SIMILARITIES BETWEEN BHAGAVAD GITA AND PARSI’S ZEND AVESTA (Post No.10,667)

Research Article WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 10,667

Date uploaded in London – –    17 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Bhagavad Gita in one of Hindu’s most important scriptures. Hindus believe that Vyasa was Krishna’s contemporary, and Vyasa was the one who divided Vedas into four. So Krishna’s Bhagavad Gita is at least 5000 years old. Though the age of Zarathushtra and the Zend Avesta (Parsi religion) are debatable, they are at least 2600 years old. May be older than Buddha and Mahavir.

Scholars like Martin Haugh who have studied both Parsi (Zoroastrian)  and Hindu scriptures thoroughly believe that some of the parts in the Zend Avesta (Vedas of Parsis) may be older than or earlier than Spitama Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek writings) . Zoroastra  is at least 2600 years old.

The basic teachings of Zoroastra are Good Thought, Good Word and Good Deed. This is called Tri Karana Suddhi in Sanskrit in Hinduism.

HUMATA= SU MATHI IN SANSKRIT (H=S)

HUKHTA= SU UKTA IN SANSKRIT

HVRASHTA = SU VARISHTA IN SANSKRIT

VOHU MANO or  BAHMAN = GOOD MIND

“Your good thoughts, good words and good deeds alone will be your intercessors. Nothing more will be wanted. They alone will serve you as a safe pilot to the harbour of Heaven, as a safe guide to the gates of paradise.”
— Zoroaster

  1. mazdayasnō ahmi mazdayasnō zarathushtrish ….. āstuye humatem manō, āstuye hūkhtem vachō, āstuye hvarshtem shyaothnem, āstuye daēnām vanghuhīm māzdayasnīm fraspāyaokhedhrām, nidhāsnaithishem. (Mazdayasnō Ahmi – The Zoroastrian Confession of Faith= Yasna XII. 8,9~)

I am a worshipper of God (Mazda), I am a Zoroastrian worshipper of God … I praise good thoughts (humata), I praise good words (hūkhta), I praise good deeds (hvarshta). I praise the good Mazdayasni religion which allays dissensions and quarrels, and which brings about kinship or brotherhood.

This is in Zend Avesta, Bhagavad Gita, Valmiki Ramayana, Manu Smrti,  Kalidasa’s Raghu Vmasa and Buddha’s Dhammapada, just to mention a few books.

xxx

17th Chapter of Bhagavad Gita explains the three principles in detail:-

DEED

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् |
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते || 14||

deva-dwija-guru-prājña- pūjanaṁ śhaucham ārjavam
brahmacharyam ahinsā cha śhārīraṁ tapa uchyate

BG 17.14: When worship of the Supreme Lord, the Brahmins, the spiritual master, the wise, and the elders is done with the observance of cleanliness, simplicity, celibacy, and non-violence then this worship is declared as the austerity of the body.


WORD

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् |
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते || 15||

anudvega-karaṁ vākyaṁ satyaṁ priya-hitaṁ cha yat
svādhyāyābhyasanaṁ chaiva vāṅ-mayaṁ tapa uchyate

17-5 Words that do not cause distress, are truthful, inoffensive, and beneficial, as well as regular recitation of the Vedic scriptures—these are declared as austerity of speech.

satyaṁ brūyāt priyaṁ brūyān na brūyāt satyam apriyam
priyaṁ cha nānṛitaṁ brūyād eṣha dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ
(Manu Smṛiti 4.138)[v4]

“Speak the truth in such a way that it is pleasing to others. Do not speak the truth in a manner injurious to others. Never speak untruth, though it may be pleasant. This is the eternal path of morality and dharma.”

THOUGHT

मन: प्रसाद: सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रह: |
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते || 16||

manaḥ-prasādaḥ saumyatvaṁ maunam ātma-vinigrahaḥ
bhāva-sanśhuddhir ity etat tapo mānasam uchyate

BG 17.16: Serenity of thought, gentleness, silence, self-control, and purity of purpose—all these are declared as austerity of the mind.

THREE FOLD AUSTERITY- Thought, Word, Deed

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरै: |
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तै: सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते || 17||

śhraddhayā parayā taptaṁ tapas tat tri-vidhaṁ naraiḥ
aphalākāṅkṣhibhir yuktaiḥ sāttvikaṁ parichakṣhate

BG 17.17: When devout persons with ardent faith practice these three-fold austerities without yearning for material rewards, they are designated as austerities in the mode of goodness.

Xxxx

Kalidasa’s  Raghu Vamsa

Most famous poet of India Kalidasa also mentioned the Trikarana Suddhi in his Raghuvamsa.

कायेन वाचा मनसा शश्वद्यत्संभृतं वासवधैर्यलोपि|
आपाद्यते न व्ययमन्तरायैः कच्चिन्महर्षेस्त्रिविधं तपस्तत्॥ ५-५

5. kaayena= by bodily rigour – in upavaasa aadi vrata-s; vaacaa= by speech – by Veda paThana paaTheNa etc; manasaa api= gaayatrii japa aadiinaam api= by regular meditations, even by; vaasava dhairya lopi= indra’s, courage, denigrator; yat= which [tapaH= ascesis is there, that ]; shashvat sa.mbhR^ita.m= always, accumulated; maharSheH= of that great sage; tri vidha.m= three, kinds – of penances; tat tapaH= that, ascesis; antaraayaiH= by impediments; vyayam na apaadyate= wastage, not, getting; kaccit= I hope! – asks a question mixed with hope, the expected answer being ‘yes’ or ‘no’ according to the form of question and is translated by ‘I hope that etc…’

“The threefold ascesis of that great sage which has long been accumulated by him by the exercise of his body, speech and mind i.e., by way of bodily rigour, speech function in reciting Veda-s, and by mental contemplation on meditations respectively, and which triad of pertinacity disturbs even the firmness of Indra, does not suffer waste by any kind of impediment – I hope… [5-5]

In another place also, Kalidasa mentioned it.

वाङ्मनःकर्मभिः पत्यौ व्यभिचारो यथा न मे।
तथा विश्वंभरे देवि मामन्तर्धातुमर्हसि॥ १५-८१

15-81. vAk manaH karmabhiH= by speech, mind and action; patyau me vyabhicAraH na yathA= reg. husband, to me, infidelity, if it is not there; tathA= in such case – if I were to be clean; hè vishva.nbhare= oh, mother earth; devi= oh, bhUdevi; mAm antardhAtum arhasi= me, to secrete, apt of you.

“If there has been no violation of duty on my part towards my husband either by Speech or Thought or Action, then, oh, Mother Earth, pray, be good enough to secrete me in thy womb… [15-81]

XXXX

This is also in the Uttara Kanda of Ramayana(97- 14/15.

Xxxx

MANU SMRTI

Manu in his Manava Dharma Saastra also says,

MANU 12-9

शरीरजैः कर्मदोषैर्याति स्थावरतां नरः ।
वाचिकैः पक्षिमृगतां मानसैरन्त्यजातिताम् ॥ ९ ॥

śarīrajaiḥ karmadoṣairyāti sthāvaratāṃ naraḥ |
vācikaiḥ pakṣimṛgatāṃ mānasairantyajātitām || 9 ||

Through sinful acts due to the Body, man becomes inanimate; through those of Speech, a bird or a beast; and through those of Mind, he is born in the lowest caste.—(12-9)

Xxxx

BRAHMINS SAY IT EVERY DAY

Brahmins in Hindu community say these three every day at the end of their thrice a day parayer in the Morning, Midd day and Evening:

Kayena vacha manasa indriyair va Budhyath manava va

Prakrute swabhavath karomi yadyat sakalam parasmai, narayanayeti samarppayami

Rough translation runs like this-

Whatever I do by (with my) body, word, mind or intellect or natural impulses- all these I surrender to the supreme god Narayana (Narayana= one who resides in water)

Xxx

In Buddha’s Dhammapada

Dhammapada is the Veda for the Buddhists. All that is in the Dhammapada is considered Buddha’s words.

In the last chapter of Dhammapada , Buddha praises Brahmins sky high; but like Manu Smrti he also defines the Brahminhood. Buddha says

He who hurts not with his THOUGHTS or WORDS or DEEDS who keeps these THREE under control – him I call a BRAHMIN- verse 391

Earlier in another verse Buddha says,

There are men steady and wise whose BODY, WORDS and MIND are self controlled. They are the men of supreme self-control- verse 234

 Xxx

The principle of Avatars is both in Zend Avesta and Bhagavad Gita (Please read my article KALKI  AVATAR IN PARSI LITERATURE)

SAMBHAVAAMI YUGE YUGE

LORD KRISHNA says IN BHAGAVAD GITA,

यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत |
अभ्युत्थानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् || 4-7||

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata
abhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānaṁ sṛijāmyaham

4.7: Whenever there is a decline in righteousness and an increase in unrighteousness, O Arjun, at that time I manifest Myself on earth.

We can see this in Parsi scripture too. In GATHA USHTAVAITI, were see

I replied to him: Firstly, I am Zarathushtra. I will show myself as a destroyer to the wicked, as well as to be a comforter for the righteous man As long as I can praise and glorify you O Mazda! I shall enlighten and awaken all that aspire to property.(8)

Xxxx subham xxxxx

tags-  Good Word, Good thought, Good Deed, Zoroaster, Parsi, Bhagavad Gita, Manu, Kalidasa, Buddha,