Chanakya and Valluvar (Post No.4530)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-09 am

 

 

Post No. 4530

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Part 3 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4530)

 

 

Please read the first two parts where the books are introduced. Here Dikshitar ompared Chanakya with Valluvar:—-

 

Kural 126 (Self Control)

Like tortoise, who the five restrains

In one, though seven worlds bliss obtains

The Bhagavad Gita says that as a tortoise will restrain all limbs into itself, he who would restrain his sense will attain wisdom 2-58

xxx

Kural 226 (Charity)

Let men relieve the wasting hunger men endure;

For treasure gained thus finds one treasure-house secure.

Manu rules to this effect: One must not eat oneself without feeding the guest first; feeding of guests leads to wealth, health, fame and heaven- Manu 3-106

xxx

Kural 256 (Vegetarianism)

We eat the slain you say, ‘by us no living creatures die;

Who’d kill and sell, I pray, if none came there the flesh to buy?

Manu says, “He who approves of the killing of an animal, who preserves the slaughtered body, who kills it, who buys and sells it, who cooks it and who serves it, and who makes a meal of it are to be termed Killers” Manu 5-51

xxx

Kural 257 (Vegetarianism)

With other beings ulcerous wounds their hunger may appease

If this they felt, desire to eat must surely ease

According to Manu, having learnt the origin of flesh (meat) and the killing of creatures, one will refrain from taking any kind of meat-5-49, 52 .

 

xxx

Kural 259 (Vegetarianism)

Than thousand rich oblations, with libations rare,

Better the flesh of slaughtered beings not to share.

Manu’s ruling is similar:

He who would perform a hundred Asvamedha sacrifices year after year and he who would refrain from flesh eating are equal so far the attainments of fruits is concerned– Manu 5-53

xxx

Kural 268 (Penance)

Who gains himself in utter self-control

Him worships every other living soul.

In Manu, one should endeavour day and night to conquer the senses; and one who conquer his senses is able to have all people under his control- Manu 7-44

xxx

Kural 299 (Truthfulness)

Every lamp is not a lamp in wise men’s sight:

That is the lamp with truth’s pure radiance bright

In the Bhagavad Gita, The Yogi controlled, self engaged, in meditation, is likened to a lamp that is still in a windless place Bhagavad Gita 6-19

xxx

Kural 330 (Violence)

Who had a loathed life, in bodies sorely pained,

Are men, the wise declare, by guilt of slaughter stained.

 

In the Laws of Manu, it is said that he who causes the killing of prohibited animals for his own happiness is considered to be dead, though living, for he never attains happiness- Manu 5-45

 

xxx

Kural 339 (Instability)

Death is sinking into slumbers deep; Birth again is waking out of sleep.

 

The Bhagavad Gita furnishes a parallel: There is certain death to one who is born, and there is certain birth to one dead –Bhagavad Gita6-63)

 

xxx Arattup paal finished xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

PORUTPAAL; CHANAKYA’S ARTHASASTRA COMPARED

Chanakya is also known as  Kautilya.

 

Kural 381 (Leader/ King)

 

An army, people, wealth, a minister, friends, fort;

six things—

Who owns them all, a lion lives amid the kings.

 

Kautilya’s Artha sastra prescribes:

The king, minister, territory, fort treasury, army friends constitute the elements of a state………….. He wh possesses these and who follows the righteous policy is able to conquer the whole earth and is never defeated.

—Book 6-1 cf.Kamandaka 1-18

xxx

Kural 385 (Leader- King)

A king is he who treasure gains, stores up, defends,

And duty for his kingdom’s weal expends

 

The Kamandaka Nitisastra furnishes a parallel:

The four fold functions of the king are to acquie wealth by equitable means, to preserv it, to augument it, and then expend it on the deserving.

Kamandaka 1-20

xxx

Kural 390 (King/ Leader)

Gifts, grace, right sceptre, care f people’s weal;

These four a light of dreaded king reveal

 

is corroborated by the Kamandaki

Pleasant speech, grace gifts, protection of the poor and the distressed, and association with men of character are recognised by the world as the right thing.

–kamandaki 3-2

xxx

Kural 391 (Study/ Learning)

So lean that you may full and faultless learning gain,

Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.

 

According to the Arthasastra, sciences should be studied under qualified teachers and their precepts duly followed……………Discipline is the fruit of learning.

–Book 1-5, Arthasastra.

xxx

 

Kural 411(Listening)

Wealth of wealth is wealth acquired by ear attent;

Wealth mid al wealth supremely excellent.

The Kautilya (Chanakya) says:

Hearing opens the door to knowledge, knowledge to right action, and right action to knowledge of one’s self. This is what constitutes vidyaa.

—Book 1- chapter 5 of Arthasastra.

 

xxx

Kural 427 (Knowledge)

The wise discern, the foolish fail to see,

And minds prepare for things about to be

In the Arthasastra, he who possesses the eye of knowledge and science, is able to discern the true thing with a little effort.

Arthasastra ,Book 9, chapter 1

xxx

Kural 441 (Great men)

As friends the men who virtue know, and riper wisdom share,

Their worth weighed well, the king should choose with care.

The prescription of Bhradwaja is that companions whose honesty and skill have been put to satisfactory tests shall be appointed ministers.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8

 

xxx

Kural 447 (Great men)

What power can work his fall, who faithful ministers,

Employs, that thunder out reproaches when he errs.

The Arthasastra prescribes that a king should select such ministers whose loyalty has been tried and who would protect him from risks involving danger to life.

–Arthasastra, Book 1-8

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Kural 462 and Kural 470 (Consideration/ On the right Forethought)

With chosen friends deliberate; next use they private thought;

Then act. By those who thus proceed all works with ease are wrought .

 

Plan and perform no work that others may despise;

What misbeseems a king the world will not aprroe as wise.

-The Arthasastra says

All undertakings are to be preceded by mantra or counsel………. Let the king review the works with the ministers present……….. That which gives fruition and is advocated by the best men must be done

–Arthasastra, Book 1-15

to be continued……………………

–Subham–

 

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