Mystery of Horse: Sudden Appearance from Egypt to India! (Post No.3181)

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Written by London swaminathan

Date: 23 September 2016

Time uploaded in London: 15-30

Post No.3181

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world, contains references to horse, horse race, chariots and riding in almost all the ten Mandalas. No other literature in the world has so many references to horses. May be Zend Avesta which came after Rig Veda has some references. We know Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey came nearly 1000 years after the Rig Veda.

 

A research paper submitted on the basis of fossils discovered in Western India in 2014 showed that the ancient relatives of horses originated in India.

“Working at the edge of a coal mine in India, a team of Johns Hopkins researchers and colleagues have filled in a major gap in science’s understanding of the evolution of a group of animals that includes horses and rhinos. That group likely originated on the subcontinent when it was still an island headed swiftly for collision with Asia, the researchers report today in the online journal Nature Communications. It happened more than fifty million years ago. (20 November 2014 newspaper report)

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Though there is a very big gap in time between the Rig Veda and the fossils, the fossil discovery shows that horses are not new to this region. Actually a great mystery lies in the fact that horses appeared suddenly in Egypt, Middle East and India at the “same time”. But latest hydrological research in the Sarasvati basin shows that Rig Veda was “composed” or “heard” by the seers before 1900 BCE. The precession of the earth and the stars mentioned in the Vedic literature shows that Rig Veda must have been composed or heard before 3000 BCE. This means that the horses were exported from India to other parts of the world.

 

Is there any other proof to support this hypotheses? Yes, we have archaeological proof from the Hittite empire. They were trained in Sanskrit!

Mitannian kings had Sanskrit names found in Ramayana and Vishnu sahasranama such as Dasarata, Pratardana. But being distant from the place of origin they had corrupted spellings like Tushratta. We see such trends in Mauritius, Sri Lanka and Malaysia where the migrated Tamils write Turka instead of Durga, Tamayanti instead of Damayanti, Murder mootoo instead of Marudamuthu.

 

We also find the Sanskrit word asva/horse in their names: Biridaswa (Brhad Asva) possessing great horses, sattasva (Sapta+ Asva), possessing or winning seven horses.

 

Zend Avesta, holy book of Zoroastrians, also has names such as Drvaspa ( agoddess)- she who keeps horses in good health, Vistaspa ( a king of Bactria), son of Aurvat aspa, Pourus aspa, father of Zarathustra, he who possess many horses, Arbataspa master of war like hoses, Huaspa- having good horses.

Aspa= Asva= Hrasva= Horse

Kikkuli of Mitanni was the one who taught them to use war horses. His horse training manual is in Sanskrit:

Wartanna = vartana = a turn

Akika = Eka = one turn

Tera = tri = three turns

Panza = pancha = five turns

Nava artanna = nava = nine turns.

Foreigners looking at the colloquial form of Sanskrit thought that it was Proto Sanskrit. It is actually the localised Sanskrit. Even today Sanskrit words are Tamilized in Tamil Nadu and the ancient Tamil Grammar book has rules for it. Without understanding this, they thought it was a different language.

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There is another proof also. The Bogaizkoy inscription mentioned the Vedic Gods in the same order as Rig Veda. When two kings signed an agreement they sealed their agreement with the Vedic mantra. All the scholars who studied Vedas agree that the Vedas originated on Indian soil. This shows that  the Hindu scriptures have spread to Turkey-Syria border around 1400 BCE!

We see horses at the same time from Egypt to India

 

With the archaeological and linguistics evidence, now it is confirmed that the Hindus went from India to give training in horses. There are more proofs in the Rig Veda:-

The horse was called asva, atya (runner), arvant (swift), strong for pulling (vaajin), the runner (sapti). Mare was called with four different names. Different colours of horses are also described. A white horse with black ears is mentioned in the Athrva Vedas as of special value. Horses were highly prized. Gifts of 400 horse are mentioned. Horses were decorated with pearls and gold. Horses from Indus and Sarasvati were praised high.   Kings had names as Asvapati etc. chariots, races and Asvamedha Yajna are mentioned.

All these show that the technic of raising horses originated in India.

Now that we know the Rig Veda is dated between 1900 BCE and 3000 BCE following dates are better understood:–

Hittite empire, a city rebelling against King Anittas in 1750 BCE, fielded 40 Chariots; Hattusilis I (sathyaseela)  (1650 BCE) fielded 80 chariots at the siege of Urshu; by the Battle of Kadesh (1285 BCE) Hattusas fielded 2500 chariots under Muwattalis II (1306 BCE)

 

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The Hyksos (Hindu Yakshas)

Egypt used ‘equus asinus’ first for carrying burdens and then ‘equus caballus’. Asiatic Hyksos captured power in Nile delta in 1750 BCE. They were the one who brought horses from India to Egypt they are shown in chariots.

 

We see horses in a plaque of Tuthmose III (1479 BCE). Later we see more horses. So around 1400 BCE it is seen on a large area frm Egypt to Plains of Ganges. How was it possible where there was no modern transport like today. It was possible only because India sent trainers like Kikkuli to all the countries

 

Science of Horses

Mitochondrial DNA tests conducted on over 600 horses from 25 breeds world wide prove that at least 17 genetic groups are involved; that horses originally from diverse locations; and there were at least six locations in which horses were domesticated. At present no direct glimse of how the first horse was domesticated (Daily telegraph, 14-8-2002)

 

Domesticated horse was present in Mesopotamia from 2500 BCE. Horse remains found in Syria are dated 2400 BCE. Syria and Turkey were under Vedic Kings from very early times under Kassites, Hittites and Mitanni. Standard of Ur depicts five four wheeled wagons with four equids apiece. Mesopotamian horse artefacts are dated between 2800-2500 BCE. Sice the Vedas are dated before this date by astronomical refrences, we may assume that domesticated horses went for India to other countries.

 

The horse appears in a Sumerian text ‘The Curse of Agade” where the Goddess Inanna of Agade, capital of Sumer, sought to bring harmony to men and nimals, among them the ass of the mountains Anse Kur ra – the horse (2000 BCE)

 

There are proverbs about horses in Sumerian texts :

You sweat like a horse (it is) what you have drunk

If my burden is always  to be this, I shall become weak (horse says)

 

Domestic horse remains are recovered from south west Iran. They are from the Kaftari era (2100-1800 BCE)

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Biblical reference

Genesis 47:16 has reference to horses. Canaanites had come requesting food from Egypt; this was granted ‘in exchange for their horses, their sheep and goats, their cattle and donkeys’.

Mari used chariotry in war, and also the donkey mounted couriers. From mari comes the earliest personal record of horse riding. King Zimri Lim was advised to take the safer option of riding a mule, or in a chariot, rather than risk riding horses.

 

The scarcity of horses at this time is shown by the value of a single animal:

A horse is worth 30 times that of a slave

Or 500 sheep

Or 5 minas of silver (2-4 Kilos)

From the above facts  we can prove that the Rig Veda is the first source of horses provided the date 3000 BCE is accepted.

 

 

At Jaggayyapeta, India is a relief where the horse is depicted as a symbol of the world ruler- Chakravarti.

 

The horse sacrifice also appears in Zend Avesta , albeit in religious fiction, when 100 male horses, 1000 oxen, 10,000 lambs are offered to Ardvi sura Anahita on the Hara, the Alborz mountains south of Caspian Sea.

(This shows Zend Avesta is an imitation of Hindu scriptures, sometimes a caricature of the Hindu Vedas)

Source: The horse in the ancient world by Ann Hyland, 2003, Newspaper cuttings and my comments.

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–subham–

Why did Sumeria and Egypt worship Indra?

Vientine, Laos

Indra in Vientaine, Laos (South East Asian country)

Research Paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1288; Dated:14th September 2014.

Indra is the oldest God in the world worshipped until today. There are over 100,000 temples in India and millions of Brahmins all over the world. In all these places we hear Indra’s name every day. Children are named after Indra or his wife Indrani (Saci) from Nepal to Sri Lanka and all over South East Asia.

I have written umpteen articles on Indra creating an Encyclopaedia of Indra to dispel the false notion spread by foreign ‘scholars’. He is NOT an “Aryan” God from Central Asia or Siberia. He is a Hindu god from India travelling to different parts of the world. In my previous article, I published the pictures of Laos and Mongolia stamps on Indra.

My conclusion is Indra is not one person. It is a title like KING or a LEADER. Indra is also used for GOD. In ancient Hindu India, kings were considered God. We see it in the Rig Veda and 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature.

This article gives more proof to show that Indra was worshipped as God in Egypt, Sumer and Greece.

Indra referred to a title is confirmed by Mahabharata (Santi Parva, Chapter 224) and Vayu Purana (64-6-9). While Vayu Purana allocated 14 Indras for 14 Manvanataras, Mahabharata said that there were thousands of Indras in the past (See Indra in Indian Mythology by Muralidhar Mohanty for more details).

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Wooden Sculpture of Indra and Saci from Nepal.

Foreign ‘scholars’ who did not study Tamil Tolkappiam or Mahabaharta made wrong statements that one Indra killed more than 30 demons in the Rig Veda. In fact they were not demons. Indra ‘s most celebrated episode is about killing a Brahmin !!!

We know for sure from the oldest Tamil book Tolkappaiam that Tamils worshiped the Vedic deity Indra. We know that Vedic Hindus gave top place to Indra in their worship. He is praised more than anyone else in the Vedas. But Indra worship did not stop there. Even Iranians, Sumerians, Egyptians and Greeks worshipped Indra! In their languages Indra meant The God!

In Egypt:
In Egypt “ntr” meant God. The hieroglyph ‘ntr’ meaning god is derived from a staff bound with cloth. This is Indra Dwaja (Flag of Indra) found in Ramayana and Tamil literature. Tamil epic Silappadikaram describes the Indra festival and Indra flag in great detail. Many of the ancient languages never write vowels. We have to insert vowels before reading it. “Ntr” will become Intra, if we introduce vowels into them.

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Indra Festival in Nepal

3000 Gods in Sumeria

More than 3000 deities’ names have been recovered from Mesopotamia alone. These were organised by the Mesopotamians into groups resembling households, extended families or states (See Dictionary of the Ancient Near East published by The British Museum for more details).

In Avesta, Andira meant Indra and in Tamil Andiran meant Indra. I explain them below; Indra is mentioned in a two places in Zend Avesta.

In Sumeria Andara is Indra ( See page 147 of the ‘India We have Lost’)
Laos has issued stamps for Indra and Mongolia has issued stamps for Vajrayudha! Indra’s name is found all over the world in names like Andrew etc.

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ANTARES = INDRA

Of the 27 stars, Jyeshta is one. Greeks named the star Antares, i.e Indra. In Hindu scriptures the Devata/deity for Anatres is Indra! Hindus called this red star as Jyeshta meaning ‘the eldest’. This is another proof to show that Greek name Anatres and Indra are one and the same. (Among the goddesses also there is one Jyeshta). Scholars who did not know linked Antares with Ares (Mars) without any rhyme or reason!

There is another proof from ancient Sangam Tamil literature. Oldest book Tolkappiam called Indra with the name “Vendhan” meaning The King. But Sangam Tamil literature and later books like Tirukkural used Sanskrit word Indra. But not many people know that Andiran in Sanagam Tamil literature is also Indra.

There are two verses (240 and 241) in Purananuru sung by a Brahmin woman Uraiyur Enicheri Mudamosi. She composed many poems in praise of Ay Andiran, a Tamil chieftain. Only three poets used this word Andiran — all meaning chieftain Ay Andiran.

Miss Mudomosi gives us two vital facts:

1.When Ay Andiran died his wives burnt themselves in the funeral pyre. This custom known as “Sati” was practised more in the north from the Mahabharata days. But it was not compulsory. Even in the Mahabharata days, Pandava’s mother Kunti did NOT die in funeral pyre after Pandu’s death. Dasaratha’s wives did NOT die after Dasaratha’s death as well. There are two more references to Sati in Tamil literature, which I have already dealt with.

2.When Ay Andiran died Indra’s temple drums started playing loudly to welcome him! Miss Mudamosi described very clearly “Vajara Thadakkai Nediyon Koyil” meaning the “Temple of God one who wields the weapon Vajra/thunderbolt”. Why did she suddenly mention Indra welcoming her in the heaven? This is because Andiran meant Indra. Ayu/Ay is also found throughout Mahabharata and the Puranas (Hindu Mythlogy)

Ay Andiran’s forefathers came from Dwaraka of Krishna. He belonged to Velir clan which was brought to Tamil Nadu by Agastya 3000 years ago — around 1000 BCE. Another Brahmin poet of Sangam age Kapila gave this information in Purananuru verse 201.

indra nepal
Indra Festival in Nepal

Indra in the Indus Valley Civilization
The Rig-Veda identifies Indra with the bull which is the predominant seal in Indus valley civilisation. So we can conclude that Indra worship prevailed in the Indus Valley.

Indra’s vehicle is an elephant known as Airavata which is a predominant animal in Indus valley civilization. No other ancient civilization has elephant figure or association of an elephant with any ancient god. This is a very clear proof to show that Indra is an Indus God and not a foreigner from central Asia or Siberia. I have already explained the elephant and the standing figure with a wheel above, on an Indus tablet is Indra.
He is the god of the direction “East” which shows that he belongs to India and not a foreign god from the “West”.

His wife Indrani is the daughter of Asura Puloman which shows that Asuras belonged to one and the same race, belying Aryan – Dravidian racist theory. She is also known as Paulomi and Aindri. Andiran is Indra and Aindri is Indrani.

The English name Andrew and Andreas all came from Indra. Later new explanations were added by struggling foreign “Scholars”!!!

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Indra Jatra in Nepal. This was celebrated in ancient Tamil Nadu.

Afghans worship Indra!
Indra and Imra are worshipped as Kafir gods in Afghanistan. The place where he was worshiped was called Kafiristan. He is worshiped in Waigal, Prasun areas of Hindukush and in Nuristan.

Indra is identified with Zeus of Greece,Thor of Norse Jupiter of Romans and Taranis of Celts.

Please read my earlier research papers on Indra:
1.Encyclopedia of Indra (Posted on 7th Sept. 2014)
2. Indra-Thor-Taranis in Indus Valley Civilization (5th Sept. 2014)
3. Oldest Engineer in the World –Indra: A Dam Buster or a Dam Builder? (4th Sept. 2014)

4).Why did Indra kill Brahmins? – (posted on 25 May 2014).
5).How many people did Indra kill? (17th July 2014)
6).Do you know Indra? (14th July 2014)
7).Indus Valley – Brahmin Connection (10th May 2014)
8).Indus Valley Case: Lord Indra Acquitted (28 December 2013)
9).Indra in the Oldest Tamil Book
10). Indra Festival in the Vedas and Tamil Epics
11).Vishnu in Indus Valley
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Mongolia Stamp on Vajrayudha

Most of these articles are available in Tamil also. Indra is mentioned in all my articles on Aryan Dravidian ‘Racist’ Theory.

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com