Why did I write Natyasastra?- Bharata Muni Story (Post No.9882)

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Post No. 9882

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Atreya asked Bharata the reason for writing Natya sastra.

Bharata said,

Natyaveda was created by Brahma. Long long ago people of this world, goaded by greed and avarice, and jealousy and anger took to uncivilised ways of life.(Literally Gramya = vulgar).

The world was then inhabited by Gods, Demons, Yakshas Rakshasas, Nagas and Gandharvas . Various lords were ruling. At that time gods led by Mahendra approached Brahma and requested him to give them something which would not only teach them but be pleasing both to eyes and ears. Since Sudras are not allowed to listen to Vedas why not create a fifth Veda which would be accessible to all varnas/ castes

Brahma agreed. He dismissed the petitioners and meditated in solitude. Then he took

words from the Rigveda,

music from Sama veda,

movements and make up from Yajur veda and

emotional acting from the Atharvanaveda.

Then he called Indra and others and said,

Here is the Natyaveda. Let the Suras/Devas practise it. It requires persons who are smart, intelligent, observant and self controlled.

Indra pondered and then said that the Suras were unable to practise it since they did not have all the qualifications. Sages are self controlled and grasped with the Vedic knowledge. Then Brahma entrusted it to me.

Brahma said to me

You have a large number of sons and students and so you practise it. So I practised it with my sons and trained them in words, emotions and movements:_

Bharati

Sattavati

Arabhati and

Vrtti

When I informed Brahma what I have done, he promised me to give all the materials required. I myself had seen Siva dancing with movements, gestures and emotions. When I said females were good to perform with grace, he created Apasaras. He created Narada and Gandharva to sing. He provided Swati and his disciples to play on instruments

When I reported to him all the practices were done, rehearsals over, he asked me to perform the first show in the Flag festival of Indra.

I commenced the performance with an interesting

Nandi= benedictory singing of eight sentences from the Vedas. When it was staged with fights and roars resulting in the defeat of the demons by devas Brahma and other gods were so pleased with the performance that they showered presents on the actors:-

Indra gave the flagpole ,

Brahma a crooked stick,

Varuna a gourd

Surya an umbrella

Siva a Siddhi

Vayu a fan

Vishnu a throne,

Kubera a crown

Sarasvati acoustics

And others — Yakshas, Rakshasas and Nagas suitable ones.

After the first show, defeated demons became angry and caused the director to become unconscious on the stage. Indra used his flagpole to thrash all the demons. It crushed —- jarjara— all the demons. Then they all wished that ‘jarjara’ be there for ever to protect them . Indra said So be it.

–subham—

Tags- Natyasastra, fifth veda, Bharata,  Story, Jarjara

What is Dance, Drama?-1 (Post No. 2459)

natyashastr2

COMPILED LONDON SWAMINATHAN

 

Date: 4 January 2016

 

Post No. 2459

 

Time uploaded in London :–  9-52 AM

 

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natyasastra

“In it (Natya) there is no exclusive representation of you or of the gods; for drama is a representation of the state (Bhaavaanikiirtana) of the three worlds.

 

In it sometimes there is a reference to duty, sometimes to game, sometimes to money, sometimes to peace, and sometimes laughter is found in it, sometimes fight, sometimes love making and sometimes killing of people.

 

This teaches duty to those bent on doing their duty, love to those eager for its fulfilment and it chastises those who are ill-bred or unruly, promotes self-restraint, in those who are disciplined, gives courage to cowards, energy to heroic persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the learned.

 

This gives diversions to kings, and firmness (of mind) to persons afflicted with sorrow, and (hints of acquiring) money to those who are for earning it, and it brings composure to persons agitated in mind.

 

The drama as I have devised it, is a mimicry of actions and conducts of people, which is rich in various emotions, and which depicts different situations. This will relate to actions of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amusement and happiness as well as counsel to them all.

 

The drama will thus be instructive to all, through actions and States (Bhaava) depicted in it, and through Sentiments arising out of it.

 

It will give relief to unlucky persons who are afflicted with sorrow and grief or over work, and will be conducive to observance of duty (dharma) as well as to fame, long life, intellect and general good, and will educate people.

 

There is no wise maxim, no learning, no rt or craft, no device, no action that is not found in the drama (natya)

 

Hence I have devised the drama in which meet all the departments of knowledge, different arts and various actions.so (O daityas) you should not have any anger towards the gods;for a mimicry of the world with its Seven Divisions (Sapta Dvipa) has been made a rule of, in the drama.

 

Stories taken out of Vedic works as well as semi historical tales (Itihasa) so embellished that they are, capable of giving pleasure, is called drama (natya).

 

A mimicry of the exploits of gods, Asuras, kings as well as house-holders in this world, is called drama.

 

An when human nature with its joys and sorrows, is depicted by means of Representation through Gestures, and the like (Words, Costume and Temperament) it is called Drama”.

 

—Bharata’s Natya Sastra (200 BCE)

abhinava darpana

What is Drama?-2

“Brahma explains to the Daanavaas:-

This play is not merely for your pleasure or the pleasure of the Devas, but exhibits mood (bhava) for all the Three Worlds. I made this play as following the movement f the world, whether in work or play, profit, peace, laughter, battle, lust or slaughter; yielding the fruit of righteousness to those who follow the moral law, pleasure to those who follow lust, a restraint for the unruly, a discipline for the followers of a rule, creating vigour in the impotent, zeal in warriors, wisdom in the ignorant, learning in scholars, sport to kings, endurance to the sorrow-smitten, profit to those who seek advantage, courage to the broken-willed; replete with diverse moods (Bhaavas), informed with the varying passions of the soul, linked to the deeds of all mankind, the best, the middling, and the low, affording excellent counsel, pastime, weal and all else.

This drama shall be the source of all counsel in matters of flavour (rasa), mood (Bhaava), and every rite; it shall serve as a timely resting-place for those who are grieved, weary, unhappy, or engaged in an arduous discipline; bestowing righteousness, renowned, long life, fortune, increase of reason; affording counsel to the world. That which is not found to be herein in not knowledge, nor craft, nor wisdom, nor any art, nor deeds, nor Union (yoga).

 

I made this drama according to the Seven Lands, and so you should not feel resentment towards the immortals. The drama is to be understood as witnessing the deeds of gods and Titans, kings of the sphere, and Brahma-prophets. Drama is that which accords with the nature (Svabhaava) of the world, with its weal and woe, and it consists in movements of the body and other arts of expressive gesture (Abhinaya). The theatre is such as to afford a means of entertainment in the world, and a place of audience for the Vedas, for philosophy, for history and other matters.

 

He adds that no performance should be begun without fulfilling the Office of the Stage (Ranga-Puja), and those that neglect this ritual will be ruined”.

Abhinaya Darpana

 

FROM THE BOOK ‘ASIA THROUGH ASIAN EYES’, YEAR 1959,SOAS,UNIVERSITY OF LONDON LIBRARY

 

–Subham–