179 Victims in Hindu Human Sacrifice- Last Part (Post No.4268)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 3 October 2017


Time uploaded in London-21-57


Post No. 4268

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.


Purushamedha Yajna-Human Sacrifice


Following is the third and last part of 179 victims as given in the  Taittiriya Brahmana; first two parts and the introduction about Sunashepa episode are given in the past three days. Please read from ‘Sunashepa Episode: Golden carpet and Silver Chariot to Brahmins’—article.





91.To the mentally wrathful, a blacksmith, or one who works at a forge


93, to him who presides over griefs,  a groom who runs before a chariot


94.To the two who preside over gains above or below, one’s expectation (Utkula and Vikula), a cripple who cannot move even with the help of a crutch


95, him who presides over expected profits, one who harnesses a horse to chariot


96, to him who protects gains, one who unharnesses a horse i


97, to the portly.bodied, the son of one who is addicted to her toilet;


98, to him who presides over politeness, one who puts collyrium on his eyes


99, to the divinity of sin, a maker of leather sheaths for swords;


100, to Yama (the destroyer of life), a barren woman.


101, To Yami, a mother of twins

102., to the goddesses woo preside over, the mantras of the Atharva Veda, a woman who had aborted;


  1. to the divinity of the first year of Jupiter’s cycle, woman who is confined long after due time


104.To that of the second year ditto, one who has not conceiveds for the second time;


105, the third year of ditto, one who is able to bring on delivery before due time;


106, to that of the fourth year ditto, one who can delay delivery

  1. to that of the fifth year ditto, one who becomes lean without delivery


108, to one who produces a misleading impression of the world, a woman who appears old in youth

  1. to the divinity of forests, a forest ranger or keeper


110.To the divinity of a side forest, one who protects forests from fire.


  1. To the divinities of the lakes, a fisherman who catches fish both in water and also from the bank

112.To those of ponds, one who catches fishes with hooks.

113.to those of bays, one who earns his livelihood with a net


114, to those female divinities, who presides over waters amidst prairies, one who earns his livelihood with fishing hooks


  1. To the divinity of the further bank, a Kaivarta, or one who hunts fish from the banks


116.to that of the near bank, a Mérgira (or one who catches fish with his hands only)


117, to the divinities of fords, one who catches fish with by putting up stakes in waters


  1. To those who preside over other than fords, one who earns his livelihood by catching fish with nets


  1. to those who preside over sounding waters, one who catches fish by poisoning them with poisoned leavesplaced in the water.


  1. To those of caverns in mountains, a Kirata (hunter)


121, To those of peaks of mountains, a Yambhaka;

122, to those mountains, a Kimpurusha.


  1. To the divinity of echoes, a news-dealer


124.To that of sounds, an incoherent speaker


125, to that of fading sounds, one who speaks much;


126.To that of unending sound, a dumb person


127, to that of loud sound, a player on the Veena


  1. To that of musical sound, a player on the flute



129, to that of all kinds of sounds, a trumpeter than a blower of conch shells


131, to those of who preside over the of seasons, one whose profession is to collect fragments of skins


132.To those of statesmanship (or of time, place and opportunities, for peace negotiations, a preparer of musical instruments with leather.

  1. To the goddess presiding over abhorrence, a (man of the) Paulkasa (caste)


134, to the goddess of affluence, one who is always careful or wakeful,


135, to that of indigence, a careless or sleepy person


  1. To that of scales (or weighing instruments), a purchaser


137.To the god presiding over the radiance of jewels, a goldsmith


  1. to the Visvedevus, a leper


139.To the  divinity of diseases other than leprosy, a naturally lean person


140.To the goddess of motion, a scadal monger


141, to that of prosperity one who is not impudent


142, to the god of decay, one who splits wood

143, To the divinity of mirth, a loose woman


144.To that of song, a player on the Vina or a songster

should be sacrificed


145.To that of aquatic animals a Sabbulya (one whose body is brindled, or has two colours, a piebald woman


  1. To that of congratulatory words, a woman of perfect form


147.To that of dancing, one who plays on flutes, one who leads the octave in a chorus and one who beats time with his hands.


148.To that of manifest delight, one who invites people to a dance, or one who makes a  sound to indicate the cessation of a dance.


149.to that of internal delight, on plays on the talava (a musical instrument, probably the archetype of the modern table) or one who produces music from his mouth.


  1. To the divinity of gambling with dice, a proficient gambler

  1. To that of the Krita age, a keeper of a gambling hall

152, to that of the Treta age,  a marker or reckoner at a gambling table


  1. To that of the Dwapara age, one who is a spectator at a gambling table


  1. To that of the Kali age, one who does not leave a gambling hall even after the play has stopped,


155.To that of difficult enterprises, a teacher of gymnastics on the tip of a bamboo:


156, to that of roads, a brahmachari (bachelor)


157.To the Pisachas,  one who commits robberies on public highways and then hides in mountain:


158, to the goddess of thirst, one who skins cattle:


159, To that of sin, a cattle poisoner


160, To that of hunger, a cow butcher


161, To the goddess of hunger and thirst, one who lives by begging beef from a butcher


162, To the divinity of land, a cripple who moves about on a crutch


163.To that of fire, a chandala


164 to that of the sky, one whose profession is to dance on the top of a bamboo


  1. To that of the celestial region, a bald person

  1. to the presiding divinity of the sun, a green-eyed person

167, To the divinity of the moon, one who twinkles his eyes too frequently.


168.To the presiding divinity of the stars, one affected with white leprous blotches


169, to that of day, an albino with tawny eyes


170, To that of night, a black person with tawny eyes.


171.To the goddess of speech, a fat person


172, to Vayu, the five vital airs- Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, samana of that person

173.To Surya should be immolated his eyes


174, to Grandrma, his mind


175.To the regents of the quarters his ears;


176 his life, to Prajipati.

  1. Now to ugly divinities should be immolated very short very tall, very lean, very fat, very white, very dark, very smooth, very hairy, few toothed, numerously toothed, frequently -twinkling-eyed, and very glaring eyed persons.


178, to the goddess for unattainable (and) objects of hope a woman who has passed the age of conception


179.And to the goddess of hope for unattainable (and) objects, a virgin. -Taittiriya-Brahmana


On the above Apastamba remarks “The is a penta- diurnal; a Brahman or a Kshatriya should celebrate it. He thereby acquires strength and vigour; be enjoys all fruition.

My comments:


The list should not be taken literally; as usual the seers speak in mysterious language. Human sacrifice did not happen at any time in Hindu History whereas the aboriginal tribes had practised them till recently.



The list shows that we are talking about a highly skilled and highly organised, high thinking people. They are not nomads or pastoral. The references to doctor, astronomer, musicians, musical instruments, chariots, speech (Vak) etc show that they were city dwellers.



The words and gods they use to describe certain qualities or virtues, show that they were far superior in thinking to Sumerians, Egyptians, Chinese and Mayans even if we take the period of Brahmanas is around 1000 BCE.


But 50 foreign “scholars” who scrutinised Vedas word by word, sentence by sentence never did it for any other religious book. They did it to justify whatever said in those book but not to oppose it. This shows their true colours and motive.


Those “scholars” (in fact idiots or cunning rascals) never agreed even on a single mantra of the 10,000 Rig Vedic mantras. Leave alone the huge Brahmana literature, which came before the unhistorical Moses, Greek Homer and others. Latin and Tamil did not exist at that time.


Foreigners fooled Indians by placing the Vedas in 1200 BCE and Brahmanas in 1000 BCE. A big difference in or a big jump in knowledge or rituals or approach or thinking process. This is impossible to achieve for “pastoral nomads”. Brahmana literature is encyclopaedic. They talk in decimal numbers and they have big mathematical calculations for erecting Fire Altars. They went to Egypt and helped them in erecting pyramids (For proof, please read my article Did Indians build Egyptian Pyramids?)


In short whatever the foreigners said about Vedas or the Vedic Hindus or their age, shouldn’t be believed.


Hindus should convene scholarly conferences and take mantra by mantra and write down all available Hindu interpretations. Even before Sayana we have several interpretations. More over the lost (huge) Vedic literature must be taken into accounts; the fragments are still available in other literature.


Even for this list I have depended only on foreign translations; one would never know whether they have corrupted the texts or translations to suit their needs!


Please read all the connected articles for my views on the subject. They have been posted in the past one week.


Source book: The Vedas and Brahmanas, J Murdoch,Caxton Publications, Published 100 years ago.









Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 29 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 15-56



Post No. 4256


Pictures are taken from various sources such as google, Facebook friends, newspapers and Wikipedia for non-commercial use; thanks.



Rig Vedic society was well advanced and highly civilized. They were an economic super power in the ancient world. Every prize is given only in big decimal numbers such as 10,000 or 100,000 and  gold is freely distributed as dakshina (fees for the priests). Half baked, white skinned “scholars” and their Marxist sycophants described the Rig Vedic Hindus as nomads, pastoral, silly, ridiculous, childish, gibberish, obscure etc. But the biggest wonder is there were 179 different jobs they were doing. One of them is Nakshatra Darshak (Star gazer= astronomer); Jyotish is different. It dealt with auspicious time and the 27+1 stars. India was the oldest civilization to teach jyotisha (astrology) as part of Veda Patasala syllabus. The Vedic youths must study six more subjects such as grammar, linguistics, astrology along with the Vedas. These 179 jobs are in Yajur Veda. White skinned scholars never give the list of 179 professions such as doctors engineers in the Vedic society but they always add one line “victim of Purushameda Yajna’ when such words occur. What is it?


Purushameda Yajna was sacrificing human beings and they should throw 179 different people into fire. The foreign scholars were very happy to read such passages in the Satapata Brahmana (of Yajur veda) Even Arya Samajists disowned the Brahmana literature saying that they were not part of the Vedas. They did it because of the bad atmosphere created by the Christian preachers.

The Brahmana literature was a huge mass with full of mysteries. The language is a secret language. Neither Tamil, Greek nor Latin had any literature. If anyone reads it, it wouldn’t make any sense. But the subjects it covers is very vast from astronomy to Zoology. At first the foreigners wrote Hinduism won’t survive even for 100 years with such materials. But those foreigners never said what professions existed at the Vedic period. If they give the full list everybody would know that they were highly civilized. Hindus describe even God as doctor and his advice as medicine ( In Rudram of Yajur Veda).


The fact of the matter is that nobody has any proof for Purushameda Yajna (Human Sacrifice). The only anecdote is Sunashepa Anecdote. The brief account is as follows:-


It is from the Aitareya Brahmana: King Harischandra of the race of Ikshwaku, being childless, made a vow that if he obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Varuna. A son was born who was named Rohita, but his father postponed, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow (sacrificing children is in every religious book all around globe; thousands of mysterious children’s graves are in Bahrain; read my article about Mysteries of Bahrain).


When he was ready to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused to be the victim and he ran into the forest. He lived there for six years. He then met a poor Brahmin Rishi Ajigerta, who had three sons. He gave his second son Sunashepa (meaning Dog’s tail)  for an exchange of 100 cows. Sunashsepa was tied to a pole. Viswamitra was passing that way and found Sunashepa and released him. He thought it was barbaric to sacrifice a human being. Ramayana and Mahabharata gave different versions where Viswamitra’s two divine mantras released Sunashepa. He was adopted as a son by Viswamitra and changed his name as Devavarta.

A series of seven hymns in the Rig Veda is attributed to Sunashepa.


This clearly shows that there was no such human sacrifice nor any custom before Harischandra, one of the long list of kings. Vedic literature was very huge and most of them came before Greeks started writing.


Foreigners thought they could use it against Hinduism; but they couldn’t because there was no sacrifice even in this episode.


But on the contrary Hindus, particularly Brahmins, used it in a positive way. This is the longest and most interesting story in Aitareya Brahmana. The mere telling of the story saves one from sin.


“If a sinful king has the story of Sunashepa told him, not the slightest trace of sin and its consequences will remain in him. He must therefore give a 1000 cows to the teller of this story and a 100 to him who makes the responses required; and to each of them the gold embroidered carpet on which he was sitting; to the priest, besides a silver decked carriage drawn by mules. Those who wish for children should also have this story told them; then they certainly will be blessed with children”.


Foreign “scholars” looked like idiots when this is known to the world. Golden carpet! Silver decked chariot! to the priests for telling a story!! How wealthy they must be! Before the Sumerians did the Tulabharam (weight equal to one’s body weight) of gold was given by the Hindus! Tamil King Cheran Senguttuvan gave 55 kilos of gold to a Brahmin just for advising him to do Vedic yajnas and stop killing people in the wars! It happened 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu.


Now you can laugh very loudly when you read some silly things about Vedic Hindus written by Marxist idiots and white skinned fools.




Did Hindus sacrifice 184 Human beings in Purusamedha Yajna?(Post No.4001)

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 14 June 2017
Time uploaded in London- 19-58
Post No. 4001
Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.
contact: swami_48@yahoo.com



Foreigners happily described the Asvamedha Yajna where a horse was sacrificed by the Kshatriyas, the ruling caste. 200 more animals are also listed by the Yajur Veda as victims in the same Yajna (Fire Sacrifice); but the surprising thing is many animals are not at all identified! Vedas are very old and no one knows the meaning of several words! Another surprise is that the listed animals were not thrown into fire. they were symbolically tied to the post and then released. This came to my notice from a 2000 year old Tamil poem in Akananuru. In a poem about love a simile is used about the tortoise that came from the fire altar.


Even if we believe that a horse was killed in that sacrifice, the number of kings who performed Asva medha are under 20 in 5000 years! Many of them are not historical personages! When we compare this with the number of animals killed every minute now and in the ancient times are huge and incomparable.


There is another proof in Yajur Veda where paddy grains were sacrificed instead of meat (Satapata Brahmana 1-2-3-7-9). The disciple asked the Guru for the reason. He told him that with the ghee the particles of paddy looked like meat. This is the second proof. And there is one more proof in the Yajur Veda.

The Purusamedha Yajna (Human Sacrifice) Yajna is explained in Vajasaneyi Samhita of YV chapters 30 to  36. There are 184 different human beings doing various jobs and people suffering from diseases are listed. Even a leper is listed in the list of victims. But in the massive Hindu scriptures, there is not a single example of human sacrifice. One instance of a boy tied to a post rescued by Vishvamitra also said that he was not sacrificed.


Foreigners kept quite when it came to Purusamedha. The point proved here is that when the Vedas say “victims at a sacrifice”, what they meant was the sacrifice was done for the benefit of all those kinds in the list. Otherwise why should they list a dwarf, a blind, a leper, a lame etc. In fact, the lists show the composition of the Vedic society and the sacrifice was done for the benefit of 184 different kinds of people. No archaeological or inscriptional evidence came to light so far about actual sacrifice. In fact, the various professions received a recognition through this sacrifice.

Sacrifice= Fire ceremony

All other ancient cultures such as Aztec, Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese have a clear description of such a sacrifice. Even the tribal Khonds did it like the Mayan and the Aztecs.


Some examples of unidentified animals and strange victims are given below: –



Aja-gara (goat-swallower)

It occurs in the Atharva veda and in the list of animas at the Asvamedha as the name of a boa-constrictor. Elsewhere it is called Vahasa. It denotes a person at the snake feast in the Pancavimsa Brahmana (Please note the confusion -person, snake!)



This word occurs in the list of victims at the Purusamedha and means, according to Mahidhara, an attendant on the door-keeper and according to Sayana an attendant on the charioteer (The meticulous details show that he was not sacrificed, his welfare was also taken into account).


This word designates one of the  victims at the Purusamedha, meaning, PERHAPS, herald. The commentator Mahidhara renders it as reviler.


The sprinkler who sprinkles water on the king during his consecration is also one of the victims!

Purusa Mrga

This means the man wild beast, occurs as a victim in Asvamedha.It is translated as Ape and Man by others. Confusion!

Purusa Hastin

It means the man with a hand. Victim in the Asvamedha. Translated as Ape ( look at the confusion; previous word also translated Ape. God only knows whether apes existed. If they have existed why there is referece in other Hindu scriptures? ( My guess is it is not ape)

Puskara- saada

It means sitting on the lotus. one of the animal victims in the Asvamedha. It is translated as a Bird, a snake, a bee by different authors! Foreigners fantasies.

All these fellows have interpreted Brotherless girls as Prostitutes!

(I have given just some examples. If you read the interpretation of nearly 300 victims in the Asvamedha and 184 victims in the Purusamedha, you will have a good laugh! Their translations are good comedies in English! Please read all about the 484 victims!

Asvamedha= Horse sacrifice

Purusamedha=Human sacrifice.





Human Sacrifice (Nara Bali) in India (Post No.3244)


I have taken this picture from an old book; I dont know whether it is a drawing or something that happened long long ago.

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 12 October 2016


Time uploaded in London: 5-55 AM


Post No.3244


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


Contact swami_48@yahoo.com



We have references to Nara bali/ human sacrifice in the following sources in India:-


1.Siruthondar (from Tamil Periyapuranam):

One of the 63 Saivite saints of Tamil Nadu. He lived in the period of Mahendra Pallava, 1400 years ago. One Bairagi came and asked for human meat. Siruthondar, who was the commander in Chief of the Pallava army, was forced to cook his own son for the Siva devotee. But at the end, the boy came alive and the Bairagi disappeared and they came to know that it was Lord Siva who came as a meat eater to test his devotion.

Whatever be the end of the story this shows that there a sect who asked for human sacrifice. They were very few in number and hated by the true devotees.


2.Adi Sankara

Adi Shankara who lived 2000 years ago weeded out the bad elements in Hinduism. Knowing that he was against unruly elemtnts in the Hindu religion A Kabalika asked for his body to be sacrificed to the god. He agreed because an ascetic never cares for the human body. But one of his disciples took the form of Narasimha (Man lion form of Vishnu) and torn the Kabalika into pieces.

3.Purushamedha Yajna (from the Vedic literature)

We hear about it only name sake in the Vedas. There was one instance where a boy was tied to a pole (may be for sacrifice)  and he was released by the revolutionary Vedic Poet Visvamitra. No body objected to it. But there are other references that only human or animal figures made out of rice flour were sacrificed in the fire.


Other Nara Bali Episodes:–

4.Indus Valley Civilization; 5.Navakandam; 6.Mahabharatam:–

Please see my earlier post; link at the bottom


7.From Khond (Dravidian Human Sacrifices) Sources:–

Bera Pennu

“Vegetation goddess in Nothern India.

Worshipped by the Khonds in Bengal.

She was the recipient of human sacrifice to ensure good harvest, particularly of the spice turmeric, and as protection against disease and infirmity. The sacrificial victim or meriah was youthful, often kept as a holy person before death and was always either the offspring of a previous sacrificial victim, or purchased from impoverished families for the purpose. He or she was generally strangled, sometimes in the fork of a tree, after days of festivities. In other instances, the victim was cut alive.


Boora Pennu

God of light. Indian Khond.

A local deity in Orissa province who created the earth goddess Tari Pennu as his consort and through her engendered the other great gods. Until recently this deity was the subject of sacrifice in notorious meriah rituals which involved violent human sacrifice.

Tari Pennu

Chthonic goddess. Indian (Khond). Created by the sky gods Boora Pennu and Bella Pennu so as to conceive the rest of the pantheon she is identified as a malevolent deity, the subject of regular propitiation human sacrifices in the notorious meriah rituals in the Orissa province”.

(Pennu= light is explained in my other article posted on 7th October; please see the link at the bottom)

(Encyclopedia of Gods by Michael Jordan)


8.Egypt, Mayan, Middle East (Bahrain), Sumer etc


My earlier Posts:-

Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt

31 October 2012

Human Sacrifice practised by the Khonds, 7 October 2016

Human Sacrifice practised by the Kondhs! (Post No3225)


Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 7 October 2016


Time uploaded in London: 6-01 AM


Post No.3225


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


(Following is a piece from Arthur Mile’s book about the customs of the Kondh Tribes whom he described the DRAVIDIANS!)

The Kondhs live in dread of witchcraft, and are for ever watching for signs of it. In this connection the Madras Police Report records a case in the Vizagapatnam hill districts. The younger of the the three brothers died of fever, and when the body was cremated the upper portion did not burn. The surviving brothers therefore concluded that death had been caused by the witchcraft of a certain Kondh, and they attacked the man and killed him. After cutting their victim’s body into halves, they took the upper part to their village and threw it on the spot where the deceased brothers body had refused to burn. For their crime they were arrested and sentenced to death.


When cholera breaks out in a village, they smear their bodies with pig’s fat which has been liquefied and they continue to do this until the disappearance of the epidemic. It is believed that the cholera Goddess is driven away by the smell of the fat. They also attempt to prevent the approach of the goddess by barricading the paths to the village with ditches, which they fill with thorns and pots stinking oil.



Friendship Oath!

The Kondhs have a friendship oath, which in some way resembles the blood covenant of the Hebrews. Friendship is sworn on sacred rice, which has been consecrated to the god of Jagannath of Puri. Pilgrims visiting Puri get a quantity of this rice, and distribute it to those who ask for it. It is supposed that one cannot utter a lie, or have an evil thought, while holding the rice in the hand. Instances are known of friendship, sworn on the rice, being contracted between towns-men and the poor village peasants; even between a Brahman woman and a Sudra servant. Bound by such friendship, two people allow no festival to pass without an exchange of presents the house of one presents, and no ceremony goes on at the house of one unless the other is invited. If one party dies, the survivor does not consider the bond disconnected but continues to make gifts to the family of the deceased. This friendship is called songatho, and it increases with the barbarity of the division. Among the wilder tribes there are splendid examples of Songatho which have lasted for generations. One hill tribe takes an oath on a leopard’s skin, or while holding a peacock feather in the hand.


Origin of the Kondhs
The legend of the origin of the Kondhs is a story of human sacrifice.

In the beginning, when the ground was all wet, there were only two women living on the earth, and in due course each one was blessed with a son. The two women and their children came from the interior of the earth, bringing with them two plants which were their food. One day, when one of the women was cutting one of the plants, she accidentally cut her finger and the blood dropped on the ground, and instantly the wet earth became dry. The woman cooked the plant and gave it to her son to eat, who asked her why it tasted so much sweeter than usual. She told him that she did not know, but that that night she expected to have a dream and would let him know. The next morning the woman made her son promise to do as she told him if he would prosper in the world. He must forget that she was his mother, and cut flesh from her back and bury it in the ground. This her son did, whereupon the wet soil dried up and became hard, and the animals, trees, and birds came into existence. A partridge then scratched the ground, and millet and rice grew.


The two brothers agreed that, as the sacrifice of the woman brought forth abundance from the ground, they must sacrifice a human being once a year. A god by the name of Boora Panoo, together with his daughters, came to live with the brothers, and, marrying the daughters, the brothers begat children. When the children grew up, there was a dispute as to which one should be sacrificed, and, not being able decide the point, the brothers sacrificed a monkey instead. The goddess of the earth in consequence was very angry, and ordered the proper offering of a human being. The two men sought for ten years for a victim, and finally they found a man with a son five years old. They bought the son from the father, with permission to sacrifice him.


The boy was fettered to prevent his running away, toddy was made from grain, and a post was erected at which a pig was sacrificed. Two days before being offered the boy was tied to the post. On the night before the sacrifice the priest took a stick and poked it into the earth until the earth god answered, and round the hole from whence the goddess had spoken, pieces of wood were arranged lengthways and cross ways and an egg was placed the on the sacrificial day the boy was conducted to the wood, made to lie on it face downward. Pieces of flesh were then removed from his back, and buries at the caste’s place of worship. While other portions were put into the ground near  a drinking well to increase the water. The remainder of the corpse was burnt on the pile of wood. On the next day a buffalo was sacrificed, and a feast given.


The following verse (which was intended to be uttered over human sacrifice) is now recited by the Janni (priest) at the buffalo sacrifice. Come, male slave, come, female slave, what do you say? What do you call out for? You have been brought, ensnared by the Haddi. You have been called, ensnared by the Domba. What can I do, even if you are my child? You are sold for a pot of food





Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt

Picture shows a man’s head on the stool by the side of a kneeling person.

Human sacrifice was practised by various cultures at various levels. We have references to sacrifice of human beings in the Vedas and Tamil literature and sculptures. In fact there is no religious book which has not got a reference to it. There is no civilization where it was not practised. Historians only talk about Mayans nowadays. But it was practised on a large scale in the Middle East. We have unusually, disproportionately large number of children graves in Bahrain. It was practised in the early dynasties of Egypt. When the pharaoh died, lot of his servants, officials, queens were buried with him. They were administered with quick acting poison or a tranquilizing drug. They all did in an orderly manner. Bible and Jewish literature refers to it a number of places.


It is also known from Sumer, where the death pits of ur and kish contained rich burials of royal or sacred personages attended by dozens of retainers, guards and courtiers. Even during the death of Gilgamesh, his intimates were sacrificed around 2700 BC.

In some places, like Mayans, it was done ritually. Hindu Heroes sacrificed themselves to infuse heroism and patriotism before wars. They cut their heads by their own hands. We have sculptures depicting this scene. Hindu ladies threw themselves in husband’s pyre (called Sati) even when others stopped them. Sangam Tamil literature has a beautiful verse in Purananauru sung by the wife of Pandyan King. Bhutapandyan Devi simply ignored the requests of all the ministers and threw herself in the fire. But it was not compulsory. Even when the Pandava king Pandu died, his wife Kunti did not die by Sati. When Rama went in to the Sarayu River, thousands of his followers followed him into the river, says Ramayana. But we can see a clear dividing line between voluntary sacrifice and forced human sacrifice.

In Sri Lanka, Ravana’s sons Meghanada and Indrajit did human sacrifice in the cave of Nikhumbila according to Ramayana.

Picture shows Kalibhangan Spear Fight.

Same scene in Egypt and Indus

An ivory label from Djer’s reign has two figures facing each other. One seems to be plunging a knife into the other’s breast.;he holds ready a  vessel, of a typically elegant first dynasty form, in which presumably, he will catch his victims blood. It seems certain that what is shown here is a rite of human sacrifice (page 121, Egypt’s Making by Michael Rice).

Indus valley has two or three human sacrifice scenes. On a seal we see two warriors piercing each other’s body in front of a god, similar to scenes in Egypt. A cylinder seal from Kalibhangan shows two soldiers spear each other. They have their hair tied into double bun

In another seal we have a man bowing before a goddess with a big animal. In the fig deity seal of Mohanjo- daro (M1186) a human head was placed on the altar beneath the fig tree. The hair on this head is bound at the back into a double bun. This suggests that the human head on the fig deity seal belonged to a warrior.


Pictures of Navakandam from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

Human Sacrifice in Mahabharata

Another type of human sacrifice is offering one’s life for the success in a war. This is first seen in Mahabharata and then in Tamil literature. Rajasthani flk literature also has got such tales. This is a self motivated sacrifice. No one puts anyone to death. Aravan also known as Irawan, son of Arjuna and Naga princess Ulupi offers his head for the success of Pandavas. This tradition is well known in South East Asia and Northern parts of Tamil Nadu. A lot of temples have Aravan’s head. In Rajathan the same story is told about Khatusyamji, also known as Barbarika (Belar Sen). In Nepal, he is known as Yalamabar. So we can conclude sacrificing one’s head for the success in war is as old as Mahabharata.


Navakandam (Nine Cuts) In Tamil Nadu

Navakandam means Nine Cuts. A heroic soldier ritually cuts himself in nine places and dies in front of Goddess Durga also known as Kotravai just before a war. He does it for the welfare and success of the king and kingdom. This was a great patriotic act. The people who have sacrificed their lives for sake of the country are honoured by the Tamils. They install statues  for them and do Puja. We have got beautiful sculptures depicting this heroic deed.

Jayamkondar, author of Kalingatuparani, wrote songs about this practice of Navakandam in 9th century AD. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam and Manimekalai, one of the five epics, also mention it. Maravars  of Tamilnadu and Nayars of Kerala practised this ritual.


Pictures of Hand Prints by women who committed Sati in Jodhpur Rajasthan & a Navakandam

Following are the places where Navakandam happened:

Thanjavur—for the success of a Choza king

Mahabalipuram fifth ratha of Kali—

Madurai Madapuram mariammn temple—Siththira sarithan & Vallabhan

Thenkarai village— Near Sholavandan

Mallal, Ilaiyangkudi—Prayer to Kali for the welfare of the king

Sathipattu near Panrutti—for ruler Athirajamangalyapuram

We have statues of the heroes in Navakandam pose.

Kundrakudi temple wall- For Durga

Mannarkottai—for the welfare of his master.

Tirupparankundram—to save the temple from invading army jumped from the tower. Strictly speaking it was not Navakandam, but a sort of ritual sacrifice.


Human Sacrifice in Sikhism

Different types of suicides or sacrifices are known through  historical documents. When the Sikh leader Guru Gobinda Simhan asked for five volunteers who can sacrifice their lives against foreign invaders, five people came forward. Though he did not kill them he pretended as if he had already sacrificed them by showing blood stained sword. All the five were declared as Sikh leaders. This shows that sacrifice for the country or religion existed in all parts of India. He asked them to come forward for sacrificed at the altar of Goddess. Tamil poet Bharathiyar has sung beautifylly about this under Guru Govindar.


Chittoor Rani Padmini entered fire with hundreds of her women colleagues to avoid molestation by foreign invaders.

Read my other posts on Indus and Egypt:

1.The Sugarcane Mystery: Indus Valley and the Ikshvaku Dynasty

2.Ghosts in Indus Seals and Indian Literature

3.Flags: Indus Valley- Egypt Similarity

4.Bull Fighting: Indus Valley to Spain via Tamil Nadu

5.Tiger Goddess of Indus Valley: Aryan or Dravidian?

6.Indra on Elephant Vahana in Indus Valley

7.Vishnu Seal in Indus Valley Civilization

8.Indus Script Deciphered

9.Tamil articles: சிந்து சமவெளியில் பேய் முத்திரை

10.சிந்து சமவெளியில் ஒரு புலிப் பெண்

11.கொடிகள்: சிந்து சமவெளி- எகிப்து இடையே அதிசய ஒற்றுமை