Parachuting and Mountaineering in Ancient Hindu Scriptures!!


Compiled by London Swaminathan

Research Article No.1893;  Dated 27 May 2015.

Uploaded at London time 19-43

We have already seen the frequent trips of Lord Krishna and Balarama between Mathura in Uttarpradesh and Dwaraka in Gujarat. We have also seen Bharata’s urgent trip from Iran-Afghan border to Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh. We have read about how Ravana used Godavari basin and Himalayan foot hills as his play ground using the monsoon wind to travel from Sri Lanka. The same monsoon wind was used by Asoka’s daughter Sangamitra and his son Mahindra to travel to Sri Lanka in seven days from Patna. Sangam Tamil book Purananuru says Karikal Choza used wind power to sail in the seas I have written separate research article on each one of these adventures. This is all started in the age of the Rig Veda where Bhujyu was saved from a shipwreck in the middle of the sea by Asvins. Rig Veda has at least ten references to Bhujyu incidents. Probably they knew how to use the monsoon and returning monsoon.

Panini who lived around 7th century BCE describes several paths such as Varipatha (Sea Route),Karipatha (elephant/Forest route), ajapatha (Mountain goat route), Sankupatha (Mountain climbing with hooks and rope), Hamsapatha (Air route; using air planes like Ravana, Kubera, Uparichara, Arjuna, Matali and Rama) and Devapatha (space travel like Narada, Matali and Rishis;Tri Loka Sanchari)

The commentary of Katyayana on certain Panini sutra (Devapathathi Gana 5-3-100) gives this information.


But a later work in Pali,  ‘Niddesa’ (circa 250 BCE) describes more routes in a fanciful story according to Aryatarangini written by A.Kalyanaraman. It is an encyclopaedic work on Hindu influence around the world.

Twenty four places, all harbours, visited by a ship captain and ten difficult land routes likely to be traversed by him after reaching his destination are described. This shows that around fourth century BCE Indians were very familiar with all the ports from Alexandria in Egypt to Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.

Brihatkatha gives details of ten routes in another story. Sanudasa joins King Acera, who is on an expedition to the Land of Gold (Suvarnabhumi). The paths they cross are

Vetrapatha:Catching hold of giant climbers and jump from one cliff to another or from one tree to another (like we see in Tarzan movies). Vetra means climber or flexy wood.

Vamsapatha: Bamboo path. They cross a river which turns every tree into stone when it falls into the river (Actually they are fossilised trees).Vamasa means bamboo.

Ajapatha: They buy some goats from the Kiratas (hunter tribe) to cross the mountain terrain. Aja means goat.

Acera who came with his troops asked his soldiers to kill the goats and expose the bloody flesh to attract the birds of prey.

Sakunapatha: Huge birds come and try to take the meat. Sanudasa and Acera cling to the birds so as to reach the gold mines. This gave birth to Stories like Sindbad the sailor. This type of using eagles to bring emeralds, Soma plant are in the Rig Veda and Kalidasa’s works. Sakuna means bird.


Mandhapatha:Ram instead of goat.

Janupatha: Crawling route.

Sankupatha: An iron hook attached to a rope of skin, is thrown up till the hook is fixed up in the mountain. After climbing up to the point, he used a diamond tipped instrument to make big hole and insert a spear. From there he throws up his hook to reach higher and higher. Hindus used monitor lizard or iguana to climb the walls of the fort. But it won’t work in mountain territory.



Mushikapatha: Mushika is mouse or rat. Tunnelling and using the tunnel to cross the path.

Daripatha : Something similar to tunnelling

Danipatha :It is making a cave or cleft in a rock to cross difficult terrain.

Katyayana, writing in fifth century BCE, mentions most of the routes and the Milinda panna agrees with the Vartika of Katyayana.



If they can use such pathas in stories like Brihat katha, common men must also be familiar with them. Another interesting thing is that the English word ‘Path’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘patha’. This word is in the Rig Veda. Even Tamils use the word ‘Paathai’ in day to day language.

Routes mentioned in the Rig Veda

Vari patha (Sea route) and Vanikpatha (Commercial Route) are mentioned in the Arthasatra of Chanakya (3rd century BCE). Bhagwan Singh in his book “Vedic Harappans” add more interesting details:

Varipatha and Vanik patha are in the Rig Veda. The Vedic Aryans express their gratitude to Indra for digging these routes (4-19-6) and for removing the obstacles from these routes by annihilating robbers and pirates (1-80-3; 4-28-1;10-67-12) and to the gods, ancient seers and manes for discovery or creation of land routes (6-21-12). What was it that bound them so intimately to the rivers that they refer time and again to them as “nadyah, sindhavah, sravantyah, Sapta Sindhavh, trisapta sindhavah and Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati etc? The answer is not far to seek. The rivers were the trunk routes of the Vedic times as they happened to be in later days as well, but not with as much traffic”.

Manu’s flood story has spread to the whole world. Nova in the Biblical story itself is a Sanskrit word. Nava is ship in Sanskrit. Nava is new in Sanskrit. Both apply to the story.


Hindu gods are floating on water. Nara+ayana. The very word Nara(yana) and Tamil word Neer for water is derived from Sanskrit word Nara. The proof lies in the Greek ‘Nereids’ (Water nymphs). The word existed even before Tamils started writing. Nara is in the Vedas existed even before Greeks started writing. So we know that is derived from the Vedas. Above all Hindus birth starts with water ceremony and ends with water (funeral) ceremony. Without water Hindu religion or rituals can’t survive.

Like Egyptians buried a boat with the Pharaoh to help him to cross the sky, Brahmin funeral ceremony includes boat(Made up of leaves) for the soul to cross the River Vaitarani. All these show that the boat is very familiar with the Hindus. It is even in the Vedic Funeral ceremonies! Indus valley boat and the direction finding bird are also mentioned in the Vedic literature.