19 Dance Dramas in the Rig Veda (Post No.9858)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9858

Date uploaded in London –16 JULY   2021           

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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Nineteen Dialogue poems in the Rig Veda spreading over several Mandalas of the Veda shows that Dance and Drama existed at the Vedic period.

Following are the interesting Dialogue poems:

RV.1-165, 170 & 179;

RV.3-33; 4-18, 26/27 &42;

RV.7-33;8-91;9-100

RV.10-10, 28, 51,86,95, 102,108, 124,135

Then we have Vajasaneyi Samhita (Yajur Veda) and Taittiriya brahmana references to Sailusaa which later meant an actor following the tradition of Silaalin, the author of a nata sutra . Sailusaa has the same meaning in the Vedas.  Panini referred to nata sutras.

The Natyacharya or the instructor in the theatrical arts was a recognised figure , popular but not approved by the law books.  Baudhaayana dharmasutra condemned Natyacharya as a minor defilement.2-25

We have good evidence to state that the drama originated in India during Vedic period. In the beginning dance and drama were inseparable. 100 or 150 years ago drama meant songs with stories. It was easy to memorise them and pass it on to his or her disciples. Later prose was introduced as links between the songs so that one can have a break and start again.

We have evidence in the Tamil epic Silapaadikaram where we have dance and drama elements in the story. Indra festival was the one where the dance of Madhavi was staged. We see in Bharata’s Natya Shastra that the Indra Festival was suggested to enact the dance dramas. More over we read about 11 different dances staged by Madhavi. All those were based on Hindu mythology. Silapaadikaram is dated second century CE . I would date Bharata’s Natya shastra well before this date

Indian drama has no connection with the Greek drama at least in its early stage. We have well defined roles such as a Brahmin as comedian, a director who introduces the drama at the outset. Apart from this we have Bharatavakya (Benedictory Message) at the end. This is the like a national anthem wishing the king a long life and the people and the country a prosperous life. After Alexander’s invasion new elements might have been introduced, because Greeks also had well developed dramas.

Going back in time we have at least 19 dialogue poems in the Rig Veda. Some of the dialogue poems are comparable with the folk dances of the Tamils. During the Holi festival, that is known as Kaman Pandikai in South India, some sexy folk dances were staged in street corners at the dead of night. Tamil epic Silapaadikaram has lot of information about dance dramas . After Rigveda, we have good evidence in Paninis Ashtadhyayi and Kautilya’s Arthasastra. There is a gap of at least three hundred years between the Ashtadhyayi and Arthasastra.

Panini talk about Nata sutras, which scholars think, was a guide book or practical hand book for actors (Ashtadhyayi 4-3-110). We could not expect much from a grammar book like Ashtadhyayi. But Kautilya who came at least 300 years after Panini gives lot of information about dance and drama.

 Patanjali , author of Mahabhashya ,refers to the enacted spectacle of Killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva. He refers to actors and fans.

Dance drama did not exist in Krta Yuga. It came only in Treta Yuga gaaccording to Bharata. We see Lava Kusa enacting Ramayana. Later that Kusi Lava become a model for future Kusi Lavas.

The Arthasastra clearly distinguished between actors/Nata, dancers/nartaka, singers/gayakas, instrumentalists/ vadakas, story tellers/vajivana,bards/kusilavas, rope dancers/ plavakas, show men/saubhikas and wandering ministrels/caranas. This shows well developed and differentiated stage of performing arts. This is confirmed by Kautilya’s reference to the diverse arts/ Kala taught to the women who lived by the stage/Rangopajivini.

Kama sutra of Vatsyayana also gave a big syllabus for women with 64 arts. Tamil Sangam Literature mentioned Arya kuuthaadi meaning the pole/rope dancers visiting Tamil Nadu from North India. Silappadikaram also mentioned 64 arts.

Half baked foreigners try to place 1000s of books dealing with  subjects from A to Z within four centuries i.e. Second century BCE and second century CE. I is not possible to see such explosion.

But the above information gives us a clear picture of gradual development.

Hindu Music in Panini’s Grammar Book(Post No.7959) | Tamil …

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11 May 2020 — Panini called music Silpa, ie.that is an art . Jataka stories called it Sippa in Pali, colloquial form of Sanskrit. In ancient India dance …


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12 Mar 2021 — Actually they are all dance dramas enacted after Yagas and Yajnas. Panini and Patanjali say that some yajnas lasted for hundreds of years.


emotions in dance | Tamil and Vedas

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31 Oct 2016 — Krishna danced and played his flute, while women, overcome by his music and his dancing, left home and husband to follow him. Lakshmi, the Hindu …


DANCE in the Vedas! | Tamil and Vedas

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1 Apr 2015 — It shows that the Vedic society was a happy and prosperous society. Scores of musical instruments are mentioned and scores of ornaments are also …


Madurai Kanchi | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › madurai-kanchi

Panini called music Silpa, ie.that is an art . Jataka stories called it Sippa in Pali, colloquial form of Sanskrit. In ancient India dance and music went …


Paripādal : Suitable for Dance & Music | Tamil and Vedas

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  1.  

24 Feb 2014 — Post No 862 Date: 24 February 2014 By Dr R Nagaswamy Parpādal is a form poetry best suited as a musical composition mainly for dance along …


Panini | Tamil and Vedas

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Rig Veda is a book with over 1000 hymns running to 10,000 mantras running to 20,000 lines; but lot of repetitions are there. But we can expect more from the Rig …


Dance in Rg Veda | Tamil and Vedas

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2 Apr 2015 — Dr Nagasamy pointed out also that music and dance are part of Shodasopara (16 Upasaras). The Amarakosa (Sanskrit Thesarus) lists different …

More about Bharatanatya in the Vedas! | Tamil and Vedas

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2 Apr 2015 — “I find that almost all forms of classical dances of India like Bharata Natyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Kuchipusdi, Manipuri, Mohini Attam etc are …


Bharatanatyam | Tamil and Vedas

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15 Jun 2012 — The commentators added wealth of information in their commentaries. … Mohanjadaro points to the antiquity of the classical Bharatanatyam.


Dance Mudras | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › dance-mudras

  1.  

7 Oct 2012 — More over it fulfils the desires of the people who practise them. … In the classical dance called Bharatanatyam, there are lot of Mudras …

DIALOGUE POEMS IN THE RIG VEDA (Post No.7737) | Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2020/03/24 › dialogue-poe…

24 Mar 2020 — Rig veda is not only the oldest anthology in the world but also it isonly old book with a number of dialogue poems. These conversation poems …



Matavi’s 11 types of Classical Dance | Tamil and Vedas

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15 Jun 2012 — Silappathikaram is considered the best among the five Tamil epics. Kovalan and Kannaki were the hero and heroine and Madhavi was Kovalan’s …

-subham-

Tags- dance drama, origin, dialogue poems, Rig Veda 

INDIAN ORIGIN OF DAMONDS! (Post No.9516)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9516

Date uploaded in London – –21 APRIL  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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Diamonds were first mined in India

Knowledge of diamond starts in India where it was first mined .

The word most generally used for diamonds in Sanskrit is Vajra, thunderbolt and Indrayudha.

Because Indra is the warrior god from Vedic scriptures, the foundation of Hinduism, the thunderbolt symbol indicates much about the Indian conception of diamond. Early description of diamond date to the fourth century BCE. By then diamond was a valued material. The earliest known reference to diamond is a Sanskrit manuscript by a minister in northern Indian dynasty . The work is dated from 320-296 BCE

Today diamonds are mined in about 25 countries, on every continent but Europe and Antarctica. For 1000 years starting in roughly the fourth century BCE India was the only source of diamonds. Diamond production has increased enormously in 20th century. India s maximum production, perhaps 50,000 to 100000 carats annually in the sixteenth century, is very small compared to the current production of around 100 million carats.

(It is from a paper cutting from year 2002).

Xxx

My views

I have written some articles on the origin of Diamonds. The Syamantaka Diamond handled by Lord Krishna and his relatives led to violence and several murders. The full story is in the Bhagavad Purana. My view is that Syamantaka corrupted into Diamantaka. My second view is that the murderous Syamantaka changed hundreds of hands and got the name Hope Diamond which is in an American museum now. Hope diamond became Hopeless diamond during the course of time and at last landed in America. If we go by Krishna’s story, we have to put the diamond clock back to 3130 BCE.

Whatever the date one believes in doesn’t matter. Diamond mining originated in India.

Xxx Subham xxxx

tags–  Diamond, origin, Syamantaka

Origin of Drama in India, No connection with Greece! (Post No.9374)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9374

Date uploaded in London – –12 MARCH  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

We have discovered a bronze dancing woman statue in Indus-Sarasvati valley civilization. The closest link to that statue is the Rig Veda, which many consider a Pre- Indus book. The amazing figure has the Tri Bhanga (Three Bends) which we see in all the Hindu goddess statues even today. Rig Veda has many references to dancing and singing. All the dialogue poems are nothing but dance dramas.

 In the nook and corner of Tamil Nadu, you my see such sexy (similar to Urvasi- Puruvas dialogue in the Rig Veda) dances in the mid night on the eve of Holi. It is called Kaman Pandikai (Festival of Manmatha) in Tamil Nadu. In Sprig season (Vasanta Rtu) every young couple enjoy such pleasure. But the end message of the festival is Kama will be burnt by Lord Shiva (desire will be annihilated by the worship of Shiva. In the mythology , we see Manmatha is burnt alive by Shiva and he became bodyless/ANANGA.

Most of the encyclopaedias attribute the first and oldest drama to Greece. But Vedic and Ashtadhyayi references explode those myths. According to Panini, ‘Naandhi’ is the first scene which we see even in Kalidasa’s plays. Panini is dated 7th century BCE. He did not know the Buddha and Nanda Vamsa nor Pataliputra. He lived at least 300 years before the Mauryas. Panini’s coinage, weights and measurements, no mentioning of Buddha and Mahavira, his description of Hindu gods, his innumerable comparisons of Chandas/Vedic poems with Sanskrit, that is Basha etc, show Panini lived many centuries before Nandas and Mauryas. Greeks haven’t got the scheme of play that is found in Sanskrit. Neither Nandi/prologue nor National Anthem at the end. All Sanskrit dramas finish with the National Anthem what they called ‘Bharata vakya’. That says ‘Long Live the King; Long Live the Queen. Let all people be Happy; Let the country be Prosperous’. This scheme or structure is absent in Greek dramas.

Kalidasa lived in the first century BCE, which is proved by Tamil Sangam poets. His 200 out of 1500 similes were used by Sangam Tamil poets. Kapilar, the Brahmin who contributed highest number of poems to Sangam corpus imitated Kalidasa in his Kurinjippattu. Even a foreign Tamil student like Rev Dr G U Pope has rightly pointed out this fact.

Half baked western ‘’scholars’’ mis interpreted all dialogue poems in the  Rigveda. Actually they are all dance dramas enacted after Yagas and Yajnas. Panini and Patanjali say that some yajnas lasted for hundreds of years. It is not an exaggeration . Generation after generation continued fire sacrifices. Elsewhere we read that Bharadwaja couldn’t finish mastering all Vedas even after 300 years. Like the Nanda Lamps in the temples Yaga Kundas were burning continuously. Nanda vilakku, lamp, means that which is never extinguished. We see in all Tamil Temples even today.

Here is what Panini and Patanjali say about dramaturgy:-

Panini,who lived before the Greek dramas, mentions ‘Naandi’ , Prologue to a drama in Sutra 3-2-21.

Panini mentioned ‘Silaalin’ as the author of Nata sutras, his students forming the Vedic school of dancing designated as Sailalinah Nataah 4-3-110.

The Sailalakas were originally a Rigvedic charana/school with their own Brahmana book. This is cited in the Apastambha Srauta Sutra. Katyayana who comes 300 years after Panini also knew of this Vedic school as Sailaalaah 6-4-144.

Thus it will be seen that the students of dramaturgy were called SAILAALINAH while those of orthodox Vedic studies were known by the simpler name Sailalah.

The growth of a secular text like the NATA SUTRA under the auspices of a Vedic school shows the scope that Vedic literature gave to new intellectual development not directly connected to religion.

The word Natya Nataka was used through out India. Both were inseparable. Later only dramas with prose only dialogues were written. Tamil words Natya as in Bharata natya and Nataka/drama are all of Sanskrit origin. They are  found in Sangam literature and Tolkappiam. But no ancient Tamil drama survived. Though we read about 11 types of dances performed by Madhavi in Tamil epic  Silapadikaaram they were all Post Sangam materials. They were all Hindu mythological stories. In short we didn’t know anything about ancient Tamil dramas. Instead of Sanskrit Nataka and Natya, Tamil used the word  Kuuthu. But the amazing fact is Tamils did not have any drama for 2000 years! Sanskrit has hundreds of dramas from the days of Bhasa of third century BCE.

Source book:- India as known to Panini, V S Agrawala, 1953; with my inputs

PLEASE READ MY OLD ARTICLES ON THE SAME TOPIC:-

pictures from Kalkshetra, Chennai


Origin of dramas | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com › tag › origin-of-dramas

  1.  

6 Dec 2014 — We have dialogue hymns in the Rig-Veda and several scholars believe those were the first theatrical plays. We have similar dialogues in Egypt.

DIALOGUE POEMS IN THE RIG VEDA (Post No.7737) | Tamil …

tamilandvedas.com › 2020/03/24 › dialogue-poems-in-…

  1.  

24 Mar 2020 — Even the funeral hymns and marriage hymns are only in the tenth mandala. So according to them Hindus did not get married or did not die until …

origin, drama, Panini, Nandi

ORIGIN OF ‘BHAKTI’ IN RIG VEDA; 15 TYPES OF PRAYER! (Post.9250)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9250

Date uploaded in London – –10 FEBRUARY  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

(IF YOU NEED THE ARTICLE IN WORD FORMAT PLEASE WRITE TO US)

ORIGIN OF ‘BHAKTI’ IN RIG VEDA; 15 TYPES OF PRAYER! (Post.9250)

BHAKTI (devotion to God) MOVEMENT HAS ITS SEEDS IN THE RIG VEDA. NARADA BHAKTI SUTRAM DESRCIBED THE STAGES IN BHAKTI, I.E. DEVOTION TO GOD.  GREAT TAMIL SAINT APPAR ALIAS TIRU NAVUKKARASAR REPEATED IT IN HIS TEVARAM IN 600 CE. HE WAS CONTEMPORARY OF ANOTHER GREAT TAMIL SAINT TIRU JNANA SAMBANDAR. BOTH OF THEM CHANGED THE PICTURE OF TAMIL NADU BY WALIKNG THROUGH THE LENGTH AND BREADTH OF TAMIL NADU WIPING OUT BUDDISM AND JAINISM FROM TAMIL SPEAKING WORLD.

BUT BEFORE THIS, WE SEE BHAKTI YOGAM CHAPTER IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA. IF WE GO BY ADI SHANKARA’S DATING BY KANCHI PARAMACHARYA SWAMIJI, THEN ADI SHANKARA STATRED BHAKTI MOVEMENT IN THE PRE CHRISTIAN ERA. BUT THE SEEDS ARE LAID IN THE RIG VEDA.

If one goes through the prayers in the Rig Veda, one would understand all the points raised by later Bhakti poets are already in the oldest book in the world- The Rig Veda

IN TAMIL AND SANSKRIT BOOKS


tags – Bhakti, Movement, Origin, Rig Veda, Bhakti Yogam, Narada, Appar

INTERESTING STORY ABOUT COCONUT! (Post No.6500)

Written by London swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 6 June 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London –  16-44

Post No. 6500

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

MANU SAYS DEPARTED SOULS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN GODS! (Post No.5311)

Written by London SWAMINATHAN

Date: 11 August 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 20-34 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5311

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

MANU SAYS DEPARTED SOULS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN GODS! (Post No.5311)

 

This part of Third Chapter of Manu Smrti contains several Interesting and Mysterious things:

What is Mysterious?

See 231 (departed souls like riddles) and

274 (solar eclipse)

194-202 Strange Names for different types of Manes and Origin of Manes

Invisible Presence of departed souls- See 189

What is interesting?

This part gives severe blow to Aryan Immigration theory for two reasons: all the ingredients used are from tropical regions. No where else in the world we see such ceremonies.

It gives a severe blow to Aryan- Dravidian division; there is no such cultures as Dravidian; even in funeral ceremonies we see similar customs from south to north of the country.

Most Interesting Point

The Four Blessings sought from the departed souls:

FOUR BLESSINGS SOUGHT!

  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)

What a Great Genius Manu is!

Four Types of Questions (see 254)

Brahmins are fire ! (See 212)

Departed souls are Nature Lovers (see 207)

Three Best People (see 185)

Manes are more important than Gods! (see 203)

xxxx

 

MANU THIRD CHAPTER CONTINUED…………Finished

  1. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by the presence of unworthy guests is purified, and the full description of the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

 

Best People

  1. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
  2. A Trinaciketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Jyeshthasaman,

Tri naciketa= The Story of Naciketas in Katha Upanishad

Tri Suparna = Three Bird passage in Rig Veda 10-114-3

Jyeshta Saman= Excellent Chants in the Tandya Brahmana 21-2-3

 

  1. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand cows (as donation or gift), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.

Giving and receiving up to 20000 cows as gift is in the Rig veda and Mulavarman Yupa inscription of Indonesia (4th Century CE).

It is found in several Indian Inscriptions as well .

At least Three Brahmanas for the Srardha

  1. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.
  2. A Brahmana who has been invited to a rite in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha must act in the same manner.

INVISIBLE MANES!

  1. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them when they walk like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.

(The departed souls come at the speed of wind and sit near the Brahmins.)

 

Brahmin becomes Pig!

  1. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks the appointment, becomes guilty of a crime, and in his next birth a hog/Pig.
  2. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver of the feast committed.
  3. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
  4. Now learn fully from whom all these manes derive their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.

CLASSES OF MANES / STRANGE NAMES

  1. The various classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Marici and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
  2. The Somasads (soma drinkers) , the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas (Tasted by Fire), the children of Marici, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
  3. The Barhishads (Seated on the Sacrificial Grass) , born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,

Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,

  1. The Somapas (Soma drinkers) those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs (Oblation Eaters) those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
  2. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
  3. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas (Fire Burnt) , the Anagnidagdhas (Non Fire Burnt) , the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas (Connected with Soma) , are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.

 

ORIGIN OF MANES

  1. But know also that there exist in this world countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
  2. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
  3. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).

 

DEPARTED SOULS MORE IMPORATANT THAN GODS!

  1. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes the Sraddhas, has been declared to be a means of fortifying the latter.
  2. Let him first invite a Brahmana in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.

GODS FIRST, MANES NEXT

  1. Let him make the Sraddha begin and end with a rite in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a rite in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.
  2. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cow dung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.

 

DEPARTED SOULS PREFER OPEN SPACES

  1. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.
  2. The sacrificer shall make the invited Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
  3. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with those who are invited in honour of the gods.
  4. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana sacrificer shall offer oblations in the sacred fire, after having received permission to do so from all the Brahmana guests conjointly.

THE USE OF WATER, SESAMUM SEEDS, KUSA GRASS WHICH ARE TYPICAL INDIAN AND TROPICAL PLANTS. IT EXPLODES ARYAN INVASION THEORY; THEY DID NOT COME FROM A COLD PLACE.OFFERING TO MANES

  1. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting the Sraddha, oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.

BRAHMINS ARE FIRE

  1. But if no sacred fire is available, he shall place the offerings into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ‘What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’

(IN TAMIL LITERATURE IT IS SAID THAT ONE MUST TREAT BRAMINS AS FIRE; NEITHER GO TOO NEAR NOR TO FAR;GIVE DUE RESPECT)

  1. They also call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.
  2. After he has performed the oblations in the fire, and the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot where the cakes are to be placed.
  3. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which he poured out the libations of water.

FACING SOUTH: ANCINET TAMIL LITERATURE ALSO ALLOCATES SOUTH TO THE DEPARTED SOULS WHICH IS NOT FOUND IN ANY OTHER CULTURE; IT DEBUNKS THE ARYAN INVASION THEORY. SANSKRIT WORD PINDAM (RICE BALL TO THE DEPARTED SOULS) IS ALSO USED IN ANICIENT TAMIL LITERATURE, WHICH POWDER THE ARYAN -DRAVIDIAN DIVISIONS; BOTH HAVE SAME CUSTOMS EVEN IN FUNERAL CEREMONIES)

  1. Having offered those cakes (PINDA) according to the prescribed rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with the roots of those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the three ancestors who partake of the wipings (lepa).

 

GUARDIAN DEITIES OF SIX SEASONS

SIX SEASONS ALSO IS IN VEDAS AND TAMIL LITERATURE UNLIKE FOUR SEASONS OF COLD COUNTRIES; THIS EXPLODES THE ARYNA-DRAVIDION DIVISON AND ARYNA INVASION FROM OUT SIDE. Both Tamils and north Indians followed the same custom according to the oldest Tamil books.

  1. Having next sipped water, turned round towards the north, and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, the sacrificer who knows the sacred texts shall worship the guardian deities of the six seasons and the manes.
  2. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).
  3. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).
  4. But if the sacrificer’s father is living, he must offer the cakes to three remoter ancestors; or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as one of the Brahmana guests.
  5. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.
  6. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha as a guest, or the grandson having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.

 

SESAMUM AND WATER

  1. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the guests, he shall give to each that above-mentioned portion of the cake, saying, ‘To those, Svadha!’
  2. But carrying the vessel filled with food with both hands, the sacrificer himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.
  3. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.
  4. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,
  5. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.
  6. All this he shall present to his guests, being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each dish, proclaiming its qualities.

 

NO LIES, NO ANGER; ANCESTORS LIKE RIDDLES!

  1. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.
  2. A tear sends the food to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.
  3. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.
  4. At a sacrifice in honour of the manes, he must let his guests hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.
  5. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly of each dish, and repeatedly invite them to eat by offering the food and (praising) its qualities.
  6. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.
  7. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.
  8. All the food must be very hot, and the guests shall eat in silence; even though asked by the giver of the feast, the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.

 

HOT FOOD

  1. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake of it.
  2. What a guest eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on his feet, that the Rakshasas consume.

 

NO PIG, NO COCK, NO DOG

  1. A Candala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.
  2. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.
  3. A boar makes the rite useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).
  4. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).
  5. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.
  6. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.
  7. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.
  8. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.
  9. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.
  10. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)
  11. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
  12. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.
  13. Having addressed the question, ‘Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ‘Rest either (here or at home)!’
  14. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ‘Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.
  15. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.

 

FOUR WORDS TO BE USED

  1. At a Sraddha in honour of the manes one must use in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word

svaditam= HAVE YOU EATEN WELL?

; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam= WAS IT COOKED WELL?

; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam = WAS IT PERFECT;

and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam= WAS IT SPLENDID?.

  1. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices.
  2. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods.
  3. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.
  4. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:

FOUR BLESSINGS SOUGHT!

  1. ‘May liberal men abound with us! (MAY OUR GENEROUS DONORS PROPSER)

May our knowledge of the Vedas and our progeny increase! (MAY THE VEDAS AND OUR DESCENDANTS PROSPER)

May faith not forsake us!  (MAY OUR FAITH DISSIPTAE)

May we have much to give to the needy!'(NAY THERE BE MUCH GIVEN TO US THAT WE MIGHT GIVE TO OTHERS)

 

  1. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.
  2. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.
  3. The sacrificer’s first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, if she be desirous of bearing a son.
  4. Thus she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with the quality of goodness, and righteous.
  5. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.
  6. But the remnants shall be left where they lie until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the daily domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.

 

TYPES OF FOOD

NON VEGETARIAN FOOD MAY BE FOR KSHATRIAS AND VAISYAS)

  1. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.
  2. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,
  3. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,
  4. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,
  5. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,
  6. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.
  7. The vegetable called Kalasaka, the fish called Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.
  8. Whatever food, mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless satisfaction.

 

MYSTERIOUS LANGUAGE!! MAY BE SOLAR ECLIPSE

  1. ‘May such a man the manes say be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and in the afternoon when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'(SOLAR ECLIPSE)
  2. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.

 

TIME AND DAY FOR RITES

  1. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others.
  2. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.

 

  1. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon.
  2. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).
  3. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.
  4. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day.
  5. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day.
  6. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the daily Sraddha.

VASU, RUDRA, ADITYA (THREE GENERATIONS)

  1. They call the manes of fathers Vasus, those of grandfathers Rudras, and those of great-grandfathers Adityas; thus speaks the eternal Veda.
  2. Let him daily partake of the vighasa (LEFTOVER OFFERINGS) and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal of Brahmana guests and the remainder of a sacrifice is called amrita.
  3. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five daily great sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.

(ALL THE CEREMONIES REGARDING ANCESTORS, ALL THE FOODDS AND INGREDIENTS USED IN THE CEREMONIES ARE TYPICAL INDIAN. THIS EXPLOSED THE THEORY OF ARYAN MIGRATION INTO INDIA; ALL THE TAMIL BOOKS SUPPORT THIS DESCRIBING THE SAME CUSTOMS.)

 

–SUBHAM–