is popular. Ancient Hindus followed a system called Katapayadi system to remember the words  and numbers easily. This system assigned letters to numerals. No 18= JaYa (old name of Mahabharata).

Personally I think the coded language evolved in India and I will attribute the above facts as a proof for this.

But Dr.Simon Sing, a London based author, gives concrete example of encrypted language in his book ‘The Code Book’. It is very interesting that we have the first example in the sex manual- Kama Sutra!

64 Arts for Women

Following is an excerpt from his book:

“ One of the earliest descriptions of encryption by substitution appears in the Kama Sutra, a text written in the fourth century AD by the Brahmin scholar Vatsyayana, but based on manuscripts dating back to fourth century BC. The Kama sutra recommends that women should study 64 arts, such as cooking dressing, massage and preparation of perfumes. The list also includes some less obvious arts, namely conjuring, chess, book binding and carpentry. Number 45 on the list is Mlechita-vikalpa, the art of secret writing, advocated in order to help women conceal the details of their liaisons. One of the recommended techniques is to pair letters of the alphabet at random, then substitute each letter in the original message with its partner. If we apply the principle to the Roman alphabet, we could pair letters as follows:

A D H I K M O R S U W Y Z

V X B G J C  Q L  N E  F P  T

Then, instead of MEET AT MIDNIGHT, the sender would write CU UZ VZ CGXSGIBZ. This form of secret writing is called a substitution cipher because each letter in the plaintext is substituted for a different letter, thus acting in a complimentary way to the transposition of cipher. In transposition each letter retains its identity but changes its position, where as in substitution each letter change its identity but retains its position.

 

The first documented use of substitution cipher for military purposes appears in Julius Caesar’s Gallic Wars. Caesar describes how he sent a message to Cicero, who was besieged and on the verge of surrendering”.

Lot of interesting anecdotes are in the book. Simon Sing’s another popular book is The Fermat’s Last theorem.

Please read my earlier posts

  1. Hindu’s Magic Numbers 18, 108, 1008
  2. Love Letters from Ancient India
  3. பார்ப்பனிக்கு வடமொழிச் சீட்டு

 

Sex Mantras and Talismans in Egypt and Atharva Veda

Picture: This is a symbol from Atharva Veda

 

This is Part 5 in Indo-Egyptian Connections. Please read

part 1. Did Indians build Egyptian Pyramids?

Part 2. Vedas and Egyptian Pyramid Texts

3. Vishnu in Egyptian Pyramids

4. Hindu Gods in Egyptian Pyramids

before reading this 5th part: London Swaminathan.

 

During Valentine Day and other occasions girls and women are sent cards with the picture of an arrow piercing the heart of a woman. Though many of us are familiar with such Greeting Cards, a lot of people don’t know this symbol has come from the Atharva Veda. Throughout Sanskrit literature we read Manmathan, God Of Love, shooting five arrows made up of flowers to pierce the heart of a lover. We see it first in the Vedas in the earliest time. The concept of Cupid’s arrow has travelled to different parts of the world from India.

Hindus scored many firsts in the world: First Grammar book in the world—Ashtadyaye of Panini, First Sex Manual—Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, First Dictionary of Synonyms—Amarakosham of Amarasimhan, First religious Book- Rig Veda, First Maths Book with Pythagoras Theorem etc by Bodhayana, First Logic Book …………I can keep on adding over 100 Firsts. But that is beyond the scope of this article.

Read the Atharva Veda Mantra given below and note the words Heart, Arrow etc.

 

 

III, 25. Charm to arouse the passionate love of a woman.

1. May (love), the disquieter, disquiet thee; do not hold out upon thy bed! With the terrible arrow of Kâma (love) do I pierce thee in the heart.
2. The arrow, winged with longing, barbed with love, whose shaft is undeviating desire, with that, well-aimed, Kâma shall pierce thee in the heart!
3. With that well-aimed arrow of Kâma which parches the spleen, whose plume flies forward, which burns up, do I pierce thee in the heart.
4. Consumed by burning ardour, with parched mouth, do thou (woman) come to me, pliant, (thy) pride laid aside, mine alone, speaking sweetly and to me devoted!
5. I drive thee with a goad from thy mother and thy father, so that thou shalt be in my power, shalt come up to my wish.
6. All her thoughts do ye, O Mitra and Varuna, drive out of her! Then, having deprived her of her will put her into my power alone!

II, 30. Charm to secure the love of a woman.

1. As the wind tears this grass from the surface of the earth, thus do I tear thy soul, so that thou, woman, shalt love, shalt not be averse to me!
2. If ye, O two Asvins, shall unite and bring together the loving pair-united are the fortunes of, both of you (lovers), united the thoughts, united the purposes!
3. When birds desire to chirp, lustily desire to chirp, may my call go there, as an arrow-point upon the shaft!
4. What is within shall be without, what is without shall be within! Take captive, O herb, the, soul of the maidens endowed with every charm!
5. Longing for a husband this woman hath come, I have come longing for a wife, As a loudly neighing horse I have attained to my good fortune!

(Translation by Maurice Bloomfield, Year 1897).

Now read the Egyptian ‘Mantra’:

We have seen the attributes of Egyptian God Thoth in the Fifth part of this series. One other attribute of Thoth is his skill in magic. Thoth knew magic spells. It was known that he possessed spells such as this one, which was cast to ensure that one’s love was returned: “should she drink, eat or sleep with anyone else, I shall cast upon her ear, I shall cast a spell upon her breath, I shall cast a spell upon her three physical apertures; but in particular I shall cast a spell upon her vulva, which I wish to penetrate, until she comes to me and until I know what is in her heart, what she has been doing, what she is thinking of now, immediately, immediately’ (National Library, Paris, Greek Manuscript, IV 147-153).

 

 

Picture: T shirt with Manmatha’s arrow as described in Atharva Veda

AC Das View

A.C.Das showed that the Egyptian religion has a close similarity with the worship of gods –Siva, Kama and Kalaratri. He thought it is probable that the Egyptians had the knowledge of a god equivalent to Brahma ( AC Das –Rig Vedic India, Vol.II,Ch.XII). Das believed that the Egyptians migrated from Pandyan Kingdom in the transition from Vedic to Puranic periods.

Double statue of Amenemhet III (1844-1797 BC) has fish emblem like the Pandyas of Tamil Nadu.

Daksha -Shiva clash in Egypt

Indians are very familiar with the clash between Daksha and Lord Shiva. This story is also found in Egyptian literature in a slightly different way. Once when Daksha performed a big Yagna (Fire Sacrifice), Sati went to attend it uninvited. Daksha spoke to her rudely insulting her husband Shiva in front all those assembled. Sati (Parvati) was so upset that she jumped into fire rather than hearing the insults. Hearing this, Shiva became furious and destroyed the Yaga of Daksha. He carried his wife’s body on his shoulder like an insane person. Vishnu pacified his anger after cutting the body of Sati with his Sudarsana chakra (Boomerang used by Vishnu). Sati’s body parts fell in different parts of the country and those places became holy shrines of Goddess Shakti.

Egyptian Version:

Osiris was one of the oldest gods of Egypt. He was worshipped for 3400 years until 400 AD. He was compared with Lord Shiva. His parents were Geb and Nut. He was born with four siblings including his sister Isis, who became his consort. His adversary was Seth. Isis gave birth to god Horus by impregnating herself with the semen of Osiris after his death. Seth found Osiris body and cut into 14 pieces and scattered them along the Nile valley. But Seth missed Osris’ penis. Isis found all the parts and buried them at the sites of various sanctuaries. She restored the penis with replica which became the focus of Osirian cult. This is similar to our Shiva Linga worship.

Both the Shiva –Daksha clash and Osiris- Seth clash are symbolical stories. The scattering of the body parts was allegorized with the winnowing and scattering of grains in the fields.

Jain Statues and Egyptian Statues

Jain Thirtankara statues in India look like Egyptian Pharaoh’s statues. Both the figures with bare and broad shoulders stand straight. No one can miss the similarities. We don’t know how this came about. Of the 14 Jain Manus, one of them was Ksemenkara. We have one pharaoh with the name Menkaure.

Nemi was one of the Puranic kings who mummified his body like the Egyptians. He was one of the 24 Jain Thirtankaras.

Abyados was the first capital of ancient Egypt. Peribsen was one of the pharaohs. All these names are similar to Jain names. The pharaohs’ names end with Sen, Khet or Athen. We have all these suffixes in India as Sena, Ketu and Athan. Mahabharata Who’s Who? gives scores of names with Sena and Ketu. Tamil Chera kings have Athan, Kuttuvan suffixes in their names. According to Puranas, Chakora was ruled by Chandra Ketu. We have a big city Saqquara in Egypt. In the earlier parts, I have dealt with the maze (Chakra) in the city.

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