30 Beautiful Quotations from Kalhana’s Rajatarangini( Post No.4856)

April 2018 ‘Good Thoughts’ Calendar

COMPILED by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 27 MARCH 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  17-30

 

Post No. 4856

 

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Kalhana was a minister in Kashmir King Harsha’s (1089-1101) Kingdom. He wrote his epic poem in Sanskrit, Rajatarangini (River of Kings). It gives the history of Kashmir

 

FESTVAL DAYS:  APRIL 14- TAMIL NEW YEAR DAY, 18-AKSHAYA THRUTHYAI, 29- CHITRA PURNIMA, BUDDHA PURNIMA

APRIL 1– EASTER DAY, 2-EASTER MONDAY

 

EKADASI/ HINDU FASTING DAYS- 12 and 26

 

AMAVASYAI/ NEW MOON- 15

 

FULL MOON DAY/ PURNIMA- 29
Auspicious Days in APRIL-  5, 20, 22,25, 27

 

In the past three years, hundreds of quotations are given in both Tamil and English monthly calendars in my blog. Please use them

 

April 1 Sunday

Opportunity
A lost opportunity is considered equivalent to the three worlds. RAJATARANGINI 8-2457
April 2 Monday
Opposition
By going against a stream, one cannot succeed in accomplishing a matter which takes away what comes in its wake like the current of a river 8-3010
April 3 Tuesday
Passion
In the cases of the hearts of a king, a crystal and an unchaste woman, in the absence of their constant companions, there enters a passion for another. 6-33
April 4 Wednesday
People
An enterprise if crowned with success is not equally condemned by the people for they  hardly think whether or not it was justified by its relevant conditions 7-1422

 

April 5 Thursday
Perversity
In the ways of the creator, perversity is shown indeed 8-1275


April 6 Friday
Pity
There is none, who has not a good plan but its execution is neglected. Every one may know how to use a dart but rare is one who has the aim for it. 8-1529
April 7 Saturday
Plot
Whoever devises a plot to harm others certainly ruins himself from that same plot. Fire produces smoke which blinds the eyes. After turning into a cloud, it extinguishes the very fire by its torrential rain 4-125

 

April 8 Sunday
Poet
If the poet didn’t perceive what he is to reveal to all men, what other proof would there be of his divinity 1-5

April 9 Monday
Polity
Every one is aware of polity but few know its practical application 8-1529

April 10 Tuesday
Possession
As possessions are controlled by fate, the pride of foolish people in their family greatness is vain and false 7-206


April 11 Wednesday
Promotion
No metals can break a diamond and stone dykes can withstand the waters, but against the wicked, nothing is proof 6-273
April 12 Thursday
Prosperity
Men of small merits hardly survive long in their good fortune 8-1999
April 13 Friday
Proximity
The heat of summer becomes severe when rains approach and nights darkness when the dawn is close. Likewise, when extraordinary good fortune of surpassing glory dawn s for a person, receding Ill-luck accelerates the violence of its woes. 7-795

April 14 Saturday
Prudence
What wrath recommended, prudence forbade. 8-1359
April 15 Sunday
Reality
Can a lion in a picture emulate the activities of the real one? 7-60

 


April 16 Monday
Refuge
When the dignity of honourable men is outraged by a slight which cannot be remedied, their minds are tormented. What other refuge can they have except death? 6-278
April 17 Tuesday
Refuge
What refuge other than death is possible now? To us, who have forsaken the battle, even that is not possible. 7-847
April 18 Wednesday
Regret
It is futile to regret what one has done, right or wrong. 7-502

 
April 19 Thursday
Remedy
Against sedition there is no remedy 7-913
April 20 Friday

Splendour
The splendour which clings to men who shine for a brief moment like stars, passes away like a short summer night.7-133

 

 
April 21 Saturday
Retribution
That the clouds send down on the trees rain as well as lightning is the consequence of retribution for good or evil actions of a former existence. 7-342

April 22 Sunday
Riches
The rivulets waxing powerful feed the earth at its roots from the heavens showers fall and from all sides through the mouths of the channels the water courses through, filling a tank during the rainy season. When good fortune smiles, why will not riches come in hundred ways? 7-505

 

April 23 Monday
Scruples
Those who long for the acquisition of wealth have truly no dislike for evil practices 8-1099
April 24 Tuesday
Self- respect
The renunciation of self -respect cannot be eradicated even by a sage. 7-238

April 25 Wednesday
Self -respect
Men of honour should never break the great word of keeping their self -respect. 7-329

April 26 Thursday

Spark
One who clasps a spark mistaking it for a gem only burns his fingers. 4-299

April 27 Friday
Servant
A servant not trusted at a critical moment, brings disaster on his master like a hand sword in a struggle. 7-1160
April 28 Saturday
Service
In truth the service of the kings is more dangerous than the raising of a demon, the leap over a precipice, the chewing of poison or fondling of a snake 8-2187

 

April 29 Sunday
Skill
Even a little mischief, if repeated without skill, breaks out again and again through a hundred openings just as an old piece of cloth as when stitched with a needle.
7-849
April 30 Monday
Sleep
Sleep ,like a sweet heart left me in a huff and went somewhere far away. The night, like land bestowed on an unworthy person, is not yet over. 3-181

–SUBHAM–

Kaliyuga Calculation: Kalhana’s Blunder!

Yugas

Research Article written by london swaminathan

Post No: 1574: Dated 14th January 2015

 

Most of the Hindu Puranas and Panchangs state that the Kaliyuga began in 3101 BCE. But Kalhana who wrote Rajatarangini says that it began in 2448 BCE.

 

He says in the frist Canto of Rajatarangini,

 

“In Kali Era Gonanda and other kings ruled in Kashmir for 2268 years. Some have been deluded by the tradition that the Mahabharata had taken place at the end of Dwapara and had erroneously made the calculation of time”.

 

“When the number of years of the kings is calculated, the period of whose sovereignty is known, after deducting them, there is no remainder left of the period hitherto passed of Kali itself as follows:

 

“When 653 Kali  of Kali had elapsed there lived on the surface of the earth the Kauravas and Pandavas”

“Of the Laukika era in the 24th year at present 1070 years of Saka era have gone by” — Rajatarangini , Canto 1, Slokas 48-52

 

Then Kalhana explains the basis for his calculations. He quotes Brhat Samhita and says the Great Bear (Saptarsi Mandala) stood at Magha Nakshatra when Yudhistra ruled; i.e 2526 years  prior to Saka era  was the epoch of his reign.

 

He adds that Kasmiri king Gonanda and Jarasandha of Mahabharata were contemporaries

 

Kalhana’s calculation is as follows:

 

Number of years of Kaliyuga — 4224

Regnal Period from Gonanda I to Yudhistra I –2268

 

Regnal Period of Kings mentioned in Cantos 2 to 8 – 1328

Kali years up to Pandavas or Kashmir King Gonanda — 653 years

According to Kalhana’s calculation Mahabharata war took place in  2448 BCE i.e a difference of 653 years. Traditional date is around 3101 BCE.

 

In some places Kalhana asdds 100 years of Kali Sandhya (interval between two Yugas) and shows a difference of 753 years.

yug

D R Mankad in his Puranic Chronology says that there were two schools of thought regarding the Date of Mahabharata war or Kaliyuga.

 

Mankad points out that many Purana writers or historians did not calculate the Kingless (Arajaka) periods. He says that there were three Kingless periods in Indian history:

 

Between Mahananda and Mahapadma Nandas – 350 years

Between Mauryas and Sungas — 300 years

Between Sungas and Kanwas –  120 years

 

A total of 770 years

 

So the total between Parikshit and Mahapadma Nanda differes from 1150 years to 1500 years i.e. kingless period between Sisunagas and Nandas

 

When scholars calculated average years of rule for each king, the figure was big because they did not realise there was a kingless period.

 

Even in Tamil History there is a dark period known as Kalabhra Period. Immdeitely after the Sangam age, Kalabhras from Karnataka came and there was no record of who ruled when. Only from legends like Periyapurana we come to know that Murthy Nayanar was chosen as a King by an Elephant after a chaotic period. The elephant is sent with a garland and whoever it garlands  will be chosen as the king. Karikal Chola, Murthy Nayanar and a few others were chosen as kings by elephant garlanding like Swayamvaram, where a princess garlands a king who she likes.

 

The blunders in Indian history happened because, historians or Puranic writers forgot to mention or calculate the King-less periods (Arajaka)

 

Ramayana, Mahabharata and Arthasastra speak of King-less periods.That means it existed in those days.

 

The second blunder was due to take ceratin names as one person. Vaisstha, Visvamitra, Bharadwaja are mentioned in a course of 500 to 700 years. They ontinued as Kula Gurus for several generations. It was only a clan name, surname.

 

There were three Krishnas, Three Ramas, Two Ravanas , Four Dasarathas and three Arjunas mentioned in the Puranas. In course of time, people forgot the history and merged all in to one resulting in great confusion.In Tamil we have several kings with the names Adityas, Maravarman, Jatavarman, Kuttuvan etc. They are all sur names or titles. In Tamil there were at least 3 to 6 Avvaiyars, who was a great poetess. Like foreigners confused every one wih the name Indra which is a title like Prime Minister, Chief Minister etc.

 

Indian history must be re written taking all these points into consideration.

contact swami_48@yahoo.com

Nehru on Rajatarangini

rajatarangini

Compiled by London Swaminathan
Article No.1465; Dated 7th December 2014.

What is Rajatarangini?
Rajatarangini is the history of Kashmir written by a Kashmiri Brahmin called Kalhana. Rajatarangini means “RIVER OF KINGS”. It was written in Sanskrit in eight chapters. It consists of 3449 slokas/couplets. It is a 12th century work.

Who was Nehru?
Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. He was also a Kashmiri Brahmin. Nehru’s brother in law Ranjith Pandit translated it from Sanskrit into English in two years inside the jail. The translation work was done when both Nehru and Mr Pandit were in prison. Nehru wrote a foreword to his translation in 1934.

Rajatarangini was “the only work hitherto discovered in India having any pretensions to be considered as a history”, said Mr S P Pandit. Foreigners also praised Rajatarangini as the first history book in India. Kalhana was the first Indian to write a history book with the dates and other details like a modern history book.

Kalhana wrote it 200 years before Muslim’s conquest of Kashmir. It has got lot of interesting information. Kalhana disputed the traditional date of Kaliyuga 3100 BCE and placed it around 2500 BCE.

I give below what Nehru said about Rajatarangini,

“It is a history and it is a poem, though the two perhaps go ill together, and in a translation especially we have to suffer for this combination.

“Written 800 years ago, the story is supposed to cover thousands of years, but the early part is brief and vague and sometimes fanciful and it is only in the later periods, approaching Kalhana’s own times, that we see a close up and have a detailed account.

“There is too much of palace intrigue and murder and treason and civil war and tyranny. It is story of autocracy and military oligarchy here as in Byzantium or elsewhere. In the main, it is a story of kings and the royal families and the nobility, not of the common folk – indeed the very name is the River of Kings.

Quixotic Chivalry and Disgusting Cruelty

“And yet Kalhana’s book is something far more than a record of king’s doings. It is a rich store house of information, political and social and, to some extent economic. We see the panoply of the Middle Ages, the feudal knights in medieval glittering armour, quixotic chivalry and disgusting cruelty, loyalty unto death and senseless treachery; we read royal amours and intrigues of and of fighting and militant and adulterous queens.

kalhanas_rajatarangini_medium

Women seem to play a quite important part, not only behind the scenes but in the councils and the field as leaders and soldiers. Sometimes we get intimate glimpses of human relations and human feelings, of love and hatred, of faith and passion.

We read of Surya’s great engineering feats and irrigation works; of Lalitaditya’s distant wars of conquest in far countries; of Meghavahana’s curious attempt to spread non violence also by conquest; of the building of temples and monasteries and their destruction by unbelievers and iconoclasts who confiscated the temple treasures. And then there were famines and floods and great fires which decimated the population and reduced the survivors to misery.

Kalhana describes Kashmir as “a country in insurrection”! It was nearly two hundred years after Kalhana wrote his history that Kashmir submitted to Muslim rule, and even then it was not by external conquest but by a local revolution headed by a Muslim official of the last Hindu ruler, Queen Kota”.

About Kashmir’s summer heat inside the prison Nehru writes,
“But Kalhana had enabled me to overstep these walls and forget the summer heat, and to visit the land of the Sun God “where realizing that the land created by his father is unable to bear the heat, the hot rayed sun honours it by bearing himself with softness in summer; where dawn first appears with a golden radiance on the eternal snows and in the evening, the daylight renders homage to the peaks of the towering mountains”.

stories_from_rajatarangini_tales_of_kashmir_idi013

“The joy of plunging into Ganga is not known to those who reside in the sandy deserts, writes Kalhana; how can the dwellers in the plains know the joys of the mountains, and especially of this jewel of Asia, situate in the heart of that mighty continent.”

The above matter is from the foreword of Jawaharlal Nehru to Rajatarangini written on 28 June, 1934 from Dehradun Jail.

(There is lot of interesting historical information in Rajatarangini of which I will write in separate articles: swami)