Post No. 9968

Date uploaded in London – 12 AUGUST  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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List of ornaments in Natyasastra

Ornaments for Men, Slokas 15-20; Chapter 23, Natyasastra by Bharata

Crest jewel and crown for the head,

Ear ring, ear pendant and ear top for the ears,

Strings of pearls, stringed gold and Harsaka/snake shaped one for the neck,

Bracelet and signet rings for hands and fingers,

Armlets and armbands for above the elbow,

Three stringed necklace to hang on the chest ,

Suspended Pearl necklaces and Garlands etc

Talaka to be worn below the navel and

Golden thread for the waist.

This is how the male characters,viz.that is Gods and Kings should wear ornaments

My comments

This is not an exaggeration. If one looks at the statues and sculptures at Bharhut, Sanchi, Amaravati and at the paintings in Ajanta, Sittannavasal and Sigiria in Sri Lanka and other places, one will feel the ornaments mentioned by Bharata is only 50 percent. There is more to it.

Look at the pearls used for men and women. It shows South Indian, particularly, Tamil influence. Pearls are available in Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu. In the olden days they were getting from the coast of Gujarat as well.

The word Pearl has link to Tamil PARAL.


Ornaments for women

Slokas 21-41, Bharata says,

“I shall now speak about the ornaments for females.

Sikhapasa, Sikhajala/ ornaments for tresses,

Pindi patra/ feather for the forehead, crest jewel,

Pearl net with large meshes,hair net are the ornaments for head.

Ear rings , peacock feathers, braids of hair stringed,

Karnika, Karna balayage, Patrakarnika, ring round the ears and ear lotus,

These made by various pearls and ivory for the ear.

The tilak Mark on the forehead in an artistic way.

On the eye brows, marks in the shape of a flower,

Tilaka and Patra lekha/ designs of leaves on cheeks

And the Triveni for the breast.

Collyrium is to be applied to the eyes and red to the lips,

Teeth must have various colours, but four of them to remain white,

So that the whiteness is emphasised by contrast .

For innocent and beautiful women, teeth white like pearls or teeth must be red like lotus petals.

(Pearly Teeth/ Muthup Pal is a Tamil Expression.)

With the colour of Asma/ a kind of stone, their lips would look like as beautiful as sprouts.

The Pearl necklace, the snake necklace, the Manjari, the jewel necklace and the jewel string are the ornaments for the neck. So also is the necklace with two or more strings of gold.

Garlands made of different jewels as well as one studded with pearls will be for breast.


Make up for Different Characters including Dravidas

Slokas 90-108

One should paint the body according to the region, custom, and age of the character.

Gods Yaksas, Apsaras and Rudras, Brahma and Skanda are to be painted in Gaura/ pale red colour.

Moon, Brhaspati , Venus, Varuna, the stars, ocean, Himalayas and Ganga are to be painted white.

Mars should be red , Mercury and fire yellow.

Narayana and Nara and Vasuki- blue.

Daityas, Danavas, Rakshasas, Guhyakas, mountains other than Himalayas, Pisascas, sky and Yama must be painted dark blue.

The Yaksas, Gandharvas,, the Bhutas, Pannagas,Vidhyadharas,Pitrs/ancestors and monkeys in various colours.

Gods and others, snakes and the other animals ,mountains, rivers, some weapons- all these are treated as living human beings for the sake of drama.

Human beings who dwell on seven continents ( except our own Jambudwipa) are to be painted in burnished gold.

When he comes to Bharata varsha,,Bharata says the following,

Following colours are used

Kings- pale red, dark blue or lotus colour

Happy people- pale red

Vile people, possessed, diseased, inferior births- a sita/ not fair

Sages- plum coloured,

Kirata, Barbara, Andhdra , Dravida, People of Kasi, Kohala, Pulindha and southerners- asi ta / not fair

Sakas,Yavanas,Pahlavas,Bahlikas – pale red complexion

Pancalas, surasenas, Mahisas, Odras, Maghadas, Angas, Vanga and

Kalingas – dark blue complexions


Bharata continued the chapter with the details of beards and moustaches.


My comments

Look at the variety of ornaments ancient Hindus used. 2300 year old sculptures and paintings prove what Bharata said is right.

As I mentioned earlier Greek did not influence us; we developed our own dance dramas independently. Colour plays a big role in makeups.

There is no Arya- Dravida racial division.

Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas are missing, because here geographical divisions only are given. More over the kingdoms mentioned here are very ancient, mostly found in Mahabharata.

I commented on the Dialogue poems of Rig Veda, about 20 hymns, as Proto Dance Dramas in one of my articles. One of the Dialogue poems is Dialogue with Rivers. Here Bharata says treat all the animals and inanimate objects in drama as human beings. So one man  or woman will come on stage to represent a river or a mountain. This shows that Rig Vedic dialogue poem with Rivers was also acted by Rishis at the end of or during the Yagas. According to Rig Vedic commentators, some Yagas were done for a whole year or more than a year.

— Subham —

tags — Colours Dance, Dramas, Dravida, Bharata, Men ,ornaments, Woman, ornament 



Post No. 9961

Date uploaded in London – 10 AUGUST  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Bharata, author of Natyasastra, gives amazing details about the role of colours in the dance dramas. It is not surprising to see the use of colours because we see colour coding even in Bhagavatha. Krishna wearing yellow clothes is called Peetambaradhari and Balarama wearing blue clothes is called Neelambaradhari.

Bharata even applies colour coding for seats. Please see the link given at the end.

Hindus’ obsession with colours began in Rigvedic period. Indra’s horses are described as tawny coloured. Sometimes they are red. Different colour skins of cows are also mentioned by Vedic Rishis.

Coming to ornaments and hair styles, he gives minute details. Before going into the details of colours and ornaments, let me make my comments

  1. Hindu dramas of ancient India followed their own rules in ornaments and dresses. It has nothing to do with the Greek dramas . The big difference between the Hindu statues and Greek statues is ornaments. Greeks don’t wear ornaments. Hindu statues and paintings of Ajanta, Bharhut,Sanchi, Aamaravati are seen wearing ornaments all over the body. They have names for ornaments from head to toe.
  • Colour coding is also not found in Greece .
  • Another important point is the division of Hindu society. Foreigners who translated Vedas made adjective words into proper nouns. Arya should be translated as ‘educated, cultured ‘ etc. But they put capital A for Arya and made them a race. In the same way Dravidians should be southerners. But they put one capital D for the word and made it a race. We have very good evidence against Maxmuller gang, the advocates of Aryan-Dravidian theory. Here in Natyasastra, we don’t find Aryan or Dravidians. If Dravidians are mentioned we know it is about southerners. But they are mentioned with other peoples. In short, they are not racial.

Now let us look at the colours , from Chapter 23 of Natya sastra

Make- up (Slokas 72-89)

“Now I shall speak about the proper make up of male characters.

First of all their bodies should be painted. White, blue, yellow and red are primary colours. There are derivative colours as well as minor colours.

The derivatives are

White + blue = Pandu (yellowish white)

White +red = Padma (lotus colour )

Yellow +blue =  Harita (Green)

Blue + Red = Kasaya (deep red)

Red + Yellow = Gaura (pale red)

Besides these, there are many colours made up of three or four primary colours.

Once the fans get used to these colours, they can easily understand the story. Dialogues may be inaudible, but the colours of characters will help them to recognise them.

Bharata continues with hair styles and ornaments…

Slokas 49-61

Celestial women should be distinguished by their ornaments and costumes, and females of Vidhyadhara, Yaska, Naga and Apsara groups as well as daughters of sages and gods to be distinguished by their costumes. The same rule applies to Siddha, Gandharva, Raksasa  and human females.

(Here we must note that there is no Arya or Dravidian classification. Through out devotional Tamil literature Lord shiva is addressed as Arya. It has no racial connotation.)

The vidhyadhara women should have their hair tied in a top knot, must have many pearls, but wear white costume.

The Yaska and apsara women should wear many jewels, costume to be the same but the yaksa women’s hair must be worn in a Sikha. The naga women should wear ornaments like goddesses, should wear ornaments of pearls and jewels, but the latter must be in the form of wild fruits.

Daughters of sages must wear their hair in a single braid and there should not be many ornaments.

The siddha women must wear plenty of ornaments pearls and emeralds and yellow costumes.

The gandhrva women should wear ornaments of rubies, costumes of saffron colour and a Vina in their hands.

The Rakshasa women should wear blue stones, white protruding teeth and black costume; the goddess pearls and Vaidurya and costumes green like a parrot tail, but this only while they are enjoying love;I n other conditions white.


Hair styles for different regions are as follows…..

Avanti women- curled hair

Gauda- a sikha pasa

Abhira women- two braids with head band

North east women- a sikhandaka standing up. They must cover their body up to the hair.

Women of South- wear tattoos on their fore heads

Then he describes make ups for different characters.

Let me summarise,

All these show that our drama and dance have unique features. The oldest portion of Natyasastra goes back to fifth century BCE.

I will give the list of ornaments separately

Links to old articles:-

Natya sastra | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › natya-sastra


27 Feb 2021 — The ”Natya Shastra” is the oldest extant literature in the field of dramatic arts. The black-coloured sculpture, conceptualised by classical …

Colour Coding of Seats in Ancient Theatres! | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2014/05/13 › colour-codin…


13 May 2014 — In the Natya sastras we have references to 18 different types of stages. … The Natyasastra of Bharata is a compendious treatise on …

You visited this page on 03/08/21.


tags- natya sastra, colours, costumes, ornaments, Bharata



Post No. 9936

Date uploaded in London – 4 AUGUST  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Bharata , who wrote the Natyasastra in Sanskrit 2500 years ago , finishes it beautifully. 6000 slokas are there in his 36 chapters. The 36th chapter gives the benefits of Natya/dance and drama (in the olden days dramas were produced with more songs than prose dialogues. Vedic dialogue poems prove it).

While we read this, we must remember that he talks about ‘holy dramas and holy dances’. The best example is available in Tamil epic Silappadikaram. One of the main characters, Madhavi, did 11 types of dances and all of them were from Hindu mythology (see below the link for the 11 types).

Mangala slokas are in 71 to 82 in the last chapter of Natyasastra. It says,

“This sastra is entertaining; it purifies; it is holy; it destroys sin. Those who read it and those who listen to it, those who produce plays in accordance with it, and those who attentively watch the performance, all these  derive the same merit as may be derived by those who study the Vedas, those who perform sacrifices, and those who perform acts of charity and religion. This is the greatest gifts of all the gifts, viz. the giving of an opportunity to watch a performance.  The production of a play is pleasing to the gods as no other form of worship with sandal paste or flowers is.

“Those who enjoy music and dance well in this life, will attain the blessed state of Isvara and Ganesa.

“I have thus far elaborated on many subjects and rules regarding the production of plays. Things which are not stated here should be learnt by attentively watching the talk and behaviour of people and should be used in the performance.

“What more can I say?

May want and disease disappear from the world and may there be plenty of food and riches of every kind. May there be peace and security for cows and Brahmins everywhere. May the kings give protection to the world.”

Thus ends Bharat’s Natyasastra chapter 36 entitled ‘Descent of Drama on Earth’.


My comments

Like Krishna in Bhagavad Gita, Bharata never forces anyone to do the dance and drama in his way. He gives freedom and scope to improve upon it. He asks the people in the field to watch people and include their interests. In other words, he asks us to act according to times. Even if someone produces a play today against COVID virus or the necessity of getting the jabs against the virus ,it is agreeable and meritorious.

What Bharat said in his last chapter shows that the Natya sastra in the present form is an updated version. But the core remains the same. What Bharata said about the benefits of drama cannot be said about Greek dramas. That shows Indian dance and drama are independent of Greek dramas or any foreign influence. Westerners created a great doubt about Indian ingenuity by saying everything came from Greece to India.

As a brahmin I do Sandhyavadana everyday in the morning and evening in London with Thames water where I recite all the 7 days of the week in the same order found in our calendar- Sunday to Saturday. This is in the same order in Thevaram of Sambandar which is 1400 years old. No one would have inserted some foreign material in Brahmin’s mantras or Sambandars Tamil poems. This is only one example to show Westerners have been always anti Hindu.

Please read my article on Bharatavakyas (National Anthems)  which are said at the end of all Sanskrit dramas. How patriotic our people have been from ancient period!


My old articles:-

Matavi’s 11 types of Classical Dance | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2012/06/15 › matavis-11-t…

15 Jun 2012 — She was the daughter of Chitrapathy. Madhavi learnt dance from the age of five and mastered the art of classical Bharatanatyam at the age of …

Hindus are the Pioneers of National Anthems | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2014/04/26 › hindus-are-th…

26 Apr 2014 — Bharatavakya is the benedictory address spoken at the close of every Sanskrit drama. We find this in all the dramas of Bhasa and Kalidasa.

Colour Coding of Seats in Ancient Theatres! | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2014/05/13 › colour-codin…

13 May 2014 — There are two dramatic stages coupled up with green rooms as they were prevalent in the olden days when Sanskrit plays used to be staged.

Missing: bharatvakyas ‎| Must include: bharatvakyas


tags-benefits, dance, drama, watching, Bharata, Natyasastra

Ten Kinds of Plays in Bharata’s Natyasastra (Post No.9931)


Post No. 9931

Date uploaded in London – 3 AUGUST  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Chapter 20 of Bharata’s Natyasastra says that there are ten kinds of plays.

(Following is only a summary of the chapter in Natyasastra).

“Just as the musical notes/Svaras constitute scales, so different Vrttis constitute different plays.

Just as the Sadja and Madhyama include all the notes, so Nataka and Prakarana include all the Vrttis.


That which has as its theme a well known story, a well known hero of exalted nature which concerns the story of a royal sage and his family. In a Nataka there is the story of kings, various Rasas/ emotions.



Prakarana is that in which the story, construction and the hero are the original creations of the author. It should have not less than five and not more than ten acts



In Samavakaara, the story deals with Gods and Asuras. In its three acts, there are three kinds of deceits, three calamities and three types of Srngara (love).

It should have 12 important characters.



In iihamrga, the characters are divine; the theme is war on account of a divine woman . It is her anger to be developed. Many of the male characters must be bold.



The Dima must have a well known story. It should have well known and dignified heroes and sixteen of them. It should have six Rasas except Srngara and Hasya.



It should be constructed around a well known hero, with few female characters and events of one day’s duration. The hero must not be a divine person, but a royal sage.



It is also called Utsrstikanka.

Here the hero may be well known. Sometimes it may be otherwise. It should have Karuna/ compassion as the predominant Rasa/ emotion.



Prahaasana (Parikaasam in Tamil) is of two kinds Pure /Suddha and Sankirna/mixed.

The pure Prahaasana is a satire on Gurus, ascetics,Buddhist monks,learned Brahmins etc., by ridiculing them. Comic dialogue is in every day language.

The Mixed type is one in which courtesans, menial servants, eunuchs, rogues, the gallants appear in immodest dress and make open (obscene??) gestures.

My comments

Great Pallava Emperor Mahendra Varman wrote the famous comedy ‘Matta vilasa prahasana’ in Sanskrit. It is a good example for this type of drama.

Rigveda has got sixteen dialogue poems , some with obscene gestures. They may come under Sankirna / Mixed type.

Bhasa’s 13 plays, Kalidasa’s three plays and plays of Sudraka, Visakadatta, Madhavi’s 11 types of dances in Tamil epic Silappdikaram may be good examples for all the ten types of plays.


Bhana is to be acted by one person.

Either it refers to one’s own experience or  acts of some other person. There are two varieties. Actor can carry on a dialogue with an invisible person by looking up at sky. or himself repeat the other person’s dialogue with suitable gestures.

Here we are reminded of monologues of Shakespearean plays and epic heroes’ lamentations.

Even today we see mimicry shows with both types of acting.



Viithii in one act. There may be one or two characters of high or middle or low status. It can have any rasas. There are thirteen distinguishing features of a Viithii.

Bharata describes them in 20 Slokas.

The above is only a summary of Bharata’s categorisation.

The whole chapter takes 150 Slokas.

My comments

In Sanskrit we have 100s of dramas from ancient days. In addition, we have proto dramas in the Rigveda in the form of dialogue poems.

Unfortunately, we have no Drama in Tamil.

But the above descriptions show that Sanskrit dramas have no connection with the Greek dramas. Our dance, drama and music originated in our own land and grew in Hindu way.

In Greek we have tragedies and comedies and in India we have drams dealing with eight types of emotions (also known as Navarasa in later days by adding one more emotion) . In our dramas we have introduction by the director/sutradhara and National Anthem at the end in the form of Bharata vaakya. All these features are absent in Greek dramas.

In Krta Yuga there was no drama according to Bharata’s Natyasastra. So the Rigvedic dialogue poems were only proto dramas .

Bharata’s approach is amazing. He talks about dramas with ten acts and mono act plays. He talks about one actor mimicrying more people. Unlike Greece, Bharata talks about Eight Rasas/emotions, which is found in later Tamil grammar book Tolkappiam.

If we do a comparative study with Ancient Greek dramas it may bring more light in the field of dramaturgy. They borrowed a lot of things from us. After Alexander’s invasion,we might have borrowed certain features from the Greeks.

— Subham —-

tags- types of plays, Drama types, Bharata, Natyasastra

How Dance & Drama came to Earth? (Post.9915)


Post No. 9915

Date uploaded in London –31 JULY   2021           

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Natyasastra written by Bharata has 36 chapters. The first and the last chapter have interesting stories. In the first chapter we saw the origin of Natyasastra (already posted here). In the last chapter Bharata narrated how dance and drama came to earth.

The sages asked Bharata:

How did drama descend from heaven to earth?

Bharata said in his reply,

“It so happened that, once, a King called Nahusa attained the Kingdom of Gods/ Swarga   by means of his intelligence, diplomacy and valour. There he saw the musical/gandharva and dramatic/natya performance. Then he thought why should not this be performed in his own home on earth. So, he requested the gods to take the Apsaras women to his own home to perform. Then the gods led by Brhaspati told him that human beings are not supposed to come in direct contact with the divine Apsaras and hence they were unable to accede to his request.

But they said you approach the acharya (Bharata) and he might do what you want. It was thus that Nahusa came to me and said, ‘Oh Divine Preceptor, I would like to have this performance on the earth. I am told you were the first one to teach this, so I have to come to you.’

In the ancestral palace of Nahusa, Urvasi practised it with the ladies of the harem. When Urvasi disappeared, the old king went mad with grief and died. So drama again perished.

So I decided that henceforward it should be performed on auspicious days, so that the drama would bring good luck. Nahusa said he wanted it in his earthly  palace and that there  should be many characters and graceful movement of women. I agreed and called my sons and said to them ,

‘Here is King Nahusa requesting us with folded hands to produce a natya in his earthly palace. Let us do it  and get the curse abrogated. All of you go down to the earth and perform. You will be no longer objects of condemnation, for either the Brahmins or the Kshatrias.

Brahma has said that the success of production depends on following his instructions. As for other details, Kohala by his supplementary technical work will explain. make this a pretext for sporting with the Apsaras. I shall be here in heaven working with Swati in charge of musical instruments and Narada in charge of vocal music.

Thus, they went down to earth and there with he help of females produced various Natyas in Nahusa’s palace. They married earthly females, begot sons and daughters and trained them in Natya.  Brahma was pleased with my sons and admitted them to heaven.

Thus, due to a curse, the descendants of Bharata (actors) established themselves on earth.

–Natyasastra Last (36) Chapter

From Natyasasra by Adya Ranagacharya

 Drama on earth, dance on earth, Bharata, Natyasastra

Why did I write Natyasastra?- Bharata Muni Story (Post No.9882)


Post No. 9882

Date uploaded in London –22 JULY   2021           

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Atreya asked Bharata the reason for writing Natya sastra.

Bharata said,

Natyaveda was created by Brahma. Long long ago people of this world, goaded by greed and avarice, and jealousy and anger took to uncivilised ways of life.(Literally Gramya = vulgar).

The world was then inhabited by Gods, Demons, Yakshas Rakshasas, Nagas and Gandharvas . Various lords were ruling. At that time gods led by Mahendra approached Brahma and requested him to give them something which would not only teach them but be pleasing both to eyes and ears. Since Sudras are not allowed to listen to Vedas why not create a fifth Veda which would be accessible to all varnas/ castes

Brahma agreed. He dismissed the petitioners and meditated in solitude. Then he took

words from the Rigveda,

music from Sama veda,

movements and make up from Yajur veda and

emotional acting from the Atharvanaveda.

Then he called Indra and others and said,

Here is the Natyaveda. Let the Suras/Devas practise it. It requires persons who are smart, intelligent, observant and self controlled.

Indra pondered and then said that the Suras were unable to practise it since they did not have all the qualifications. Sages are self controlled and grasped with the Vedic knowledge. Then Brahma entrusted it to me.

Brahma said to me

You have a large number of sons and students and so you practise it. So I practised it with my sons and trained them in words, emotions and movements:_



Arabhati and


When I informed Brahma what I have done, he promised me to give all the materials required. I myself had seen Siva dancing with movements, gestures and emotions. When I said females were good to perform with grace, he created Apasaras. He created Narada and Gandharva to sing. He provided Swati and his disciples to play on instruments

When I reported to him all the practices were done, rehearsals over, he asked me to perform the first show in the Flag festival of Indra.

I commenced the performance with an interesting

Nandi= benedictory singing of eight sentences from the Vedas. When it was staged with fights and roars resulting in the defeat of the demons by devas Brahma and other gods were so pleased with the performance that they showered presents on the actors:-

Indra gave the flagpole ,

Brahma a crooked stick,

Varuna a gourd

Surya an umbrella

Siva a Siddhi

Vayu a fan

Vishnu a throne,

Kubera a crown

Sarasvati acoustics

And others — Yakshas, Rakshasas and Nagas suitable ones.

After the first show, defeated demons became angry and caused the director to become unconscious on the stage. Indra used his flagpole to thrash all the demons. It crushed —- jarjara— all the demons. Then they all wished that ‘jarjara’ be there for ever to protect them . Indra said So be it.


Tags- Natyasastra, fifth veda, Bharata,  Story, Jarjara



Post No. 9317

Date uploaded in London – –27 FEBRUARY  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Agreement between Tolkappiam and Sanskrit works on Grammar

BY S N Sri Rama Desikan


The first two chapters of Tolkappiam deal with grammar while the third deals with literature/ rhetoric. These are analogous to three divisions in Sanskrit-


Vyakarana and

Alankara sastra

It may be observed that the portion’s of Tolkappiam dealing with the form of letters, their origin, their four -fold manner of compounds and seven Vyakrthis agree with the Sanskrit grammatical works of Panini, Yaska’s Nirukta, Patanjali’s Mahabhasya etc.

In Tolkappiam, we find 50 Sanskrit words, 25 Prakrit words and some technical terms.

In regard to the explanations for the

eight sentiments/Rasas,

ten states/Avastas and

32 Accessory feelings/Vyabhichari bhavas, there is full agreement between the Bharata Natyasastra and Tolkappiam.

As Tolkappiar himself says in several places,

I am giving here explanation according to Natya sastra; some consider that the source should be Bharatas Natya sastra.

In the matter of

32 Kavya Yuktis/ literary practices,

ten kavya doshas/ literary blemishes and

Sutra lakshanas / characteristic’s of aphoristic compositions also,

Tolkappiam agrees with the Bharata Natyyasastra and Arthasastra.

Tolkappiar has also followed closely the sastras like

Manu Smrti and Dharma sastras in regard to

eight kinds of marriages, their classification according to castes , proper and improper marriages and their characteristics .

There are similarities also regarding

nature of Jivas and

 five Tinais / regional classification

It can be inferred that there should have been a common basic work even if one does not go so far as to state that one language follows the other.

The Sangam poets have referred profusely to the episodes in the epics and Puranas.

Following list of Sanskrit words in Tolkappiam is given by Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai


tags- Sanskrit words, Tolkappiam, Prakrit words, Bharata, Natya Sastra

Bharata Muni statue unveiled in Delhi (Post No.6643)

Kavita Dwibedi with Bharata Muni



Date: 17 JULY 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 16-5

Post No. 6643

Pictures are taken from various sources including Facebook, google, Wikipedia. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

New Delhi, July 16,2019– Joining the pan-India celebrations of Guru Purnima, the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) on Tuesday unveiled a statue of sage and theatrologist Bharata Muni who composed the ”Natya Shastra”, an ancient Sanskrit text on performing arts.

The unveiling happened on the Foundation Day of IGNCA”s Kalakosh division, a department dedicated to the rich body of literature surrounding India”s classical arts.

The statue was unveiled by Rajya Sabha MP and classical dancer Sonal Mansingh, IGNCA president and senior journalist Ram Bahadur Rai, and National Gallery of Modern Art director-general and sculptor Adwaita Gadanayak.

The ”Natya Shastra” is the oldest extant literature in the field of dramatic arts.

The black-coloured sculpture, conceptualised by classical dancer Padma Subrahmanyam and sculpted by Bengaluru-based artists T.N. Rathna and S. Venkataramana, represents divine forces and the classical arts tradition of India.

It can now be seen at the IGNCA”s entrance.


Origin of dramas | Tamil and Vedas



Posts about Origin of dramas written by Tamil and Vedas.

attack on Yavanas | Tamil and Vedas



30 Dec 2017 – Another drama of Kalidasa, Malavika Agnimitram, also refers to the Yavanas. Hundreds of Tamil words are in ancient Greek (see my previous …

london swaminathan | Tamil and Vedas



We staged a Tamil drama for South Indian Society and raised over 1500 pounds. I took the main roles … Harrow Council (for Black History Month). Paul Hamlyn …

jesters | Tamil and Vedas



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Rig Veda is an encyclopaedia of ancient India. Hindu playwrights, actors and dramatists believe that the drama originated in India. Though we have dramas in …

Drama, Puppet Show, Folk Theatre in Tamil and … – Tamil and Vedas



5 Feb 2017 – Literary references in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature show that the … We have references to drama, folk theatre and puppet show from …

History | Tamil and Vedas | Page 11



4 Nov 2017 – Posts about History written by Tamil and Vedas. … Whatever be the origin of drama, we have very clear drama scenes in the Rig Veda in the …

in Vedas | Tamil and Vedas



The meaning given in the Vedic index is ‘bearing in secret’. It is in RV …. Hindu playwrights, actors and dramatists believe that the drama originated in India.

What is Dance, Drama?-1 (Post No. 2459)




Date: 4 January 2016


Post No. 2459


Time uploaded in London :–  9-52 AM


( Thanks for the Pictures  ) 






“In it (Natya) there is no exclusive representation of you or of the gods; for drama is a representation of the state (Bhaavaanikiirtana) of the three worlds.


In it sometimes there is a reference to duty, sometimes to game, sometimes to money, sometimes to peace, and sometimes laughter is found in it, sometimes fight, sometimes love making and sometimes killing of people.


This teaches duty to those bent on doing their duty, love to those eager for its fulfilment and it chastises those who are ill-bred or unruly, promotes self-restraint, in those who are disciplined, gives courage to cowards, energy to heroic persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the learned.


This gives diversions to kings, and firmness (of mind) to persons afflicted with sorrow, and (hints of acquiring) money to those who are for earning it, and it brings composure to persons agitated in mind.


The drama as I have devised it, is a mimicry of actions and conducts of people, which is rich in various emotions, and which depicts different situations. This will relate to actions of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amusement and happiness as well as counsel to them all.


The drama will thus be instructive to all, through actions and States (Bhaava) depicted in it, and through Sentiments arising out of it.


It will give relief to unlucky persons who are afflicted with sorrow and grief or over work, and will be conducive to observance of duty (dharma) as well as to fame, long life, intellect and general good, and will educate people.


There is no wise maxim, no learning, no rt or craft, no device, no action that is not found in the drama (natya)


Hence I have devised the drama in which meet all the departments of knowledge, different arts and various actions.so (O daityas) you should not have any anger towards the gods;for a mimicry of the world with its Seven Divisions (Sapta Dvipa) has been made a rule of, in the drama.


Stories taken out of Vedic works as well as semi historical tales (Itihasa) so embellished that they are, capable of giving pleasure, is called drama (natya).


A mimicry of the exploits of gods, Asuras, kings as well as house-holders in this world, is called drama.


An when human nature with its joys and sorrows, is depicted by means of Representation through Gestures, and the like (Words, Costume and Temperament) it is called Drama”.


—Bharata’s Natya Sastra (200 BCE)

abhinava darpana

What is Drama?-2

“Brahma explains to the Daanavaas:-

This play is not merely for your pleasure or the pleasure of the Devas, but exhibits mood (bhava) for all the Three Worlds. I made this play as following the movement f the world, whether in work or play, profit, peace, laughter, battle, lust or slaughter; yielding the fruit of righteousness to those who follow the moral law, pleasure to those who follow lust, a restraint for the unruly, a discipline for the followers of a rule, creating vigour in the impotent, zeal in warriors, wisdom in the ignorant, learning in scholars, sport to kings, endurance to the sorrow-smitten, profit to those who seek advantage, courage to the broken-willed; replete with diverse moods (Bhaavas), informed with the varying passions of the soul, linked to the deeds of all mankind, the best, the middling, and the low, affording excellent counsel, pastime, weal and all else.

This drama shall be the source of all counsel in matters of flavour (rasa), mood (Bhaava), and every rite; it shall serve as a timely resting-place for those who are grieved, weary, unhappy, or engaged in an arduous discipline; bestowing righteousness, renowned, long life, fortune, increase of reason; affording counsel to the world. That which is not found to be herein in not knowledge, nor craft, nor wisdom, nor any art, nor deeds, nor Union (yoga).


I made this drama according to the Seven Lands, and so you should not feel resentment towards the immortals. The drama is to be understood as witnessing the deeds of gods and Titans, kings of the sphere, and Brahma-prophets. Drama is that which accords with the nature (Svabhaava) of the world, with its weal and woe, and it consists in movements of the body and other arts of expressive gesture (Abhinaya). The theatre is such as to afford a means of entertainment in the world, and a place of audience for the Vedas, for philosophy, for history and other matters.


He adds that no performance should be begun without fulfilling the Office of the Stage (Ranga-Puja), and those that neglect this ritual will be ruined”.

Abhinaya Darpana