Post No. 10,627

Date uploaded in London – –    4 FEBRUARY   2022         

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It can now be proved even by geographical evidence, that Zoroastrians had been settled in India before they immigrated into Persia ………..

That the Zoroastrians and their ancestors started from India during the Vedic period  can be proved as distinctly as that the inhabitants of Massilia started from Greece.

Max Muler said it again in his lectures on the Science of Language …

The Zoroastrians were a colony from northern India . they had been together for a time with the people whose sacred songs have been preserved in the Veda. A schism took place, and the  Zoroastrians migrated westward to Arachosia and Persia .

Kanchi Parmacharya swamikal (1894-1994) also said that Zoroaster is  ‘Saurashtra’ (in Gujarat) and their scripture Zend Avesta is ‘Chandas’ Avesta (Please see my earlier articles on India- Iran connections)

Professors Bhagavat and Apte have in their ‘Key to interpret the Veda’, pointed out that there are references to the Persians and Parthians in the Rigveda  .

RV 1-105-8

sam maa tapanthi abhitah sapatnaariva parsavah

The Parshus ( Persians) harass me all round like cowives


RV 8-6-46

satamaham tirindire sahasram parsava dade radhaamsi yaadvaanaam

I wrested from the Yadva ( tribe)  one hundred cattle (in the province of ) Tirindira and one thousand cattle (in the province of ) Parshu .


RV 7-83-1

yuvaam naraa pasyamaanaasa  aapya praachaa gavyantah  pruthupasavo yayuh

Daasaa cha vrutraa hatamaaryaani  cha sudhaasamindraavarunaavasaavatahm

Oh you men, looking to you and your wealth the Pruthus and Parshus, fain for spoil, march forward. Oh Indra- Varuna, you smote and slew the Dasa and Aryan enemies, and helped Sudas with favour.

Prof.Ludwig also renders  ‘pruthuparsvah’  by Parthians and Persians.


According to PANINI 5-3-117, the words ‘paarsavah’ in the singular ‘parsavau’ in the dual and ‘parsavah’ in the plural, are taken as the name of a warrior tribe, the last of the three suggesting  the singular ‘parsu’

In the cuneiform inscriptions at Behitsan we have the countries Paarsah and Partava  which may be compared to Parsu and Pruthu in the Rigveda.


As has been shown by Dr Muir in his Sanskrit texts, the word Dasyu is used for men and not demons in the Aitareya Brahmana (7-18) and Manu Smrti (10-43), Mahabharata Shanti Parva (65-2429; 168-6293 and even some passages in the Rigveda (4-41-2, 6-14-3, 10-22-8).

He further says , “I have gone over the names of the Dasyus and Asuras mentioned in the Rigveda, with the view of discovering any of them  could be regarded as of Non-Aryan origin; but I have not observed any that appear of that character.

In the Manu Smrti, we were told (11-43/45) that the Kamboas, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas,  Pahlavas etc were  Dasyus. The Pahlavas were either Persians or Parthians, as several scholars have asserted. If then the Dasyus dwelt in India in the Vedic and Post Vedic times they probably included Pahlavas.



—- subham —

Tags – Persians, Zoroastrian, Origin,  Iran, in Rig Veda, Parsu, Pahlava, Parthian, Parsis



Post No. 10,566

Date uploaded in London – –    15 JANUARY   2022         

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Rig Veda (RV) is the oldest book in the world dated between 6000 BCE and 1500 BCE. Scholars say it should have taken at least 500 years ‘to compose’ them or ‘put together’ in the present form. That means we must give the oldest part  of it 2000 BCE if we accept 1500 BCE as the date of RV. But Hindu Panchangas (almanacs) are crystal clear about the date of Veda Vyasa and they give him 3150 BCE. That means Vedas are in current form for at least 5000 years. Vyasa was the saint who divided Vedas into four and entrusted them to four of his disciples.

God is called Doctor and Medicine in the Rig Veda. Though mantras dealing with all Vedic Gods associate them with medicine and cure, Rudra commands the highest position in the field of Medicine. He was called Bhisak/ Doctor and Bhesajam/Medicine. Later we come across Dhanvantri, the Father of Medicine. We should call him the ‘father of MODERN medicine’. He is considered as Vishnu or his Avatar. Hindus call any one with some Divine Qualities an Avatar/incarnation of God.

Tamil poet Valluvan also confirms it in his Kural couplet 50. Tiru Valluvar (Valluvan) justifies all the 10 to 24 Avatars of Vishnu by this couplet. So Dhanvantri is Vishnu.

The words BHESAJAM and BHISAK occur in Vishnu Sahasranama as well. But there they mention the birth and death cycle as disease and God is described the physician who cures that disease. Later Tamil and Sanskrit poets use this concept throughout their devotional literature. One Sangam Tamil poet extended this to a philanthropist and called him ‘You are the Physician who cures the disease called Hunger’. This is in 2000 year old poem. But the same Vishnu Sahasranama called God as Vaidya (doctor) and Oshadi (herbal medicine).

All these show the concern of Hindus regarding one’s health, whether it is spiritual, mental or physical.

But if we go by the number of references to Doctor and Medicine then Rudra comes first. Rudra is Lord Siva. 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature confirms it. Like Rig Veda Tamils never used SIVA until sixth century CE for Rudra. They used only his attributes such as Three Eyed, Blue Necked etc. In the same way Three Eyed -Trayambaka is in Rig Veda; Siva/auspicious as adjective is also in the Rig Veda.


References to Rudra in the Vedas

Yajur Veda (YV) has a part called Rudram-Chamakam. That is recited by all orthodox Saivite Hindus every day. The priests use it during Abishek of idols in all Siva Temples. Most sacred mantra OM NAMA SIVAYA and Trayambaka Mantra occur in it. God is praised as Bhesajam and Bhisak in it. But RV is older than YV.

Let us look at some of the mantras where physician and medicine occur in RV:-

1-43-2- Rudra’s medicines

1-43-4-Rudra, the possessor of healing remedies. Prayer for health and wealth.


Yajur Veda -Vajasaneyi Samhita 16-48; Taittriya samhita5-10-1

Prayer to Rudra for men and beasts to be prosperous and free from disease.

2    Prayer to obtain what health and wealth father

Manu acquired

5  Rudra carries in his hands the best remedies.

7  Prayer not to kill he old men, boys, fathers, mothers, adults, foetus, and our bodies.

8   Prayer not to kill our sons, grand sons, and men, cows ad horses.


May we increase in offering O Rudra

2   Prayer  for 100 years of life by Rudra’s blissful medicines. Put away far from us  sickness in all directions.

One YV mantra mentioned  Rudra has 1000 remedies.


Maruts and Medicine

Maruts /wind are considered sons of Rudra; he also has link   with medicine. Here are some RV references to Maruts and Medicine

RV 2-33-13

O Maruts, those pure medicines of yours.

RV 5-53-14

You shower down health and wealth, water and medicine, O Maruts.

RV 8-20-3

O bounteous Maruts, bring us some of your

Marut medicines


Whatever medicine there is on the

Sindhu , on the Askini , in the seas, on the mountains.



The man who offers gifts  to the Maruts , gains health and wealth, blessed with offspring.

This is not comprehensive. There are many more mantras linking Siva and Maruts with medicine. In addition we have other gods associated with medicine and medicine men. There are hundreds of mantras where Soma, herbs and Amrita are praised.


tags – Dr Rudra, Medicine, Physician, Doctor, in Rig Veda



Post No. 10,201

Date uploaded in London – 12 OCTOBER  2021         

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Rig Veda, the oldest book, and the oldest anthology in the world, contains many riddles. Sometimes the seers (Rishis) play with numbers, sometimes they play with words and sometimes with names. Even about the name, they talk about Secret Names of Gods. No one knows what they mean. Even the half baked, non- believers of Western countries could not say anything about them.

In the Yajur Veda the seers talk about 200 animals, plants, objects to be sacrificed in the Horse Sacrifice called Asvamedha. No one could identify several words in the list.  They don’t even know whether they mean a bird or insects or animals or plants!

Let us stick to Rig Veda and see how many unknown names crop up:


Seven and Three are found in Indus Valley seals . Among the Number Seals they are at the top. For Hindus everything Sacred is 7 or 3. Seven rivers, cities, hills, continents etc are Sacred for them. Here Sayana rightly says they are the seven tongues of Fire/ Agni. They are given names Kaali, Karaali etc.

Seven is associated with rain bow colours (VIBGYOR) and Hindus called them Seven Horses of the Chariot of Sun God.

Mr Dave describes Seven Sisters as a kind of birds in Eastern Part of the country. Even Sayana interprets Seven differently as 7 meters in prosody, Saptaswara in  Music. That is why Hindus said Veda is the root of the world :-


वेदोऽखिलो धर्ममूलं स्मृतिशीले च तद्विदाम् ।

आचारश्चैव साधूनामात्मनस्तुष्टिरेव च ॥ Manu 2-6

 “The whole Veda is the (first) root of the righteousness/ dharma/ religion and sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the Veda further, also the customs of holy men, and finally self-satisfaction”- MANU 2-6

पितृदेवमनुष्याणां वेदश्चक्षुः सनातनम् ।

अशक्यं चाप्रमेयं च वेदशास्त्रमिति स्थितिः ॥ Manu12-94॥

 “The Veda is the eternal eye of the ancestors, gods and humans; the teachings of the Vedas are impossible to master and impossible to measure; this is an established fact”- Manu 12-94


GANDHARVI : Rig Veda 10-11-2

Said to be the daughter of Surabhi, one of the daughters of Daksa and the Mother of the Race of Horses ( we are reminded of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels- Houyhnhnms are a fictional race of intelligent horses described in the last part of Jonathan Swift’s satirical 1726 novel Gulliver’s Travels. The name is pronounced either or. Swift apparently intended all words of the Houyhnhnm language to echo the neighing of horses)

(Seeds of all Hindu Mythologies are in the Rig Veda; one must  learn to read between the lines)



Kavyas – a class of manes, the spirits of a pious race of ancient times. No one knows who they are. Funeral hymns in the tenth Mandala are full of puzzles and riddles.

Matali is the charioteer of Indra; but in the Vanaparva of Mahabharata he is the pilot of Inter Galactic Space Shuttle who takes Indra to another galaxy and brings him back to earth. Even theory of Time Dilation is explained there. Stars are interpreted as departed pious people.


GHOSTS 10-14-9

According to Sayana, this stanza is addressed to the Pisacas/ ghosts and other evil spirits that haunts the place of cremation.

Sangam Tamil book Purananuru also talks about the spooky, eerie and unearthly things in the crematorium.

Next mantra talks about world’s first recorded dog Sarama’s two off springs, two dogs with four eyes. Sarama is Indra’s hound. Greeks borrowed this word from us and called Hermes (H=S in Greek; Sindhu becomes Hindu)


USANAN -10-22-6

Usanaa or Usanas Kavya is frequently mentioned in the Veda as a favoured friend and companion of Indra.

(Indra is a title; not a single person; it means leader)

In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna identifies himself with Usana among the Kavis/poets. Even during Rig Vedic days he became legendary. Probably the world’s first poet. He is known as Kavi. From him came Kavya; the oldest Tamil poet Tol Kappiyan also belongs to this clan. He is called Tol- Kavya. V=P/B are interchangeable. He is not the only one from this clan- Kavya Gotra; another Kaappiyaatru Kaappiyanaar of Sangam book Pathitru Pathu is also famous. They are all from Kerala, ancient Taml Chera Country.


SUSA, SUSI – 10-26-6

Ludwig says name of a man and a woman. According to Sayana and Wilson it is ‘he goat’ and ‘she goat’. But why Susa and Susi for goats? No explanation. This mantra also says about woollen garments

Vedic god Pusan has a goat drawn Chariot (it is in mantra 8). In later Puranas, the Vahana of Agni is also goat.



Here Sayana gives some interesting details about Soma herb. Its leaves grow for 15 days in the bright half of month and dies in the next fifteen days in the dark half of a month. So, Soma is punned with Soma/moon because of this quality. Now we know the reason Soma herb is named after Soma, the moon because of this. Hindus always link Moon and the growth of plants, unlike others. Scientists couldn’t agree with us.



For the purple tinted eagle, commentators say Soma, The Moon (My view is that Soma herb is always connected with the falcon or eagle in many verses. So, it is not moon).

And in the fifth mantra Soma Osadhi is interpreted as Dharba or Kusa grass. In short Soma is interpreted according to their whims and fancies!



Probably it meant two kinds of waters called Ekadhanaa and Vasativari.

( I don’t know what they mean; probably terms used in the Yaga??)



No one knows whether it is the name of a king or anyone that hears the hymn. Sayana interprets ‘the one who hear the praises’ (in the hymn); but others say it is the name of a King!!


DHUHISASU- 10-33-1

There is a scholarly discussion  on the word. Ludwig suspects it to be the name of a prince defeated by the king KURURSRAVANA. Literally the word means ‘the malevolent’.Ghost??


WOLF AND QUAIL- 10-39-13

Commentators say the quail is probably ‘Dawn’ delivered from the jaws of the wolf ‘Night’ by the TWIN LIGHT GODS. This is Yaska’s interpretation according to Sayana. Also in 1-112-8. Everyone, thus, agrees, that a lot of imagery, symbolism and allegory are in the Vedas. Wolf is not an animal here; quail is not a bird here!!!



Vaikunthaa was a female demon. Her son was Vaikuntha. That ‘Asuri’ woman becomes Indra’s second mother!

Saptagu means drawn by Seven Oxen!!



Commentators say apparently ‘Tree Demons’. Sangam Tamils said Anangus/ Nymphs live in lakes, ponds, rivers and on Trees. Later Hindu Tamil epics said Brahmarakshas live in natural spots.

In 1-53-8 also we come across them along with one more Asura Vangrda



KAVI, 10-49-3 father of Indra’s friend Usana


MRUGAYA, 10-49-5 A demon of the air.

Also occurring in 4-16-13 and 8-3-19

In Fourth Mandala, Mrgaya and Pipru are described as demons of the Air. And in the next line Indra is said to have struck down 50,000 black demons. Immediately the Anti Hindu Max Muller gang added it must be native aborigines!!! In all the world conflicts, we see enemies! But in Vedas only, all enemies are given Racial attributes!!! In 2000 year old Tamil literature Tamils killed only Tamils and they are all described as fiery enemies!!!


SRUTHARVARNAN -KING 10-49-5; may be a king.

PADGRIBI- DEMON  or some savage or enemy 10-49



VAGINAN – 10-56-2 it meant strong, strong steed; apparently the name of the deceased.

ASUNITI – 10-59- 5 it is assumed it is the personification of a deity presiding over the funeral

USEENARANI- 10-59-10- It must mean wife of Usinara. The meaning is not clear. With the same name some people in Madhya Pradesh are found.

ASAMAATI- 10-60-2 Sayana says it is the name of a king; others don’t agree and they say it meant Unequalled.

BAJERATHA VAMSAM- 10-60-2 Griffith writes it is un certain whether the name of a prince or a country!


BOAR- 10-67-7 Sayana says bearers of excellent water!

SEVEN SISTERS – 10-71-3 commentators say tone of seven singers. One ornithologist says it meant a kind of birds. Even today they are known as seven sisters in Bengal.

ARJIKIYA, SUSOMA, VIBHASA – 10-75-5 commentators couldn’t even recognise these rivers.

SILAMAVATI and URNAVATI ARE RIVERS – 10-75-8 but no one knows where they are. Sayana says they are Sindhu’s other names.


10-85 is the most famous Wedding Mantras, used even today by the Brahmin priests:-

RAIBHI 10-85-6

This and the following two are feminine names; they may be secular songs; only a guess




KOSAM 10-85-7 some say bridal outfit; others say chariot part; only a guess

KRTHYA 10-85-28 it may be the name of a deity or an evil spirit or demon



Some interpret it as parts of wedding dress; others as cutting, chopping meat. Hindus never serve non vegetarian food in weddings.

Even in wedding mantras (10-85) foreign translators could not get the meaning. They add ‘may be, probably’ etc. They say the wedding mantras are latest part of Vedas and yet they couldn’t get the meaning!



tags- Soma plant, Demons, Asuras, Ghosts, Evil Spirits, in Rig Veda

Kerala in the Rigveda?Dakshina patha in the Rig Veda? No!!! (Post No.9421)


Post No. 9421

Date uploaded in London – –25 MARCH  2021     

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 Kerala, the ancient Chera country, is considered the Land of Parasurama. His hymn and His father Jamadagni’s hymns are in the Rig Veda. And 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature also refer to Parasurama. He is one of the Ten Avatars of Lord Vishnu. So we have to consider seriously a ‘hymn’ where Chera Nadu is mentioned in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world. Because of different interpretations, the hymn was not much debated or discussed. Now is the time to probe more into it.

Here is the ‘hymn’ and its different interpretations: –

P T Srinivasa Iyengar says in his History of the Tamils, the following. But there is no Rig Vedic Verse 7-101-14!!!!Probably he is misquoting:-

tags — Dakshinapatha, South India, Kerala, in Rig Veda,  Dakshina

Mahabharata and Ramayana Kings in the Rig Veda (Post No.9347)


Post No. 9347

Date uploaded in London – –6 MARCH  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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Mahabharata and Ramayana Kings in the Rig Veda

Rigveda is the oldest available text giving the history of mankind. It is dated between 4500 BCE and 2000 BCE . When Max muller dated it 1200 BCE, he was attacked by other Indologists. Then he went back saying no one can date the Vedas.

The hymns of the Vedas were composed literally for hundreds of years. The latest hymn is by Devapi, brother of King Shantanu.

Shantanu was the great grandfather of the Kauravas and Pandavas, who fought the Bharata War that happened in 3101 BCE.

Shantanu came four generations prior to Pandavas and Kauravas, which was also Krishna’s life time. That means the latest book of the Rigveda was composed about 5200 years ago . According to Brihaddevata and the Nirukta, Devapi composed the Rain

tags-  Devapi, Jamadagni, Rama,in Rig Veda




 Date: 24 AUGUST 2019  

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 17-35

Post No. 6928

 Pictures are taken from various sources; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both blogs 12,000.

Seven Sisters in Melbourne, Australia

Seven in Rig Veda

Seven is the most sacred number for Hindus. Anything holy, they count in seven, whether it is hills, rivers, forests, cities, holy women or holy men to remember (sapta kanya, sapta nadhi, sapta Rishi, sapta mokshapuri, sapta aranya etc). Seven is found in largest number of seals in Indus valley. The Seven Sister seal in the Indus is a famous one. Most of the Hindu temples have Sapt Kanya/ seven women statues in South India. The story of Seven Sisters is there in several parts of the world from Australian aborigines to ancient Greeks.

Mr Dave even identified seven birds in Rig Veda as seven sisters known to Bengalis (Bengalis call these seven birds as seven sisters). Birds in Sanskrit Literature by K.N Dave

Varunan with seven sisters is found in Rik Veda 8-41

Seven rivers of Punjab are mentioned in Rig Veda as Sapta Sindhu.

“Seven to the one-wheeled chariot yoke the Courser ;bearing seven names the single Courser draw it.

Three-naved the wheel is, sound and undecaying, whereon are still resting alhese worlds of being.”- 1-164-2

“The seven who on the seven wheeled car are mounted to have horses, seven in tale, who draw them onward.

Seven sisters utter songs of praise together, in whom the names of the seven cows are treasured.”- 1-164-3

Seven Sisters seal is found in the Indus valley civilisation as well.

The Seven: according to Sayana, the seven solar rays, or seven divisions of the year.

Seven sisters: Probably the seven celestial rivers, which as emblems of fertility may bear the name of cows.

Seven Vedic Metres including Gayatri are mentioned by the poet.

Hymn 1-164

Dirgatamas’ hymn 1-164 is one of the longest hymns the Rig Veda. He talks about various subjects in a coded language with lot of symbolism.

In the hymn, mantra 24 refers to the seven speeches

Mantra 24 points out that this faculty of speech is found only in the human beiges.

Mantra 45 gives information about the divisions of speech. Grammarian Patanjali and others also discussed this in detail.

Hymn 4-58

Patanjali referred to part of this hymn. The four parts of speech are explained here. Patanjali discusses seven cases and the three originating centres of pronunciation.

Hymn 8-59

Some of the most prominent observations of this hymn are as follows:

The ultimate truth is brought forth through the medium of seven-fold speech

These seven folds or divisions of speech are seven sisters of the ultimate truth

Speech protects us through its seven physical and three temporal divisions. And

three chief aspects of speech-behaviour are mental, and intellectual faculties, coupled with the acquired knowledge.

Hymn 10-71

This hymn is most important and is solely devoted to the linguistic observations alone, some of which are as follows:

An initial expression of name is indicative of a wholesome integrated expression of the accumulated ideas in the speaker’s mind. Thus, it originates as a representative of complete statement.

The emotions are desires of the Self are filtered in the mind, from where it takes the shape of words or speech, which is expressed externally with the help of the articulatory forces.

Thus, a word takes its usable form first in one’s mind which is then pronounced from seven places and in different tones.

Speech and language are not only the objects ears and eyes alone; no one can understand it without the help of mind, the sharpness of otherwise of which makes the difference in one’s power of understanding.

With only training and knowledge, we can learn the correct usage of the language and avoid its misuse, generated mostly from our ignorance.

Hymn 10-114

In at least six verses of this hymn, different aspects of linguistic phenomenon have been discussed. In the fourth and fifth verses, the principle of multiple exprepressibility of one and the same truth has been stressed explicitly. The seventh verse declares that the seven fold speech is capable to express all expressible forms.


Story from Australia:

Seven wandering ancestral heroines of the Dream time, also referred to their aboriginal name KUNGARANKALPA. The complete route of the sisters has been pieced together from stories told about them by different aboriginal clans living along its course. On reaching the southern coast, the seven sisters went in to the sea and then leaped in to the sky. Once in the sky they became the constellation KURIYALA (The Pleiades). Hindus call this six Krithikas. Westerners call this constellation Seven Sisters. This tallies somewhat with Hindu counting One Skanda+looked after by six sisters=seven).

Ancient San Rock paintings in South Africa have seven women as a group.


Yupa Post in Sangam Tamil Literature and Rig Veda (Post No.4942)

Yupa post in Gold Coins of Gupta Emperors



Date: 23 April 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-51 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 4942


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.






Yupa Post in Sangam Tamil Literature and Rig Veda (Post No.4942)
The Yupa was a high wooden post erected eastward of the Supreme Fire altar, with much ceremony, immediately after the transfer of the sacred fire and the offerings had been accomplished. It’s object was to hold the living victims bound upon it for sacrifice. It was itself an object of adoration, being anointed with sacred ghee, the melted butter.

It had three prongs or forks RV 1-24-13,being more or less like a trident. It was made of various woods, according to the object of the sacrifice. In the Rajasuya ,it was made of Khadira wood I.e. Catechu acacia, a forest tree, a native to India most valuable especially for its medicinal qualities.

Pandya Coin with Yupa post

Yupa in Sangam Tamil Literature

The Rig Vedic Sanskrit word YUPA is used in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature without any change i.e. same Sanskrit word Yupa is used. In some other places it is called sacrifice post in Tamil (Velvi Nedunthunam).

Yupa is found in

purananuru vereses 15, 224

Perumpaanatruppadai- line 315

pathitrupathu 67-10


Velvi (sacrifie) occurs in at least 15 places. Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994), Shankaracharya of Kamakoti Peetam at Kancheepuram said the pure Tamil word Velvi in 2000 old literature shows that it is very familiar with the Tamils and part of their life.


Tamils were great fire worshippers. They did several Yagas (fire sacrifices)


Moreover the world famous Sanskrit poet Kalidasa in his Raguvamsa, written in the first century or second century BCE (see my research paper on his date) introduce Pandya King as the one who is always seen choked with Avabruda Snanam (bath during Fire Sacrifices).

Pal Yagasala Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi, a Pandya king,  performed several Yagas and his country was full of Yupa Pillars. With his name Peruvazuthi, a coin with a horse,  is discovered. This confirms that he did Asvamedha Yajnam. Kalidasa, in his Raguvamsa, talks about Agastya and Pandya and mentioned Avabrutha Snana, which is performed during big Yajnas. Another Choza king, Perunarkilli, performed Rajasuya Yajna. Karikar Choza, the greatest of the Choza kings, did yaga with eagle shaped Yaga Kunda (altar) according to Tamil literature


Nettimaiyar, one of the oldest poets of Sangam period, wonders ,“Oh! Pandya! please tell me whether the number of Yupa posts you installed more? Or the number of enemies you defeated more? Or the praises by the poets more?” (Pura.15)
Verse 224 praised the greatest of the Chola kings Karikalan for installing the tall Yupa post in the midst of eagle shaped Yaga Kunda.

Mulavarman, a fourth century king did a Yagna and installed seven Yupa posts to commemorate it in Borneo island of Indonesia. It was discovered in an area covered by very thick forests. Varman is a surname of Pallava Kings of Tamil Nadu.

All the Gupta emperors and most of the Satavahanas did great Fire sacrifices including Asvamedha Yajna.

Dr Martin Haug says that the name Yupa contains a pun on the Sanskrit word Yuva, a youth. The Aitareya Brahmana 2-1 however derive s it from yoyuupYan, they debarred, and relates a curious legend of the gods attempting to bar mankind from the knowledge of the sacrifice by its means.
There are other speculations as to the root of the word, Sat.Br 3-6-4.
It is probable that the term youth was used in reference to it’s decorations with ribbons corresponding to the then style of youthful dress.

No one was killed, No animal was killed

Sayana,the ancient Hindu commentator, observes here, that although at a sacrifice men and animals were bound to the Yupa post, yet both men and beasts were set free immediately after the fire had been carried round them. Everybody accepts Sayana’s commentary.

It is elsewhere said that after recitation of Purusha suukta RV 10-90, in which mystic immolation of Prajapati, the creator himself. Is described and after fire had been carried around them they were to be released , and an offering of melted butter made in their stead.
The reference s quoted are Sat.br 13-6-2-1
Van.Sam. 30
Taitr.Bra. 3-1-4
Kat.srauta sutra 21-1-1

In any sacrifice the consent of the victim is essential. Animals were theoretically supposed to be consenting parties to their own immolation.


Many texts might be quoted on the point, but the following two will suffice:

The animal when carried to the altar, saw death before it. Not wishing to go to the gods, the gods said to it, ‘Come we will bring you to heaven. Then the animal consented (Ait.Br.Vol 2, p.86)

Accordingly, the animals resigned themselves, and became favourably disposed to the slaughtering (Sat.Br.3-7-3-5)


It is also said that the animals will faint as soon as the mantras are said.

Yupa post close up picture

Interesting Story from Mahabharata

The point is further illustrated by a story in the fourteenth book of the Mahabharata. Krishna and Arjuna, disguised as Brahmins, telling Raja Mewaradwaja that a tiger had carried away the son of Krishna, and could only be appeased by being given half the body of the Raja’s (King’s) son; the king immediately agreed to sacrifice himself and directed his wife and son to cut him into two. But Krishna saw a tear in the victim’s left eye. He stopped the sacrifice, as the offering was an unwilling one.

So we can summarise

1.that no animal or man can be sacrificed without consent

2.the victims who were tied to the post were released as soon as the fire was carried around them. So the animal or human sacrifice was only symbolic.

3.We hear the story of first intended human sacrifice—the story of Sunashepa- happenedduring the 28 the king of Solar dynasty, Ikshvaku being the first king. So before Harischandra there was none or after Harischandra none was taken to sacrifice. That means it was only symbolic, because even Sunashepa was ‘rescued’ by Visvamitra.

Yupa is found in

RV 5-2-7 ( of Sunashepa); 1-51-14

AV 9-6-22; 12-1-38;13-1-47

Tait.sam 6-3-4; 7-2-1

Vaja. am.19-17



Yupa post | Tamil and Vedas


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Ancient name of the river is Parusni. There is a similar sounding word Hariyupia – in the Rig Veda. Few scholars identify it with Harappa of Indus Valley Civilization. Rig Veda describes it a as a Vedic city with Yupa posts of golden colours!! Rig Vedic Index by A B Keith and A A Macdonell gives the following information:.


Fire altar Mystery in Sangam Literature

mystery solved | Tamil and Vedas

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2 Aug 2016 – –source: A Dictionary of Vedic Rituals. Tamil Mystery solved! My comments: There is a verse in Sangam Tamil literature (Akananuru verse 361) where a simile about a tortoise is not explained by any one Tamil commentator correctly. After reading the above passage of placing a live tortoise on a layer, we …








WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 


Date: 8 April 2018


Time uploaded in London –  20-38 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 4896


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.






Rig Veda is a treasure house. It is the encyclopaedia of human race. Since it is the only book about humanity in the ancient world, everything said in it is carefully analysed. There is a beautiful poem about Forest and Queen of the Forest in the tenth mandala, the last of the ten mandalas/divisions in the Rig Veda.

We come across beautiful description of the forest by the poet. The queen of the forest is called ARANYAANI. The beauty of the word ARANYAM is that it is found in all Indian languages including Tamil. Vedaranyam, Dharbaranyam (Tirunallaru), Vadaranyam (Tiru Alankadu) in Tamil Nadu, Naimisaranyam, Dandakaranyam in the North are famous.

Like many Rig Vedic words, it is very common. The Goddess of the Forest is addressed by the poet.

This highlights many points

Hindus cared about environment several thousand years before any other community in the world.

Hindus appreciated and respected nature than any other community. Note the words Queen, Goddess etc.

Hindus worshipped everything in Nature.

The method of addressing is followed even by the 2000 year old Tamil Sangam poets: The poet says Aranyaanii! Aranyaanii! Tamils used such repetitions in Purananauru verses–195, 228, 256, 285, 301 etc


Let us look at the short poem or hymn now:

1.Goddess of the Forest! Goddess of the Forest! who seem to vanish from the sight.

How is it you seek not the village? Are you not afraid?

2.What time the grasshopper replies and swells the shrill Chichika bird’s voice

seeming to sound the tinkling bells, the Lady of the Wood exults

3.And yonder, cattle seem to graze, what seems a dwelling place appears;

Or else at evening the Lady of the Forest seems to free the wains.

4.Here one is calling to his house, another has felled the tree;

At evening the dweller in the wood fancies that somebody has screamed.

5.The Goddess never slays, unless some murderous enemy approach

She eats fruit and then takes, even as she wills, rest.

6.Now have I praised the Forest Queen, sweet scented, redolent of balm,

The Mother of all Sylvan things, who tills not but has stores of food.

–Rig Veda 10-146


Probably this is the oldest and most beautiful poem on Forest. The scent of the forest, the sounds heard in the forest, the strength of the forest (she doesn’t need to plough and cultivate), the vegetarian food of the forest queen, the title as Queen, the status as Goddess- all such words and epithets show great appreciation for the forest.


One wonders how come the forest is not afraid, but every one of us fears it because of the wild animals and the robbers hiding there.

The chirping of the birds and crickets is not missed by the poet.

The evening scenes are picturesque: – a cart is rolling, cows are mowing, some sounds similar to crying (from animals) are heard, someone sees a house at a distance with lamps perhaps.


The forest never hurts any one unless a person hurts it.  The forest never cultivates, ploughs or raise trees; but they grow on their own and always full of fruits—all appreciation!


It is as if we are beginning to read a story or novel. The authors always describe such scenes and proceed to their plot of the story.

If we imagine that this hymn is sung in the Bhoopaala Raga, it will add more colour to it.

In Sanskrit and Tamil we have Suprabatham and Tiru Palli Ezuchi. It may be the prelude to that genre.








Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 23 October 2017


Time uploaded in London- 20–15



Post No. 4329

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

We know that the Rig Veda is the oldest religious book in the world; we know that Rig Veda is the first anthology in the world; we know that Rig Veda gives a list of 400 plus poets who were here 6000 years ago. It is amazing to see such a long list of poets several thousand years ago; No language has such a long list of firsts in the modern world.


Foreigners, particularly Max Muller and Marxists, dubbed them silly, ‘mostly childish’ with one or two rare gems here and there. They also said you cannot see high philosophy in it. I give below some excerpts of lectures delivered by Dr Ghate in University of Bombay 100 years ago:–


“Do you, young readers, come to the Rig Veda (RV) with the hope of finding in it the most sublime poetry? Then I am not surprised at the disappointment which would be in store for you.

You must not expect to find in the RV the smooth and melodious verses of KALIDASA,

nor the deep and heart-rending emotions of BHAVABUTI,

nor the polished and jingling music of DANDIN,

nor the elaborate and highly finished art of MAGHA,

nor the deep significance of BHARAVI,

nor the bewilderingly complex phrases of BANA.

All the same it cannot be denied that the hymns of the RV, at least some of them are such as goddess of poetry would be proud of.


The freshness and beautiful imagery which characterize the hymns addressed to Ushas (aurora), the heroic simplicity of some of the hymns addressed to Indra (the Thundering Bull), the homeliness which pervades some of the hymns to Agni, cannot but appeal to a sympathetic and appreciative reader. Though the RV as a book of poetry cannot at all stand comparison with the best specimens of Sanskrit classical poetry, still it has something indescribable in it which cannot be slightly passed over”


Rig Veda is not a ‘poetry book’, i.e. nobody praised it as a poetry book. It is valued because it is a book of hymns. Moreover, 5000 or 6000 years ago, the world has no civilisation at all. Egypt, Babylonia, Mayan, Chinese, Greek civilisations came after the RV, if we go by the modern date of RV. Astronomically Tilak and Jacobi placed it in 4500 BCE and latest Saraswati River Research and NASA satellite images place RV before Indus Valley Civilization, i.e. 2500 BCE or before. Hindus believe that Vyasa divided the Vedas into four around 3102 BCE. So when there is no civilization in any part of the world we see 400 plus poets who sang religious songs on the banks of the mighty, ocean like River Sarswati. We even know they did not ‘compose’ but they gave us what they ‘heard’ (Sruti in Sanskrit, Kelvi in Tamil).


Is there Philosophy before the Upanishads?

I will give some excerpts from Bombay University lecture by Dr Ghate:

“So far I have spoken about the mythology of the Rig Veda (RV). Before concluding, I should like to make few remarks on the philosophy of the RV:-

“India is often spoken as the cradle of philosophy. Nowhere are made so bold and daring attempts to solve the riddle of the universes as in India, where there lived kings like JANAKA and AJATASATRU, Brahmins like YAAJNAVALKYA and NACHIKETAS, philosophers as SANKARA and KUMARILA. So the student of the RV will naturally be curious to know what philosophy is taught in the RV. He has, however to be warned, that no cut  and dry system is taught here, for which he has to go to SUTRAS. Nor do philosophic speculations form the main burden of the RV as they do in the case of the UPANISHADS.


However, the seeds of the Upanishad thought are seen scattered about here and there in the Samhita (Hymns) of the RV. Though the general religion of the RV refers to a plurality of nature gods, still the tendency to monism is distinctly in some of the hymns. Just as the Rishis (seers) thought that the several natural phenomena had some divine forces behind them which were personified into so many gods, in the same way they advanced one step further and came to think that all these were the aspects of one and the same all-pervading divine force which manifested itself in different ways. Thus there was a transition from many gods to one god. Thus in 1-164-46, we have, “They call it Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Agni or the heavenly Garutmath (the sun). The sages call the One Being in many ways; they call it Agni, Yama and Matariswan. Here the several Vedic gods are stated to be one being. This whole hymn (1-164) is nothing but a collection of fifty verses poetry, all of them except one, being riddles whose answers are not given. “The subjects of these riddles are cosmic, that is, pertaining to the nature phenomena of the universe: mythological, that is, referring to the accepted legends about the god; psychological that is, pertaining to the human organs and sensations of finally crude and tentative philosophy or theosophy. Heaven and Earth, Sun and Moon, air, clouds and rain; the course of the sun, the year, the seasons, months days and nights; human voice, self-consciousness of life and death; the origin of the first creature and the originator of the universe – such are the abrupt and bold themes” (from Bloomsfield).


The idea that the dead forefathers are dwelling in another world, in the company of gods, where we ourselves to go after death, seem to be expressed or implied in several places.

Thus, we have in 1-91-1, “under your guidance, O Indra, our wise fathers received their share of treasurers among the gods;”

so also 1-125-5. The thirst for life haunts the mind of the Rishis and he leads himself to believe that the life after death in the world of the gods and fathers, is eternal, at least as compared with the life on this earth. Thus in 5-55-4 and 5-63-2 the life is called AMRUTATVA or IMMORTALITY.


Questions concerning the beginning and origin of all things were asked and answered by the Vedic Rishis. Thus, in the hymn 10-121 Hiranyagarbha (golden egg) is described as existing in the beginning of the creation, the sole Lord of beings, supporting heaven and earth.


In 10-90 hymn popularly known as Purushasukta, the idea that the whole world is one being, the Viratpurusha, who having pervaded the world from all sides, still remained over and above it, is dealt with.


In the hymn 10-82, waters are spoken of as being the first substance or prime cause.


In hymn 10-125, Vak (speech) is represented as the companion and upholder of the gods and as the foundation of all religious activity and its attendant boons.


Hymn 10-129 is a typical hymn in this connection. It is called the Creation hymn. Deussen says of this hymn: “In its noble simplicity, in the loftiness of its philosophic vision, it is possibly the most admirable bit of philosophy of olden times… No translation can ever do justice to the beauty of the original”

The avowed purpose of all philosophy is to account for the presence of the world and its contents as something which is not self-evident, and needs to be explained beyond the point of mere individual experience, or analysis through empirical knowledge. The creation hymn performs this act not without some unsteadiness and with petulance due to scepticism. In putting forth a fundamental principle without personality it does not fall far behind the best thought of later times inside or outside India.”.

One thing, however, must be noted and it is that pessimism and metempsychosis, the two main threads which are oven in everything Indian, and which are he distinguishing traits thereof, are wanting in the early philosophy of the Vedas.”



Modern translations and interpretations give more information on the philosophy of the Vedas. Traditionalists believe that all the philosophical of ancient India existed from the very beginning. They called it the ‘Conclusions of the Vedas’ Vedanta (literally End of Vedas). Dr Ghate’s view was the one held by foregners.


Source: Ghate’s Lectures on Rig Veda, Revised and Enlarged by Dr V S Suktankar, Oriental Book Agency, Poona 2, 1966 (First Edition 1915)