Q and A Tamil inscription on Kaliyuga (Post No.10,226)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 10,226

Date uploaded in London – 18 OCTOBER  2021         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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S K B

To:swami_48@yahoo.com

Tue, Oct 12 at 8:27 PM

Dear Sir,

I am a retired scientist, interested in Ancient Indian History. I understand that you have written a paper on the dating of the Mahabharata war and found the year as 3137 BCE. May I request you kindly to send me a pdf copy of the same.

Regards,

S K. B

Xxxx

I tried but could not get any contact number till now. I am in USA and I don’t have any personal contact in Tamilnadu.

I look forward to hearing from you.  SKB

xxxx

Dear Swamiji,

It will be very kind of you if you can send me a copy of the Tamil inscription dated 865 CE, if possible with English translation of at least the portion that talks about the Kali yuga. 

I look forward to hearing from you and thanks

S K.B.

Xxxx

My Reply

Book Name in Tamil Kalvettu – Or Arimukam

(Inscription – An Introduction)

Published by

Tamil Nadu Arasu, Tol Porut Thurai Ayvu Veliyeedu, 1976

(Tamil Nadu Government, Archaeological Research Department , 1976)

Page 15

ஆய்குல மன்னன் கோ கருநந்தடக்கனின்

பார்த்திவசேகரப்புரச் செப்பேடுகள்

தமிழ்ப் பகுதி

ஸ்வஸ்தி ஸ்ரீ கலியுகக் கோட்டு நாள் பதினான்கு நூறாயிரத்து நாற்பத்து

ஒன்பதினாயிரத்து எண்பத்து ஏழு சென்ற நாள்

ஸ்வஸ்தி ஸ்ரீ கோக்  கருநந்தடக்கனுக்கு யாண்டு ஒன்பது நாள் பதினைஞ்சு

இந் நாளால்  முடால நாட்டு பசுங்குளத்துப் படுநிலத்தில் ………………..

Explanation given  on page 63

பார்த்திவசேகரபுரச் செப்பேடுகள்

வேணாட்டை ஆண்ட ஆய்குல மன்னன் கோக் கருநந்தடக்கன் என்ற மன்னன் அளித்த செப்பேடு இது.

இது பார்த்திவசேகரபுரம் என்ற ஊரை மன்னன் ஏற்படுத்தியத்தைக் குறிக்கிறது . ஆதலின் இதை பார்த்திவசேகரபுரம் செப்பேடுகள் என்று அழைப்பர்.

இச்செப்பேடு சில சிறப்புகளை உடையது . இச்செப்பேட்டில் கலியுக ஆண்டு குறிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது .

கலியுக ஆண்டும் நாட்களில் குறிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது 14,49,087 – ஆம் நாள் என்று கூறுகிறது .நூறாயிரம் என்ற கணக்கு இருந்ததை இது காட்டுகிறது . இது கலி ஆண்டு 3967, ஆடி மாதம் 15- ஆம் தேதி ஆகும்; சற்றேறக்  குறைய கி.பி 865 ஆகும்

இச்செப்பேடுகள் முழுமையாகக் கிடைக்கவில்லை ……………………………………

xxxx

My rough translation of the relevant Tamil parts:-

Ay Kula King Ko Karunanthatakkan Paarthiva sekarapuram Copper Plates

Swasti Sri Kaliyuga written day  fourteen hundred thousand, forty nine thousand, nine thousand eighty seven days  past,

Swasti Sri Ko Karunanthatakkan year Nine fifteenth day Mudala country Tank, in the field ………………………………

xxxx

Explanation given on page 63

This is the copper plate given by Ay Kula (Yadava King) King Ko Karunanthatakkan who ruled Venaadu.This talks about the establishment of a town called Paarthivasekarapuram. So it is known as Paarthiva sekara puram Copper Plates.

This Copper Plate hs got a few special features. Kali Yuga year is mentioned. Even that Kali Yuga is mentioned in days. 14, 49, 087th day is mentioned. This also shows the number one hundred thousand. This is Kali Yuga 3967 Aadi month 15th day. It is approximately 865 CE.

We did not get the complete set of copper plates .

xxx

My Comments

Second stanza in the plate mentioned the ruling year of the king as 9 years 15 day. It is a custom to mention the ruling year of the king when an inscription was inscribed or a  proclamation is made by the king.

Tamil Month Aadi corresponds to July.

Nowadays Hindus use Laksha (lakh) instead of One Hundred Thousand.

Rest of the inscription talks about the erection of a Vishnu temple and establishment of Vedic School.

‘Ay Kula’ literally means ‘Cowherd Clan’ which is Yadava clan.

These plates throw much light on the Vedic education 1200 years ago in Kerala.

Venaadu is the Travancore area in Kerala. At that time it was a Tamil speaking area. Now its sister language Malayalam is spoken in Travancore. PARTHIVAPURAM IS IN TAMIL NADU NOW.

(Research questions are most welcome)

–subham—

tags- Kaliyuga , Inscription, Parthivasekarapuram, Copper plates,

Buy One Get 3650 Free!! Hindus’ Advertisement!! (Post No.2937)

buy one

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 2 July 2016

Post No. 2937

Time uploaded in London :–12-49

( Thanks for the Pictures)

 

DON’T REBLOG IT AT LEAST FOR A WEEK!  DON’T USE THE PICTURES; THEY ARE COPYRIGHTED BY SOMEONE.

 

(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com)

Yugas

In Western countries we very often see advertisements like ‘Buy one Get One Free’ or ‘Buy two get One Free’. Now and then we also see advertisements “if you spend 50 pounds or dollars you get five pounds or five dollars back”.

 

But for the Hindus there is nothing new in it. Because it is already said in the Vishnu Purana. And Vishnu Purana (Mythology) is the oldest of the 18 Puranas. Even the biased, crooked and jaundiced Westerners date it to second century CE.

 

Once the saints approached Vyasa, the Guru of Gurus and the author of the longest epic (Mahabharata) in the world with some questions. He heard their doubts first and then dipped into the holiest of the holy rivers Ganga. When he came out he said:-

 

Yatkrte dasabirvarsaistretaayaam haayanena yat

Dwaapare yaccamaasena ahoraatrena tat kalau

 

Tapasobrahmacharyasya japaadisca palan dwijaa:

Praapnoti pursastena kalissaadhwiti bhaasitam

 

 

“Look, my dear disciples, ten years penance in the Krta Yuga is equal to one year penance in the Treta Yuga. And one month penance in Dwapara Yuga is equal to that and that is equal to one day penance in the Kaliyuga.

 

In short, a person can get the benefits of ten year penance in one day in Kaliyuga (10×365=3650). If you want, you may add some more days for the leap years.

According to the Hindus there are four Yugas and they are cyclical i.e. repeat after every deluge or Pralaya. Kali is the worst of the four and known as Iron Age. Krta is the Golden Age, Treta is the Silver Age and the Dwapara is the Bronze age.

 

Hinduism is based on science and logic. Nothing is dogmatic. They accept the nature’s law that ‘Change is inevitable’. So our forefathers knew that a man in Kaliyuga can’t do long Yagas (Fire Sacrifices) which lasted between 12 years and 100 years in the Golden Age i.e. Krta Yuga. They knew very well that people will be flying in Jet planes for their regular office work or business and they wont have time to do long prayers. So they gave us a short cut.

 

But one essential qualification is there to get the full benefits. Even if the stores announce Buy one get Ten Free we must have money in our purse or on the credit card. Likewise, we must have purity in heart, sincerity in our prayers with good intentions in our hearts. Then only the Buy one and get 3650 free is applicable.

 

Those who are born in the Age of Kali are the luckiest ones!!!

yugas

–Subham–

 

Kaliyuga Calculation: Kalhana’s Blunder!

Yugas

Research Article written by london swaminathan

Post No: 1574: Dated 14th January 2015

 

Most of the Hindu Puranas and Panchangs state that the Kaliyuga began in 3101 BCE. But Kalhana who wrote Rajatarangini says that it began in 2448 BCE.

 

He says in the frist Canto of Rajatarangini,

 

“In Kali Era Gonanda and other kings ruled in Kashmir for 2268 years. Some have been deluded by the tradition that the Mahabharata had taken place at the end of Dwapara and had erroneously made the calculation of time”.

 

“When the number of years of the kings is calculated, the period of whose sovereignty is known, after deducting them, there is no remainder left of the period hitherto passed of Kali itself as follows:

 

“When 653 Kali  of Kali had elapsed there lived on the surface of the earth the Kauravas and Pandavas”

“Of the Laukika era in the 24th year at present 1070 years of Saka era have gone by” — Rajatarangini , Canto 1, Slokas 48-52

 

Then Kalhana explains the basis for his calculations. He quotes Brhat Samhita and says the Great Bear (Saptarsi Mandala) stood at Magha Nakshatra when Yudhistra ruled; i.e 2526 years  prior to Saka era  was the epoch of his reign.

 

He adds that Kasmiri king Gonanda and Jarasandha of Mahabharata were contemporaries

 

Kalhana’s calculation is as follows:

 

Number of years of Kaliyuga — 4224

Regnal Period from Gonanda I to Yudhistra I –2268

 

Regnal Period of Kings mentioned in Cantos 2 to 8 – 1328

Kali years up to Pandavas or Kashmir King Gonanda — 653 years

According to Kalhana’s calculation Mahabharata war took place in  2448 BCE i.e a difference of 653 years. Traditional date is around 3101 BCE.

 

In some places Kalhana asdds 100 years of Kali Sandhya (interval between two Yugas) and shows a difference of 753 years.

yug

D R Mankad in his Puranic Chronology says that there were two schools of thought regarding the Date of Mahabharata war or Kaliyuga.

 

Mankad points out that many Purana writers or historians did not calculate the Kingless (Arajaka) periods. He says that there were three Kingless periods in Indian history:

 

Between Mahananda and Mahapadma Nandas – 350 years

Between Mauryas and Sungas — 300 years

Between Sungas and Kanwas –  120 years

 

A total of 770 years

 

So the total between Parikshit and Mahapadma Nanda differes from 1150 years to 1500 years i.e. kingless period between Sisunagas and Nandas

 

When scholars calculated average years of rule for each king, the figure was big because they did not realise there was a kingless period.

 

Even in Tamil History there is a dark period known as Kalabhra Period. Immdeitely after the Sangam age, Kalabhras from Karnataka came and there was no record of who ruled when. Only from legends like Periyapurana we come to know that Murthy Nayanar was chosen as a King by an Elephant after a chaotic period. The elephant is sent with a garland and whoever it garlands  will be chosen as the king. Karikal Chola, Murthy Nayanar and a few others were chosen as kings by elephant garlanding like Swayamvaram, where a princess garlands a king who she likes.

 

The blunders in Indian history happened because, historians or Puranic writers forgot to mention or calculate the King-less periods (Arajaka)

 

Ramayana, Mahabharata and Arthasastra speak of King-less periods.That means it existed in those days.

 

The second blunder was due to take ceratin names as one person. Vaisstha, Visvamitra, Bharadwaja are mentioned in a course of 500 to 700 years. They ontinued as Kula Gurus for several generations. It was only a clan name, surname.

 

There were three Krishnas, Three Ramas, Two Ravanas , Four Dasarathas and three Arjunas mentioned in the Puranas. In course of time, people forgot the history and merged all in to one resulting in great confusion.In Tamil we have several kings with the names Adityas, Maravarman, Jatavarman, Kuttuvan etc. They are all sur names or titles. In Tamil there were at least 3 to 6 Avvaiyars, who was a great poetess. Like foreigners confused every one wih the name Indra which is a title like Prime Minister, Chief Minister etc.

 

Indian history must be re written taking all these points into consideration.

contact swami_48@yahoo.com

Date of Mahabharata War

mbh-war cambodia
Mahabharata war in Angkhor wat Temple, Cambodia

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1383; Dated 1st November 2014.

Mahabaharata stands out in the epic literature of the world for various reasons:

1.This is the longest epic in the world with one hundred thousand couplets.
2.It is said that all the subjects under the sun are dealt with by the author Vyasa and the saying goes “Vyasochchishtam Jagath sarvam” i.e. The whole world is the spit of Vyasa. That is nothing is untouched by Vyasa. In the epic itself it is said that what you find elsewhere in the world is already here.
3.The date of the great war is debatable because there is no archaeological proof to confirm the traditional date.

Hindus strongly believed in the traditional date of the war around 3100 BCE. But scholars who believed in archaeology of Gangetic plains think that it was fought around 1500 BCE. Either way it is interesting.

Two inscriptions give the date of Kali Yuga. Both of them believed that Kaliyuga commenced around 3100 BCE!
a)Aihole Inscription of Chalukya King Pulekesi II stated that the inscription was made in the year 3735 of Kali era when the Saka era was 556. This meant that the Kali era began in 3101 BCE.
b)Parthivasekarapuram copper plate Tamil inscription of Ko Karunathadakkan gave the number of days of Kali passed as 1449087! The inscription is dated around 865CE.

Ellora - Mahabhatara
Mahabharata war in Ellora caves

This shows that Hindus believed in the date of 3100 BCE as Kaliyuga year 1. Till this date all South Indian Panchangs (traditional ephemeris) give the date of Saka, Vikrama and Kali era faithfully. Hindus believe that the war happened just before the Kali Yuga began.

Now I will summarise the views of some scholars who attended seminars on Mahabharata or contributed articles on this subject:

16th century Abul fazal’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ – the 40th year of din-I Llahi 4696 years have elapsed from the beginning of Kali Yuga. This means war took place in 3137 BCE

12th century Kalhana’s Rajatarangini – Kali 653 i.e 2500 BCE. So the war took place before 2500 BCE.

Kalhana was the first historian according towstern scholars. That Kashmiri Brahmin was the first one to write Indian History with dates. But he did a blunder in calculating the Kali Yuga. Still scholars wonder how he committed this mistake. There are various theories about it.

halebedu
Mahabharata war in Halebedu

R.Morton Smith – 1050 BCE
Srinivas Raghavan 3067 BCE
P C Sen Guptas 2449 BCE
Dr Sankalia – later than 15th century BCE
S B Roy on the basis of astronomical calculations – 1424 BCE
S B ROY in his book “Date of Mahabharata Battle” has beautifully summarised the views of scholars in this field as follows:–

Group A who believed in the date 3100 BCE
D R Mankad- 3201 BCE
M M Krishnamachari – 3137 BCE
C V Vaidya – 3102 BCE
V B Athvale – 3016 BCE

Chakra vyuha
Chakra Vyuha in Bharata battle

Group B (2500 BCE)
Varahamihira (Brihat Samhita)
Kalhana (Rajatarangini)
P C Sengupta (Indian Chronology)

Group C (1450 BCE)
A.Cunningham – 1424 BCE
K P Jaiswal – 1424 BCE
Tarakeshwar Bhattacharya – 1432 BCE
Giridra Sekhar Basu – 1416 BCE
Bankim Chandra Chatterji – 1400 BCE
Swami Vivekananda – 1400 BCE
(Complete Works, Vol.II, PP 27,29
A D Pusalkar 1400 BCE
Bala Gangadhara Tilak – 1400 BCE (in his book Gita Rahasya)
H C Deb – 1400 BCE
B B Ketkar – 1267 BCE
Shri Aurobindo -1191 BCE
(in his book Vyasa and Valmiki)
K L Dapthari 1197 BCE
K G Shankar – 1197 BCE
Sitanath Pradhan – 1151 BCE

arjuna
Arjuna or Bhageeratha doing penance, Mahabalipuram

Group D (950 BCE)
Pargiter – 950 BCE
Roy Chowdhuri – 900 BCE

My comments: Tamil inscription and Pulikesin’s Aihole inscription confirm the traditional date for Kaliyuga i.e.3100 BCE. Our Panchangam also sticks to the traditional date. They were not influenced by the concocted and outmoded theory of Aryan Invasion. They were of pure and unpolluted mind. Moreover Megasthenes of third century BCE said that 143 generations had passed before his time. His statement is repeated by other Greek authors. Even if we give 20 years per king then it would add up 2860. This gives the traditional date 2860+Appr.300 BCE). Inscriptions never lie. Kalhana and Varahamihira lost 600 years in their calculations because of some vague astronomical positions.

It is very interesting to note that scholars differ widely even after several seminars. We must hold one more seminar or conference in the light of new evidence from the submarine Dwaraka, underground Sarasvati River and the revised date of Rig Veda from Shriknat Talegari and American Sanskrit scholars.

krishna-bhishma
Bhisma on acupuncture treatment (Bed of Arrows)

The following three books give lot of information on this topic:
Mahabharata Myth and Reality – Differing Views, Agam Prakashan, New Delhi
Age of Bharata War, Edited by G C Agarwala, Motilal Banarsidas, 1979
Date of Mahabharata battle, S B Roy, The Academic Press, Gurgaon, 197
Long live the Greatest, Oldest and Longest Epic Mahabharata!!

krishna war
Lord Krishna, Military strategist and main architect of the great war.