Twelve Types of Sons- Kautilya (Post No.4977)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 


Date: 4 May 2018


Time uploaded in London – 7-04 am (British Summer Time)


Post No. 4977


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




Kautilya observes in his monumental work Arthasastra, that wives are indeed for bearing sons—Artha sastra 3-2
A husband with a barren wife is allowed to remarry. Hindus believed that a son is necessary to do the funeral rites so that the dead person can avoid a hell called ‘puth’. That’s why a son is called Puthra.

Medical Care (Maternity care)
In the days of Kautilya great medical care was available for pregnant ladies. The midwife attended to her. The state exempted midwives from curfew rules.2-35
The commodities required for confinement were exempted from tolls 2-21
A pregnant woman gets free ferry service 2-28.
Criminal law exempted her from physical torture during pregnancy and one month after delivery.

Kautilya talks about oblations offered to Indra and Brihaspati  for the welfare of the mother and baby.1-17

Greek Ambassador Megasthenes too says
“From the time of their conception in the womb they are under the guardian care of learned men, who go to the mother and under pretence of using some incantations, for the welfare of herself and her unborn baby in reality gives her prudent hints and counsel. The women who listen most willingly are thought to be the most fortunate in their children”.

Speaking of physicians, Megathenes records
“By their knowledge of pharmacy they can make marriage and determine the sex of the offspring”.



Various classes of sons are described by the Artha sastra (1-17) and they are

Son begotten by the husband on his wife who has gone through all the required ceremonials

Son of the appointed daughter
Son Begotten on a wife of a person by another man, appointed for the purpose, and of the same gotra as that of the husband or of a different gotra (clan)

Son secretly born in the house of relatives
Son cast off by his natural parents and to belong to that man who performs necessary religious ceremonials to him.

Son of an unmarried girl
Son of a woman married while carrying

Son of a remarried woman
He who is given in adoption with water by both the father and the mother (Hindus use water for giving, cursing etc)
Son who either of his own accord or following the the intention of his relatives, offers himself to be son of another
He who is appointed as a son
He who is purchased.



There are various other types of sons born of inter caste marriages

Kautilya was great in describing all the possibilities and allocating shares in the parental property.

It shows that the Hindu family system became very complex even during his time, 2300 years ago!

Source: Kautilya on Love and Morals by P C Chunder

— Subham —


Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 27 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London- 6-21 am



Post No. 4552

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks


The greatest statesman that India has ever produced is Chanakya. He was the man who established the mighty Magadha empire. Even the Greek king Alexander the Great returned to his homeland fearing the army of the Magadha empire. Though we don’t have any authentic report about the life history of Chanakya, we are able to piece together the materials that are available in dramas such as Mudra Rakshasa of Visakadatta and other word of mouth stories. One underlying thread in all these stories is that Chanakya was an astute politician. He did not hesitate to use Sama, Dana, Beda, Danda (peace, bribe, dissension and punish) to achieve his goal. He followed the policy of ‘tit for tat’ or tooth for tooth, blood for blood. He believed that diamond should be cut by a diamond and a thorn should be taken out by a thorn.


Here are few interesting stories: –


King Mahapadma Nanda had eight sons through his legal marriage and one son through his intimacy with a servant maid by name Mura. Her son was Maurya Chandra Gupta.


The rule of Nava/Nine Nandas was tyrannical. They were the embodiments of arrogance. They were against all the rituals and particularly Brahminical. Mahapadma Nanda was a modern Hiranyakasipu, the demon.


One day he went for a walk and stopped suddenly and laughed. A servant maid of the palace was coming in the opposite direction. Seeing the king laughing she also laughed. Nanda stopped her and asked the reason for her laugh. She was scared and dared not to answer his question. She told him that she would tell the reason later and ran away.


She wanted to give him a correct answer or an excuse and so she consulted lot of people; All her efforts were fruitless. She went to  minister Sakatara, who was in the jail. He helped her out. How?


Story of Minister Sakatara

Let us first read the story of Sakatara. He was a good minister but he was imprisoned on flimsy charges along with his wife and son. They were supplied meagre food in the prison and his wife and son died in course of time. He was waiting for an opportunity to take revenge upon the Nine Nandas.


To the maid who came to get his help he put two simple questions:

What was Mahapadma Nanda looking at when he laughed?

Where was he then?

The servant maid told Sakatara that the king was near a canal and he was looking at a big tree. Immediately Sakatara guessed the answer and told the lady the king was amused when he saw a tiny seed of that big tree floating in the water. He laughed at it thinking that how come a tiny seed could produce a big tree.


The maid was happy and went to see the king next day and gave him this answer. He was surprised to see that she got it right. But he knew that it was not the servant maid’s answer and wanted to find out who helped her. Through his spies he found out that this lady met Sakatara in the prison the previous day.


Now Mahapadma Nanda became soft and released the intelligent minister Sakatara. He was appointed the Head of the Department of Rituals.


One day Sakatara was walking along a village road and saw something strange. A Brahmin with a tuft was pouring sour buttermilk on some grass. As he was the head of rituals, he wanted to know what the Brahmin was doing. That Brahmin told Sakatara that he wanted to destroy the grass as it was made him to fall. Sakatara saw a point in his action and thought that this person would achieve his goal. He took him to Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar)  and used his service. There was a ceremony in the palace and this ‘no so good looking’ poor Brahmin was given a front seat.


Mahapadma Nada walked into the hall and saw an ugly Brahmin taking a seat in the front row. He pulled him out and threw him out of the hall. That Brahmin was Chanakya.

On that day Chanakya made a vow, “I wouldn’t tie my tuft of hair till I uproot this Nandas”.


Sakatara and Chanakya joined together and made big plans to uproot the Nandas. Nanda has a great minister by name Rakshasa. Chanakya spoiled all his efforts who tried to prop up the Nandas. Through a servant maid Chanakaya and Sakatara gave poisonous food to the Nine Nandas and all of them died at once. There was utter chaos in the kingdom.


Chanakya made a deal with the neighbouring kingdom of King Parvata. If he could capture Pataliputra he would get half the kingdom and the rest would be ruled by Chandragupta, the servant maid Mura’s son. When Parvata invaded the country with his son Malayaketu, Parvata was killed by foul means and Malayaketu ran for his life. Now Chanakya and Sakatara crowned Chandra Gupta as the king. Later Maurya Chandragupta became the emperor of mighty Magadha Kingdom. His grandson was the great Asoka.


Chanakya’s gift to India is his Niti Shastra (Didactic literature) and world’s first book on Economics ‘The Arthashastra’. His other gift was the biggest empire of ancient India. This covered most of India except Tamil Kingdoms. Chanakya became the symbol of good and able governance. His policy was ‘end justifies means’. To destroy Adharma, you can do anything, in other words, followed Krishna of Mahabharata.





Compiled by London Swaminathan 


Date: 24 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London- 8-35 am



Post No. 4539

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks



Part 5 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar ; in this Kamasastra is compared with Tirukkural along with other books.


Please read first four parts posted in the past few days and continue here:–


So far we have seen the comparison between Tiru Valluvar’s Tirukkural with Bhagavad Gita, Manu Smrti, Arthasastra of Kautilya/Chanaya, Kamandaki, Ramayana and Mahabharata. In this section we will look at the Parnellism between the Kamasastra in Sanskrit with Tirukkural


Following is from the book Studies in Tamil Literature by V R Ramachandra Dikshitar:


Book III of Tirukkural- Kaamattuppaal


There are two views with regard to this particular section. One is that Valluvar gives expression to purely Tamil aspect of Kama (sexual desire). According to this whole can be conveniently divided into Kalaviyal and Karpiyal, and these again are based on the five tinais peculiar to the Tamils.


But the celebrated commentator of the Kural, Parimel azagarwould again find correspondences between this subject of the subject and that in Sanskrit literature. According to that authority, Kalaviyal and Karpiyal correspond to the Samyoga and Vipralambha of the KAMASUTRA treatises.


In the Karpiyal section again Parimelaalagar would find corresponding terms for the different incidents like

Selavu =Pravasa

Arraamai= Viraaga

Viduppu = Ayogam

and Pulavi= Maanam.

The Sanskritists add the fifth incident Saapa.

As this is quite uncommon , says the commentator, Valluvar did not include it in his treatment of the subject. While the Chapter 116 Pirivarraamai is devoted to selavu, the chapters (117-126) deal with the Arraamai.


Viduppu is dealt within three chapters (127-129), while the last four chapters (130-133) are devoted to the incident of Pulavi.




Porutpaal continued…………………

Kural 586 to 589 ( Spies/ Detectives)


As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,

A spy whatever men do must watchful mind display.


A spy must search each hidden matter out

And full report must render, free from doubt.


Spying by spies, the things they tell,

To test by other spies is well.


One spy must not another see: contrive it so;

And things by three confirmed as truth you know


The Arthasastra has the following:

The king shall send fraudulent and ascetic spies who have been tried for their loyalty and skill.

The class of officers who went by the name of Tiiksanas ascertained their outward conduct. The satri spies carried this information to the district quarters. The residential officers therein made it known to the headquarters through signs and cipher writings. This is to be done without the knowledge of the respective samsthas. If the information is corroborated by three independent sources, it is taken to be confirmed.

(Book 1, Chap.11 and 12)


Kural 581 (Spies)

These two: the code renowned, and spies

n these let king confide as eyes


Tha Kamandaki saysA king should get at the movements of the adversary through the medium of his cautious and secret spies. That king one of whose eyes is caara or the spy is awake even in sleep (13-29)



Kural 602 and 604 (Sloth)

Let indolence, the death of effort, die,

If you’d uphold your household’s dignity.

His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,

Who, sunk in sloth,  for noble objects doth not strive


The Bhagavd Gita gives similar ideas:

Know, og Bharata, inertia born of ignorance and the deluder of all beings, is bound by sloth, indolence and sleep (BG 14-8)



Kural 628 and 630 (Fortitude)

He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;

Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes


Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire

The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.


The Gita says similarly,

You grieve for things not fit to be grieved for and yet indulge in wise sayings. The wise never grieve either for the living or for the dead.


He who sees his self in everything and looks upon pleasure and pain equally, is a perfect Yogi

–BG 2-11 and 6-32


Kural 631 (Ministers)

A minister is who grasps, with wisdom large,

Means ,time, work’s mode and functions rare he must discharge


The Arthasastra says,

The ministers shall engage in the following five duties: commencing a work, finding out resources, fixing it according to place and time, protecting against possible dangers, and final consummation Book 1-15



Kural 645 and 646 (Eloquence)

Speaking out your speech, when once it is past dispute

That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.


Charming each hearer’s ear, of others words to seize the sense

Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.


A good illustration of this maxim is found in the Mahabharata. Here the kingdom is threatened with a invasion, the king goes to the country and begs for war loans and benevolences by speaking out in sweet, soft and convincing style.

–Santi Parva 88,26,34


Kural 669, 670 (Firmness)

Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,

And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.


The world desires not men of every power possessed,

Who powers in act desires not, crown of all the rest


is expressed in other words by the Bhagavad Gita:

Do not get vexed. This is unbecoming of one like yourself. Give up the detestable weakness of the heart and gird up, oh slayer of foes –BG 2-3; 4-20



Kural 681, 682, 683, 684 (AMBASSADOR)


Benevolence, high birth, the courtesy kings love

These qualities the envoy of a king approve


Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things

Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.


Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be

Midst javelin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory

Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite

Who hath these three for envoy’s task is fit.


similar ideas are expressed by the law giver Manu:

The king shall appoint him an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who can read the gestures and signs, pure, skilled, of noble family

That ambassador, who is loyal, honest, intelligent of excellent memory, who acts according to time and place, of good physique, bold and possessed of good powers of speech is applauded – Manu 7-63/64


Kural 685, 686, 688, 689, 690 (AMBASSADOR)

In the Kural

In term, concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word

An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord


An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye

Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency

In the Athasastra,

The message is to be delivered in toto, even at the cost of life……….When questioned by the enemy king as to the strength of the lord’s forces, pretend ignorance and simply say, you know better! – Book 1-16


Again in the Kural,

Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness;

Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.


His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,

Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king


Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;

The envoy gains assured advantage for his king


The Rajaniti Rantnakara quotes Sukra,

The ambassador, though a mlechcha, shall not be killed

Hence the duta/ambassador is the king’s eye. Even when the arms are raised aloft in the act of striking him, he should faithfully deliver his message.


From the words of the duta/amabassador who would think of his own defects and of enemy’s strength? For the duta  speak always anything he thinks – page 46 of Rajanitiratnakara




Kural 698, 699, 700 (On Serving the King)

Say not, ‘He is young, my kinsman’ despising thus your king;

But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.

The following may be parallel,

A king should not be despised even though a child. he is a great divinity in the form of a man Manu 7-8

In the Kural, we have gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do

So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.


Wh think we are ancient friends, and do unseemly things;

To these familiarity sure ruin brings.


Similar ideas are found in the following discussion in the Arthasastra,

says Bhardvaja,

The king shall appoint as his ministers his classmates as he would have understood their honesty and tact. They could be easily trusted. No says Visalaksha, ‘as playmates they would not respect him. He shall therefore appoint those whose secrets are well known to him. Possessed of conduct and defects in common with the king those do not entertain harm lest their secrets should be divulged. This is very common, says Parasara, for the king may follow them in their good and bad actions lest his own secrets be divulged Arthasastra Book 1, Chap.8




Kural 731, 732 (A Prosperous Nation)

The Kural defines,

Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,

Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land.


That is a land which men desire for wealth’s abundant share,

Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare

Baudhayana says:

A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass and garlands are plentiful, access to which is easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people and where Aryans (noblemen) form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers—Baudhayana 2-3-51

S B E Volume 14 pages 243/4

Kural 737 (Nation)

What the Kural says,

Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;

These make a land with fortress sure defence


is also mentioned by Kautilya

The fortress of rivers and mountains are sources of defence to the country parts.

Arthasastra Book 2-3

Chapter 74 of Kural entitled Nation corresponds roughly to the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

Durga= Fortress

Chapter 75 of Kural entitled Fortification corresponds roughly to the the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3




Kural 751 (WEALTH)

Nothing exists, save wealth, that can

Change man of nought to worthy man

is tus explained in the Ramayana

To a man of wealth, there are friends, and relatives. He is the worthy man of the world, and becomes a Pandita. He is a man of prowess and wisdom. He is a great man of good qualities.

Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana chap.83-35/36


Kural 760

What the Kural says,

Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,

By them the other two are easily obtained


is explained thus by Vaatsyaayana,

Between wealth and kingdom, wealth is superior. Though the means of wealth, Lokayaatraa and Kaama are realised. This is the position of Trivarga.

–Kamasutra book 1-2-15/17




Kural 861 (ENEMIES)

With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;

With weaker shun not, rather court the fray

Kautilya prescribes,

Court agreement of peace with equal and superior foes. Fight with the weaker.

–Book 7-3




According to the Kural:

Women of double minds, strong drink and dice;

to these given over,

Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.


In the Arthasastra,

Public censure and loss of wealth are due to Kama ( desire).

….Kama comprises hunting, gambling, women and drinking.

–Book 7-3


In the chapter on the Purusa vyasana varga, Kautilya referes to the four-fold vice under the category of Kama. These are hunting, gambling, women and drinking. The effects of these evil habits are discussed I detail. Tiruvalluvar, on the other hand devotes two chapters on the Vyasanas of women (91being ruled by the wife, 92 prostitutes) one chapter ( 93 ) on drinking and one chapter on (94) gambling. Apparently, the author of the Kural does not treat hunting as such a vice as the other three. In fact hunting is recognised as a valuable form of exercise to kings by Kalidasa in his Sakuntala. Nor is Kautilya unaware of its beneficial effects.

Arthasastra book 8-3


My comments:

V R R Dikshitar has done very good research in Tirukkural. I have not seen any such comparisons in any other book. One must be a good scholar in both Sanskrit and Tamil and well read. I have already given my comparisons of Dhammapada and Tirukkural, Panchatantra and Tirukkural in separate articles.



Arthasastra,Ramayana and Tirukkural Compared (Post No.4534)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 


Date: 23 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am



Post No. 4534

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks



Part 4 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4534).


In this fourth part, Arthasastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Kamandaka and Manu’s verses are compared.



In the first two parts Tirukkural, Bhagavad Gita and Manava Dharma Sastra are compared,


In the third part Kautilya’s Arthasastra is also compared with Kural

It is continued in the Fourth Part


Kural 471 (Forethought)


In the opinion of Valluvar,


The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,

The force of friends: these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.


On this Kautilya observes:


The conquering monarch shall acquaint himself with the comparative strength and weakness, of himself and of his enemy in regard to power, lace, time, season for march, season for recruiting the army, consequential advantages and difficulties arising from anger, diminution and loss and decide on expedition if he would feel assured of superiority in his force.

–Book 9, chapter 1




KURALS 472, 476, 477 (Assessment of Relative Strength)



Who know what can he wrought, with the knowledge of means, on this

Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss (Kural 472)


Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise

Beyond the branch’s tip, with life the forfeit pays (476)

With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you, give!

That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live (477)

Kautilya says,


The power of mantra (counsel) is better. The king who possesses the eye of Sastraic knowledge can press his knowledge into service even with little effort. He can over reach the enemy with enthusiasm and power by means of conciliation, and application of strategic means. In this way success is due to enthusiasm, power, force of mantra/counsel of in the ascending order – Book 9, chapter 1



Kural 481 and 482 (Right Time)


According to the author of Kural,


A crow will conquer owl in brad day light;

The king the foes would crush, need fitting time to fight.


The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made

Strictly observant still of favouring season’s aid.


Says the Kautilya, “That season is best which is suited to the manoeuvre of one’s own army and unsuited to ones enemny. The reverse is the worst. The ordinary season is the middling one. Book 9, Chap. 1


Time alone is better say some. For on this account the crow kills the owl in the day and the owl the crow in the night.




Kural 493 and 494 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)


Even weak ones mightily prevails, if place of strong defence

They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.


The foes who thought to trimph, find their thoughts in vain

If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain


According to Arthasastra, ‘one should endeavour the means to increase the strength of one’s own force. That desa is the best which is the ground for manoeuvre of one’s own army but disadvantageous to the enemy. Otherwise it is the worst. That which is common is neither best nor worst.- Book 9, chap.1)



Kural 495, 497, 500 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)


The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide;

If this it leaves, it is slain by anything beside


Save their own fearless might they need no other aid, If in right place they fight, all due provision made



The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen

The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.


In the Arthasastra, it is said:

The ground is better, some say. On this account the dog on the ground can overreach even a crocodile, and the crocodile in the low ground the dog. –Book 9- Chapter 1


Thus we come across similar ideas both in the Arthasastra and Tirukkural. While the Arthasastra has dealt in one chapter all the three means of Sakti, Desa and Kala, the Kural devotes three separate chapters of the Kural Venbas each




Kural 501(On choosing the right men)


How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life is at stake,

Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make


Says Kautilya:


The ministers shall be tested by the Upadhas which are in the nature of temptations. These are for kinds, the temptation of virtue, wealh, lust and fear- Book 1, chap.10




Kural 510 On choosing the right men)


Trust where have you not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,

Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal


The Arthasastra says:

The Acaryas (teachers) have prescribed that the king should appoint government servants in their respective posts after the four-fold test according to the satisfaction afforded by such test.

–Book 1, Chapter 10




Kural 518 and 520 (Employment of Chosen men)


As each man’s special aptitude is known

Bid each man make that special work his own


Let king search out his servants’ deeds each day;

When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way


is corroborated by the Arthasastra


Those who have come out successful from the Dharmopadhaa are to be appointed as judges and commissioners, from the Arthopadhaa to office of treasurer and he collector-general, from Kaamopadhaa to guarding frontiers, harem and sporting grounds and from the Bhayopadhaa in the king’s household.


Those who have gone through the four ordeals are to be chosen as ministers.


Having thus chosen his servants by the four fold tests, the king shall endeavour through his spies to get at their loyalty or otherwise –Book 1, Chapter 10




Kural 517(Employment of Chosen men)


This man, this work halt thus work out, let thoughtful king command:

Then leave the matter wholly in his servant’s hand


Kamandaka says,


He whose capacity is too well known for a particular job is appointed to it, just like the different senses which are employed to perceive particular objects – Kamandaka 5-75



Kural 541 (Just Rule)


Search out, to no one favour show, with heart that justice loves,

Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.


The Ramayana furnishes a parallel

If the punishment accorded to the offenders is meted out according to the laws of the land, it leads the monarch to heaven

–Ramayana 7-79-9


Kural 543 (Just Rule)


Learning and virtue of the sages spring

From all-controlling sceptre of the king


According to the Arthasastra,

That state which is disciplined by the established laws of the Aryas, which is rooted in the organisation of castes and orders, and which is protected by the three Vedas, progresses and never deteriorates – Book 1-3


Kural 545 (Just Rule)


Where king, who righteous law  regards, the sceptre wields,

There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields


A Parallel is furnished in the Ramayana,

The fields are rich with crops, the rains shower in proper seasons, and the soldiers are free from disease during Satrughna’s rule.

–Ramayana 7-70-10




Kural 554 (On Tyranny, Oppression)


Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,

At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.


Manu rules,


The king who allows the kingdom to deteriorate owing to sheer neglect and lethargy will soon fall from his position and life with all his relatives -Manu 7-111


Kural 560 (Oppression, Tyranny)


Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry

And Brahmin’s sacred lore will all forgotten lie



The Mahabharata furnishes a parallel,

When Dandaniti is given the death blow and when the ancient Raja Dharma of the Kshatriyas become lost, the sacred lore gets extinct, as also all the dharmas including those dharmas pertaining to the asramas

–Santi Prava Chap.112-28




Kural 562 and 569 (Penalties)


For length of days with still increasing joys on heaven who call

Should raise the rod with bow severe, but let it gently fall.


Manu furnishes a parallel,

The king should be harsh and mild according to the nature of the work. He endears himself to the people, being harsh and soft—Manu 7-140


Kural 569


Who builds no forth whence he may foe defy,

In time of war shall fear and swiftly die


Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

The enemies do not wrong those resident in fortresses, as they do not attack the king who shelters under a fort – Manu7-73



to be continued……………………







Chanakya and Valluvar (Post No.4530)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 


Date: 22 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London- 8-09 am



Post No. 4530

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



Part 3 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4530)



Please read the first two parts where the books are introduced. Here Dikshitar ompared Chanakya with Valluvar:—-


Kural 126 (Self Control)

Like tortoise, who the five restrains

In one, though seven worlds bliss obtains

The Bhagavad Gita says that as a tortoise will restrain all limbs into itself, he who would restrain his sense will attain wisdom 2-58


Kural 226 (Charity)

Let men relieve the wasting hunger men endure;

For treasure gained thus finds one treasure-house secure.

Manu rules to this effect: One must not eat oneself without feeding the guest first; feeding of guests leads to wealth, health, fame and heaven- Manu 3-106


Kural 256 (Vegetarianism)

We eat the slain you say, ‘by us no living creatures die;

Who’d kill and sell, I pray, if none came there the flesh to buy?

Manu says, “He who approves of the killing of an animal, who preserves the slaughtered body, who kills it, who buys and sells it, who cooks it and who serves it, and who makes a meal of it are to be termed Killers” Manu 5-51


Kural 257 (Vegetarianism)

With other beings ulcerous wounds their hunger may appease

If this they felt, desire to eat must surely ease

According to Manu, having learnt the origin of flesh (meat) and the killing of creatures, one will refrain from taking any kind of meat-5-49, 52 .



Kural 259 (Vegetarianism)

Than thousand rich oblations, with libations rare,

Better the flesh of slaughtered beings not to share.

Manu’s ruling is similar:

He who would perform a hundred Asvamedha sacrifices year after year and he who would refrain from flesh eating are equal so far the attainments of fruits is concerned– Manu 5-53


Kural 268 (Penance)

Who gains himself in utter self-control

Him worships every other living soul.

In Manu, one should endeavour day and night to conquer the senses; and one who conquer his senses is able to have all people under his control- Manu 7-44


Kural 299 (Truthfulness)

Every lamp is not a lamp in wise men’s sight:

That is the lamp with truth’s pure radiance bright

In the Bhagavad Gita, The Yogi controlled, self engaged, in meditation, is likened to a lamp that is still in a windless place Bhagavad Gita 6-19


Kural 330 (Violence)

Who had a loathed life, in bodies sorely pained,

Are men, the wise declare, by guilt of slaughter stained.


In the Laws of Manu, it is said that he who causes the killing of prohibited animals for his own happiness is considered to be dead, though living, for he never attains happiness- Manu 5-45



Kural 339 (Instability)

Death is sinking into slumbers deep; Birth again is waking out of sleep.


The Bhagavad Gita furnishes a parallel: There is certain death to one who is born, and there is certain birth to one dead –Bhagavad Gita6-63)


xxx Arattup paal finished xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Chanakya is also known as  Kautilya.


Kural 381 (Leader/ King)


An army, people, wealth, a minister, friends, fort;

six things—

Who owns them all, a lion lives amid the kings.


Kautilya’s Artha sastra prescribes:

The king, minister, territory, fort treasury, army friends constitute the elements of a state………….. He wh possesses these and who follows the righteous policy is able to conquer the whole earth and is never defeated.

—Book 6-1 cf.Kamandaka 1-18


Kural 385 (Leader- King)

A king is he who treasure gains, stores up, defends,

And duty for his kingdom’s weal expends


The Kamandaka Nitisastra furnishes a parallel:

The four fold functions of the king are to acquie wealth by equitable means, to preserv it, to augument it, and then expend it on the deserving.

Kamandaka 1-20


Kural 390 (King/ Leader)

Gifts, grace, right sceptre, care f people’s weal;

These four a light of dreaded king reveal


is corroborated by the Kamandaki

Pleasant speech, grace gifts, protection of the poor and the distressed, and association with men of character are recognised by the world as the right thing.

–kamandaki 3-2


Kural 391 (Study/ Learning)

So lean that you may full and faultless learning gain,

Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.


According to the Arthasastra, sciences should be studied under qualified teachers and their precepts duly followed……………Discipline is the fruit of learning.

–Book 1-5, Arthasastra.



Kural 411(Listening)

Wealth of wealth is wealth acquired by ear attent;

Wealth mid al wealth supremely excellent.

The Kautilya (Chanakya) says:

Hearing opens the door to knowledge, knowledge to right action, and right action to knowledge of one’s self. This is what constitutes vidyaa.

—Book 1- chapter 5 of Arthasastra.



Kural 427 (Knowledge)

The wise discern, the foolish fail to see,

And minds prepare for things about to be

In the Arthasastra, he who possesses the eye of knowledge and science, is able to discern the true thing with a little effort.

Arthasastra ,Book 9, chapter 1


Kural 441 (Great men)

As friends the men who virtue know, and riper wisdom share,

Their worth weighed well, the king should choose with care.

The prescription of Bhradwaja is that companions whose honesty and skill have been put to satisfactory tests shall be appointed ministers.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8



Kural 447 (Great men)

What power can work his fall, who faithful ministers,

Employs, that thunder out reproaches when he errs.

The Arthasastra prescribes that a king should select such ministers whose loyalty has been tried and who would protect him from risks involving danger to life.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8


Kural 462 and Kural 470 (Consideration/ On the right Forethought)

With chosen friends deliberate; next use they private thought;

Then act. By those who thus proceed all works with ease are wrought .


Plan and perform no work that others may despise;

What misbeseems a king the world will not aprroe as wise.

-The Arthasastra says

All undertakings are to be preceded by mantra or counsel………. Let the king review the works with the ministers present……….. That which gives fruition and is advocated by the best men must be done

–Arthasastra, Book 1-15

to be continued……………………



Spies! Disguised as Ascetics!

The Spy Who Loved Me

Spies! Disguised as Ascetics!

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1208; Dated 1st August 2014.

Very interesting information about spying is available from Sanskrit and Tamil literature. Most of us know that the Brahmin Kautilya (Chankaya) has dealt with spying in detail in his Arthasastra. But not many people know what Manu Smriti, Tirukkural, Tamil epic Silappadikaram and Sangam Tamil Literature say about spying. There are a few real life stories in Valmiki Ramayana and Sangam literature.

The most interesting detail comes from the great Tamil Poet Thiruvalluvar, whose Tirukkural is praised as Tamil Veda:

“Spies disguise themselves as ascetics to gather secrets; they do not betray secrets under any threat” (Kural 586)

How true it is even today!! Our Ashrams are infested with foreign spies. Religion is the easy way to gather secrets about the government and the general public. If a politician approaches a Sanyasi (ascetic), that means he or she is in big trouble! Ascetic’s devotees boast about what happened in the Ashram. The spies there as Junior ascetics send information to all his enemies and foreign countries. Beware of “Sanyasis” frequenting foreigners or foreign countries!!

In ancient India ascetics can travel anywhere in India without Visa or a permit. They can enter the royal courts at any time without waiting. But they never misused their powers. If any king delays them the king will be cursed!

The second easy route for spying is Universities and Educational institutions. In the guise of a researcher you can fool anyone!! In the guise of a scholar, you can have access to inaccessible places!!! Beware of “visiting scholars”.

The third route is party offices or meetings. We read about spying in the news papers every day.


Story 1 from Sangam Tamil Literature

Purananuru, which is 2000 year old, gives a very interesting story about spying! Ilandattan was a genuine poet. He visited the royal court of the Choza king Nedunkilli. Immediately he was arrested and the king passed death sentence on him! The only crime he committed was that the previous day he was in the court of another Choza named Nalankilli. Both are closely related but had big enmity between themselves like a snake and a mongoose. So Nedunkilli suspected him of spying for Nalankilli and was about to execute him.

In ancient India, poets have very good influence and authority over kings. They were next in rank to the ascetics. There was a wise Tamil poet by name Kovur Kizar who already saved young children from the slaughter house of a king. He came to the rescue of this poet. Earlier two young children were about to be beheaded by the elephant and Kovur Kizar persuaded the Choza king to release them unconditionally (Purananauru verse 46).

Kovur Kizar saved poet Ilam Duttan as well. He went to the king told him,
“Look ! these poor poets are like birds seeking fruit laden trees. They pass very hard routes just to praise philanthropists like you and get something for their stomach. The beauty is that they never save for tomorrow. Whatever they get they give it to their friends and relatives. They never harm anyone. They defeat any scholar by the war of words. People like you must support them and not oppose” (Purananuru verse).
Heeding to the advice of Kovur Kizar he released the poet immediately.

This episode throws some light on spying. They can come in the guise of a poet/scholar, like we have spies in universities today. The second thing is they get death sentence if they are caught. It is same even today. While I am writing this, here in my city London, there is a big case going about poisoning a spy to death. Many spies “die” in simple accidents in western countries.

mata hari executed in 1917
Most Famous Woman spy Mata Hari was executed in 1917 (World War 1)

Story 2 from Tamil epic Silappadikaram

There is another interesting story in the most famous Tamil Epic Silappadikaram. Two minor kings of North India ridiculed the Tamils. So the mighty Senguttuvan, wanted to teach them a lesson. Senguttuvan’s father caught the Yavanas (Greek or Romans or Arabians) and tied their hands at the back and poured oil on their heads. This is an ancient way of insulting enemies. In the Puranas, we read about King Sagara catching the Yavanas and shaving their heads off.

Senguttuvan ordered his commander in chief Alumpilvel to send the sealed letters to all the kings in the north. He made it clear that it was not an invasion, but a mission with a limited purpose, just to get a stone from the holy Himalayas, to bathe it in the holy Ganges, to make a statue for the holy woman Kannaki.

Immediately his commander told the king that there was no need to undergo such a trouble of putting the clay seal of Tiger, Fish and Bow (Cholza, Pandya, Chera emblems) on the letters and send them because his capital city Vanji has all the spies in the world. The minute something is tom-tommed in the capital the message will spread like wild fire though out India (Katchik Katai, Silappadikaram)

This episode reveals the fact that the capital city has spies of all the countries. We have spies in Delhi from all parts of the world!!

We taught the world about spying and ambassadors. No literature in the world has such detailed manuals on Embassies, Ambassadors and Spying like Sanskrit literature!!

Noor Inayat Khan, Muslim of Indian origin, born in Moscow, worked as a British agent, executed by Hitler (World War 2)

Story 3 from Tamil Epic Silappadikaram
I have given this story already in my earlier post “HOW DID A PANDYA KING GET A GOLDEN HAND?” posted on 22 October 2011.

An old Brahmin by name Keeranthai wanted to go on a pilgrimage. His wife got worried. He assured her nothing would go wrong in the Pandya kingdom. The king was listening to this conversation, who went in disguise to feel the pulse of his people. In other words he was spying on his own people just to ensure their safety and welfare. Later he paid special attention to that particular house and by mistake he knocked at the door one night. When the Brahmin street (Agraharam) reported the complaint next day he cut his hands off saying that he was the ‘’thief’’ who knocked at the door. Medical science had advanced to such an extent in those days that he was immediately operated upon and a new golden hand fixed. The reason for him knocking at the door of the Brahmin lady was that some noise he heard in the house. Actually it was her husband who came back late in the night from the pilgrimage!!

This episode shows that in ancient India, even kings went on spying in disguise.


Story No 4 from Tamil and Sanskrit Ramayanas

Valmiki Ramayana in Sanskrit and Kamba Ramayana in Tamil have a big chapter ( in Yuddha Kanda) on the spies sent by Ravana to estimate the strength of the monkey army of Lord Rama. They wore totem symbols like monkeys and pretended to be part of Rama’s army. But Vibhishana who came from Sri Lanka could easily identify the two spies Suka and Sara. They were caught red handed and presented before Rama. Rama deliberately gave them all the details of his army and pardoned them. Rama knew that they would report it back to Ravana.

Rama might have expected that it would unnerve Ravana and he would surrender and release Sita Devi. Alternately Rama did not bother about the spies because he knew the final result.
There are many more spy stories in Indian literature that would excel all the James Bond films.

spy next door

Manu on Spying
Manu Smrti gives rules on spying in chapters
7-122,153, 154, 223 and 9-256, 261, 298.

Manu says
1.King should appoint one officer for every city who must collect all the information through spies.
2.King should spend some time everyday to find out what is happening in the harem and the movements of his secret agents.
3.After performing Sandhya rituals he must get the reports of secret agents in the inner chamber.
4.Spies are king’s two eyes to find out the open and concealed thieves
5.Spies can be used to incite the criminals to commit crimes so that they can be booked easily.
6.King should use the spies to measure his own strength and his enemies strength.

Tamil Poet’s Sound Advice
Tiruvalluvar in his Tirukkural has got ten couplets on spying. The salient features of this chapter 59.DETECTIVES or ON INTELLIGENCE SERVICES are:


1.The reports given by one spy must be tested and verified through another spy (couplet 588)
2.The spies must be sent one by one, apart. If three spies agree, the information shall be confirmed. They should not know one another (589).
3.The spy must not be rewarded publicly. That would expose the secret organisation (590).
In Western countries even their original identity is erased and new ID given. Very often they are located in a new area with a new name! They work for “some companies”.
4.Spies disguise themselves as ascetics to gather secrets; they do not betray secrets under any threat” (Kural 586)
5.He is a spy who can assume an unsuspecting disguise, be fearless of gaze, and capable of keeping a secret under all circumstances (585).

Tirvalluvar dealt with the need for spying, qualifications of a spy, his qualities and DOs and DONTs of spying in just 10 couplets! 20 lines!!
Brevity is the soul of wit!