BEAUTIFUL POEM ON FOREST IN R.V -Part 2 (Post No.10,267)


Post No. 10,267

Date uploaded in London – 28 OCTOBER  2021         

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The beauty of Hinduism lies in its four stages of life-

brahmaacharya/student life,

grahasthasrama/married life,


sanyasa/ascetic life.

Nowhere in the world you find forest life! Other three stages are there in many cultures. True to its strictures we see Kunti, Pandu, Madri, Gandhari and Dhritarashtra went to forest and died there in forest fire. All the five Pandava brothers walked through the Himalayan forests and died. We see beautiful descriptions of forests in Panchatantra Fables, Nalopaakhyaana and Yakshaprasna  and Vana Parva in Mahabaharata. Valmiki, who himself was a forest dweller, describes forests in simple and beautiful Sanskrit. Rama and Sita lived in the forests for 14 years. Sita devi spent her later life also in the forests.

The high Himalayas and the tall trees with beautiful waterfalls and rivers inspired the seers/Rishis to write Upanishads. Kalidasa in his Kumarasambhava describes the Himalayas in the first ten slokas. All these happened several thousand years before others sang about the forests. We see William Wordsworth and Oscar Wilde singing the beauty of forests in English.


Now let us compare the Rig Vedic poem with them:-

Rig Vedic (10-146) Rishi Deva Muni is singing about the beauty of the forests. Hindus give feminine names to all that is beautiful. Hindus give feminine names to all that is good. If you translate the names of Hindu girls into your language you would know that.

Here the poet describes her as Goddess, Lady and Queen of the Forest. ‘Women Zindabad’ has always been the policy of the Hindus. The poet wonders how come she is not afraid of the darkness during night. Every other person who goes to forest during daytime rushes home before sunset. He asks her (Miss Aranyaani) why you don’t come back home like other villagers.

The word ‘Aaranya’ is very important for Hindus. Unlike any other cultures in the world, Hindus have SEVEN holy forests, holy rivers, holy mountains, holy cities etc. that is the reason we see Number Seven more in Harappan Civilization. Tamils have several towns named after Aarayam/ forest such as Vedaaranyam. Another word for forest is Vana which we saw in ‘VAANA’PRASTHA. Many towns in Tamil Nadu have this name as well (My hometown Madurai is called Kadamba vanam).

In the second Mantra, the poet describes the forest sounds. Those who went to the forests only can understand it. As a student of botany, I went for plant collection with my college students and professors to thick tropical forests in Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Kutraalam and Aagumbe (in Karnataka). We have Alagar koil forest near Madurai with semi tropical condition.

As soon as you enter the forests you will hear the buzzing noise of the little insects. It is the Sruti (drone or bourdon) of the forest for its singers. In every Hindu concert we see a woman with Tambura/Tanpura creating drone or bourdon. Amidst this continuous Sruti, we hear birds singing in their own tunes.  Other animal sounds are heard more during night time. When we travel through the Ghat Road (Hill Roads) in Kodaikanal also, we hear this forest drone. Hindu literature describes the ‘animal orchestra’ inside forest in minute details.

And in the third and fourth Mantras, poet describes the sounds and what you imagine when you hear them. You imagine someone is screaming, someone whistling to bring back his cattle, someone cutting the trees. Actually, all these happen in the fringes of the forest. But deep inside the shady forest, you think that is what happening. But, they are the sounds from the streams, cataracts, animals, monkeys and squirrels.

Except R T H Griffith, I don’t think, others have lived in the forests. Griffith was in Nilgris while he translated or commented on the Vedas. So foreign translators could not do full justification in their translations.

In the next Mantra, poet describes the grace and kindness of the forest queen. She never harms anyone wantonly. She is mother who gives food to everyone free. But there are murderous enemies like robbers and tigers. Even today we read about animal attacks in the villages surrounded by forests.

Hindu religious scriptures are full of attacks of crocodiles, snakes and pythons on human beings. Tamil poems, which are 2000-year-old, describe the attacks by tiger, elephant, crocodile, pythons and robbers. They described the elephant fights inside the forest and pythons devouring elephants. Unless the Tamil poets have seen such things, they would not have used them as similes in Sangam Poems.

The last mantra (sixth) is the most beautiful one. It says the Forest Queen with motherly attitude gives food to everyone. She grows food without tilling. She has sweet scent without artificial perfumes. She is ruling the forest like a Queen without anyone anointing her. Self made, born Queen! She has herbs to heal all your mental and physical sickness.

I made these comments with my background knowledge in forests and the knowledge in other hymns on Earth, Herbs and Forest Fires in the four Vedas.

Now I want to draw your attention on only four stanzas of Wordsworth:-

“She has a world of ready wealth,

Our minds and hearts to bless—

Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health,

Truth breathed by cheerfulness.

One impulse from a vernal wood

May teach you more of man,

Of moral evil and of good,

Than all the sages can.—Tables Turned Poem


The waves beside them danced; but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

A poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company:

I gazed—and gazed—but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.—Daffodils Poem


Please continue if you want to read the full poems…….

The Tables Turned


Up! up! my Friend, and quit your books;

Or surely you’ll grow double:

Up! up! my Friend, and clear your looks;

Why all this toil and trouble?

The sun above the mountain’s head,

A freshening lustre mellow

Through all the long green fields has spread,

His first sweet evening yellow.

Books! ’tis a dull and endless strife:

Come, hear the woodland linnet,

How sweet his music! on my life,

There’s more of wisdom in it.

And hark! how blithe the throstle sings!

He, too, is no mean preacher:

Come forth into the light of things,

Let Nature be your teacher.

She has a world of ready wealth,

Our minds and hearts to bless—

Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health,

Truth breathed by cheerfulness.

One impulse from a vernal wood

May teach you more of man,

Of moral evil and of good,

Than all the sages can.

Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;

Our meddling intellect

Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:—

We murder to dissect.

Enough of Science and of Art;

Close up those barren leaves;

Come forth, and bring with you a heart

That watches and receives.


I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 


I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves beside them danced; but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

A poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company:

I gazed—and gazed—but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.



If you have missed the First Part of my article here is what Rig Veda says on Forests:-

Rig Veda Forest Poem (RV 10-146 Aranyani)

Ode to Forest Goddess

1. GODDESS of wild and forest who seemest to vanish from the sight.

     How is it that thou seekest not the village? Art thou not afraid?

2. What time the grasshopper replies and swells the shrill cicala’s voice,

     Seeming to sound with tinkling bells, the Lady of the Wood exults.

3. And, yonder, cattle seem to graze, what seems a dwelling-place appears:

     Or else at eve the Lady of the Forest seems to free the wains.

4. Here one is calling to his cow, another there hath felled a tree:

     At eve the dweller in the wood fancies that somebody hath screamed.

5. The Goddess never slays, unless some murderous enemy approach.

     Man eats of savoury fruit and then takes, even as he wills, his rest.

6. Now have I praised the Forest Queen, sweet-scented, redolent of balm,

     The Mother of all sylvan things, who tills not but hath stores of food.

xxx subham xxxx

tags — forest, vanaprastha, aranya, vana, wordsworth, rigveda, RV 10-146



Post No. 10,123

Date uploaded in London – 22 September   2021           

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There are nearly twenty dialogue poems in the Rig Veda . They are spread over the Ten Mandalas.  Of them Visvamitra’s dialogue with two rivers (RV.3-33) in Punjab is unique. I don’t think any other ancient literature has such a dialogue poem with the Rivers. Later Indian literature has many odes to birds, cloud and insects; this unique poem reveals a lot about Hindu Way of Thinking. First read the poem and then read my commentary: –

1. FORTH from the bosom of the mountains, eager as two swift mares with loosened rein contending,

     Like two bright mother cows who lick their youngling, Vipas and Sutudri speed down their waters.

2. Impelled by Indra whom ye pray to urge you, ye move as ’twere on chariots to the ocean.

     Flowing together, swelling with your billows, O lucid Streams, each of you seeks the other.

3. I have attained the most maternal River, we have approached Vipas, the broad, the blessed.

     Licking as ’twere their calf the pair of Mothers flow onward to their common home together.

4. We two who rise and swell with billowy waters move forward to the home which Gods have made us.

     Our flood may not be stayed when urged to motion. What would the singer, calling to the Rivers?

5. Linger a little at my friendly bidding rest, Holy Ones, a moment in your journey.

     With hymn sublime soliciting your favour Kusika’s son hath called unto the River.

6. Indra who wields the thunder dug our channels: he smote down Vrtra, him who stayed our currents.

     Savitar, God, the lovely-handed, led us, and at his sending forth we flow expanded.

7. That hero deed of Indra must be lauded for ever that he rent Ahi in pieces.

     He smote away the obstructors with his thunder, and eager for their course forth flowed the waters.

8. Never forget this word of thine, O singer, which future generations shall reecho.

     In hymns, O bard, show us thy loving kindness. Humble us not mid men. To thee be honour!

9. List quickly, Sisters, to the bard who cometh to you from far away with car and wagon.

     Bow lowly down; be easy to be traversed stay, Rivers, with your floods below our axles.

10. Yea, we will listen to thy words, O singer. With wain and car from far away thou comest.

     Low, like a nursing mother, will I bend me, and yield me as a maiden to her lover.

11. Soon as the Bharatas have fared across thee, the warrior band, urged on and sped by Indra,

     Then let your streams flow on in rapid motion. I crave your favour who deserve our worship.

12. The warrior host, the Bharatas, fared over the singer won the favour of the Rivers.

     Swell with your billows, hasting, pouring riches. Fill full your channels, and roll swiftly onward.

13. So let your wave bear up the pins, and ye, O Waters, spare the thongs;

     And never may the pair of Bulls, harmless and sinless, waste away.

There are 13 Manrtras or stanzas . My commentary is as follows:

The legend cited by Sayana says that VIsvamitra , the family priest of  King Sudas, having obtained wealth by means of his office, took the whole of it and came to the confluence of Vipas and Sutudri. Others followed him. In order to make the rivers fordable, he lauded them with the first three verses of the hymn. The hymn has poetic beauty and is interesting as a relic of the traditions. This shows the westward expansion of Vedic Hindus. Elsewhere in the  Rig Veda we see the link between Sudas and the River Jamuna. That means Sudas rule spread up to River Yamuna or beyond in the eastern direction.

Vipas is the modern Beas and Sutudri is modern Sutlej. Vipas falls into Sutudri near Amritsar.


RV 3-33-1

Rishi Visvamitra is talking to fast flowing rivers Sutudri and Vipas.

Visvamitra knew the origin of rivers is in the mountains. And later he sings that they are running towards sea. Vedic poets referred to SEA in at least 100 places. They knew very well that all the rivers run towards sea. Hindu Brahmins repeat thrice a day a mantra saying “like the falling rain water  from the sky runs towards sea, all the salutations go to Kesava/God.” The speed of the horse gave us the word Horse Power. The cow gave us the word Vaccine. It came from Vatsa/calf with which Edward Jenner did experiment to find a cure for diseases, such as small pox. Now vaccine is applied to any Vaccie.

Hindus greatest contribution to humanity is in four fields 1. They domesticated cows and showed that is the closest to mother’s milk. No other animal can give milk equal to cow’s milk.

2.They domesticated horse and revolutionised the transport. Even today we use the word ‘Horse Power’.

3. They discovered numerals (1,2, 3,…….0) and Zero. They developed decimal numbers. Now the computers use 1 and 0.

4.Last but not the least they discovered iron and created industrial revolution.  Though they knew gold, silver, copper and zinc they developed the iron industry. Now the whoe world use it. The very word Iron came from Ayas in the Rig Veda. No wonder we find so many references to cow andhorse

Throughout the Vedas cows and horses are mentioned at  least 1000 times. Here the poet compares them for their speed and love and affection.



Here Indra is referred as the one who commands the rivers. Indra in the Rig Veda stands for Thunder and rain and so he is associated with rivers.


Hindus praise rivers as Mothers or Sisters. This is found throughout the Vedas. Most of the river names end with the suffix VATI. We see this in Saras Vati and Par Vati and innumerable feminine names (Shara Vati, Charman Vati).

The respect shown to rivers and waters shows their concern for environment. In stanza also the motherly love of cows are praised. The word ‘Vatsalyam’ for affection came from Vatsa/calf.


God has made the rivers a ‘home’ (Sea). Poetic way of saying! Some idiots in the West argue tat Vedic Hindus did not know Sea. They thought Sindhu meant only River Indus. They have no knowledge of Tamil where AAZI means sea and 17 other meanings. The word Sindhu means river and 15 other meanings. Lack of knowledge in Indian languages made them to bluff.

To be continued………………………………..

tags- Dialogue poem, Rivers, Vipas, Sutudri, Visvamitra, Rigveda,



Post No. 10,071

Date uploaded in London – 8 September   2021           

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There is a strange hymn in the Rigveda with full of curses. Most of the Hindu inscriptions end with curses. They curse the one who violates the instructions in the inscription or one who damages them. Persian inscriptions also end with similar curses. But the origin of curses lies in the Rigveda the oldest book in the world.

Hindus believe that Veda Vyasa who lived around 3150 BCE divided the Vedas into Four Vedas. So according to Hindus it is at least 5200 years old. The translators of the Vedas in the West never believed in what Hindus believed. They did not practise what Hindus practised. They were only anti Hindu and anti -Indian gang members. Since they translated the Vedas into English , French and German, people thought they were “scholars”. They were hired just to destroy Hinduism. Their appointment letters and the post they held spell it crystal clear.

The curses poem did not interest them much. We can derive much information from it. It is in the name of seer Maitravaruni Vasistha. We knew one famous Vasistha in Ramayana and he was challenged by Visvamitra on many occasions. Parasurama’s father Jamadaghni also figured in the Vedas. Actually the last phase of the Vedas is Rama period. Afterwards we don’t have any verses in the Rigveda. So what Hindus say about chronology is also confirmed by the Rigveda. Hindus say that Rama lived in Treta Yuga and Krishna lived in the later Dwapara Yuga. After Vyasa and Krishna died Kali yuga began. This shows that the following curses are from the Treta Yuga, at least five thousand years old.

(Yugas are calculated in two ways shorter period Yugas and longer period yugas. This will be discussed in another article)


Curses of Vasistha (RV 7-104)

1.Indra and Soma, burn and destroy the demon foe. Annihilate the fools, slay them and burn them up. Send downward who adds gloom to gloom. Chase them away. Pierce the voracious ones.

2.Let sin around the wicked boil like as a cauldron set amid the flames of fire. Against the foe of prayer, devourer of raw flesh, the vile fiend fierce of eye, keep your perpetual hate against cruel eyed .

My comments

This is a curse against anti god, anti -prayer gangs. The very interesting point is to throw them into cauldron in the middle of fire. Later day pictures of hell show this. Even 1400 years ago, Saivite saint Appar was thrown into a burning Lime kiln but he was saved by Lord Siva.

Another interesting point is that anti Hindu gangs were cannibals. Like Chinese eat scorpions, lizards, rats and snakes today, like the East Europeans eat horses today, there was a gang of cannibals in Vedic period. Even the Rakshasas of Sri Lanka ate human flesh. Story of Agastya show that Vatapi and Ilvalan ate human flesh. And the same story show that the forest was full of human skeletons of seers.

So the curses were thrown against the barbaric tribes.

Cruel eyed : commentators say spy or gossip mongers.



Indra and Soma , plunge the wicked in the depth, yes, cast them into darkness that has no support. So that none of them may ever return.


Hurl your deadly crushing bolt down on the wicked fiend from heaven and earth. Burn them to death


Let them sink without a sound.


Indra and Soma, I offer these prayers with wisdom. Accept my prayers; let both of you be united like two horses in the chariot.

Mantra 7

Slay the treacherous fiends; let the wicked have no bliss who evermore assails us with malignity.

Mantra 8

I pursue my way with guileless spirit;  whoever accuses me  with words of falsehood, may the speaker of untruth be crushed like water in the hand.

Mantra 9

Those who harm the righteous must be given to snakes or to Nirruti (Hindu goddess personifying death, decay and destruction)

Mantra 10

May he a thief or a robber, sink to destruction; both himself and offspring.

Mantra 11

May he be swept away himself and children; may all the three earths press him down beneath them.

Mantra 12

A wise man can easily distinguish the true and false.

Soma protects the true and honest

My comments

This is a good quotation. A prudent man can easily find out who is honest. Several Hindu stories in the Vikram and Vetal and Katha sarit sagara stand examples for this.

But Sayana, commentator, gives the story of Kalmashapada here.  I give the story from Who is Who in the Mahabharata by Subash Mazumdar

“ Kalmashpada was a king of Ikshwaku dynasty. He once encountered Shakti, son of sage Vasistha, on a narrow forest path. The question of relative priority as to who should pass first and who should give way, led to heated argument until the king losing his temper started mercilessly whipping \shakti in a demonic raage. Thereupon Shakti collecting his spiritual strength, cursed the king would become a Rakshasa hungering for human flesh wandering the forest for 12 years.

At this juncture Visvamitra who had earlier been bested by Vaishtha and therefore wanted to please Shakti, arranged for a Rakshasa called Kinkara to enter the body of Kalmashapada. Later this curse upon the king was redoubled in force by the pronouncement of a brahmana who was erroneously served human by orders of the king.(It is in Adi Parva of Mahabharata).

The king in his rakshasa form initiated his consumption of human flesh by killing and devouring Shakti himself. Later he also killed Vaishtha’ss other sons.

Once Kalmasha pada , while in Rakshasa form, saw a brahmin couple enjoying conjugal pressure. He killed and ate the Brahmana. Thereupon the brahmana cursed that the king would also die if he ever attempted to enjoy conjugal bliss with his queen.

Years later when he wanted to kill and eat Adashyanti, widow of Shakti, Vasishta sprinkled holy water on him and the curse having ended the king expressed his lifelong indebtedness to Vasishta .

The king wanted a son through his wife Madayanti . but because of Brahmana’s curse, he asked Vasishta to produce a son in his queen. Thus was born prinv Even

e Ashmaka. ( This story is in Mahabharata)

Now we have another confirmation of flesh eating tribes in the olden days.

There are 25 mantras . I have covered only 12 out of 25.

To be continued ……………………………….

Tags- curses, Rigveda, RV.7-104, Vasistha, Kalmashapada 



Post No. 10,063

Date uploaded in London – 6 September   2021           

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Rigveda is the oldest anthology and religious book in the world. Herman Jacobi of Germany and Bala Gangadhar Tilak of India dated the book around 4000 BCE based on astronomical data in the Rigveda. It has got more than 20 women poets and stands unique in the world. Ancient languages like Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Persian, Chinese , Egyptian and Sumerian have got a few poetesses only, that too  later than the Rigveda. Tamil, which is the junior most among the ancient languages have got over 25 poetesses but several thousand years after the Rig Veda. Tamil is the youngest language in the group of classical languages. Tamil poetesses belong to first three centuries of common era CE.

The so-called scholars who are part of anti Hindu Marxist gang or anti Hindu Max Muller gang argue that the Vedic Hindus were immigrants from a cold region. Those half baked, jaundiced eyed, twisted angled, cross eyed fellows did not agree on the period of the immigration or the region from where they emigrated. This itself exposes their hollow and shallow hypothesis.

Hindus are the only people who use water from birth to death in all rites and religious ceremonies. Had they migrated from a cold area like central Asia or Siberia they wouldn’t even touch water like our modern brothers in the West. My white friends in London rarely take daily shower. But they wouldn’t smell like us. They never sweat like us, Hindus, because they are genetically designed that way. These gangs have been lying about Soma Juice as well. None of the gang members lived as a Hindu , practised as a Hindu or believed like a Hindu. They were pukka anti Hindu and never said a single word about other religions. This also shows their true colours.

A poem in the Rig Veda in the name of Rishi Apaalaa is very interesting and it shows that the Vedic Hindus were great farmers. This woman Apala prays to Indra to cure her skin disease, to give good hair growth in her father’s bald head and a fertile growth in their farms.

There is some unknown ritual as getting one through the three knaves of a chariot. None of the idiots in the West agree on what it is. She says that she found the valuable Soma plant near a stream while walking. She adds she would crush it with her teeth and give it to Indra. There are over 1000 references to Soma juice in the Veda. They used it thrice a day in the fire sacrifices. The first was in the early morning before sunrise. No westerner gets up that early, leave alone going to shower.

This woman is cured of skin disease after finding this herb.

The woman brings out some valiant information in her poem.

What do we know from this poem?

1.Soma cures even skin disease

2.Herself and her father were suffering from some rare skin disease and both of them lost hair in their body.

3. Through her prayer and use of Soma herb, both of them were cured.

4. And the most interesting point is she prayed for a fertile growth in her father’s field. This shows that they were farming. A lot of references on agriculture and agricultural machinery or equipment’s are available in the Rig Veda. Since it is a religious book and not a book on Botany or Agriculture we get them as passing remarks. One must read the Veda with a farmer’s eyes.

5.Soma plant is associated with falcon, hawk and eagle in several hymns ,at least in ten hymns. The seers/rishis say Soma was brought by falcon. None gave a satisfactory explanation for this. But they say they have identified the plant!!!!! A big joke!

6.Poetess Apala found this herb near a stream, probably she lived in a mountain. Rig Veda sings about 99 rivers, hills and unknown rivers and unidentified lakes. Vedic Hindus lived in a vast region between Afgahnistan and Delhi on the banks of Yamuna. In one and the same verse they mentioned Yamuna and far west Parusni river.

7.So finding Soma plant near a stream just like that by a woman raises interesting issues.

8.Interesting comparisons

Lot of people wrote that Bhakti movement was a very late one. Though Bhagavad Gita has Karma, Bhakti, Gnana yogas, Rigveda has got more references to Bhatkti. Like the Ramayana fame Forest tribal woman Miss Sabari who tasted every berry fruit before giving  it to Rama and Rama happily accepted it. This poetess Apala used her teeth to extract Soma juice and offered it to Indra. Indra accepted it. Sabari, probably followed Apala.

Another interesting comparison between the Tamil poetess Andal and Apala is the patriotism. Andal who lived 1400 years ago in Tamil Nadu, India also prays for abundant milk and fertile lands. In her third verse in Tiruppavai, she prays for Three Rains a Month ( it is a Hindu phrase to show the prosperity of land) and water stagnant fields with greeneries.

Apala could have stopped praying for herself. But she prayed for her father as well . Throughout the Rig Veda we see close knit family relationship. They always use similes like a lover rushing to her lady love or vice versa , child getting warmth from the clothes of father or mother, or son inheriting the father’s property.

Apala did not stop with her family. She wants prosperity to the country as well. Her patriotism makes her to sing for the prosperity of the green fields as well.

This poem has a single reference to growth of hair below her waist. This gave much fuel to sex maniacs in the West. Even if they find a single word about sex in the Hindu literature, they write doctoral thesis and publish a book. So much sex starved maniacs. Every house has got two important parts- one kitchen and another toilet. The non believers, the non practitioners, the anti Hindu Marxist, Max muller gangs are interested only in the toilets and not in the kitchen!


Here is Apala’s poem RV 8-91

1. DOWN to the stream a maiden came, and found the Soma by the way.

     Bearing it to her home she said, For Indra will I press thee out, for Sakra will I press thee out.

2. Thou roaming yonder, little man, beholding every house in turn,

     Drink thou this Soma pressed with teeth, accompanied with grain and curds, with cake of meal and song of praise.

3. Fain would we learn to know thee well, nor yet can we attain to thee.

     Still slowly and in gradual drops, O Indu, unto Indra flow.

4. Will he not help and work for us? Will he not make us wealthier?

     Shall we not, hostile to our lord, unite ourselves to Indra now?

5. O Indra, cause to sprout again three places, these which I declare,-

     My father’s head, his cultured field, and this the part below my waist.

6. Make all of these grow crops of hair, you cultivated field of ours,

     My body, and my father’s head.

7. Cleansing Apala, Indra! thrice, thou gavest sunlike skin to her,

     Drawn, Satakratu! through the hole of car, of wagon, and of yoke.

In some books, RV 8-91 is given as 8-80 because of 11 Valakhilya hymns.

Rig Veda Mandala 8 Hymn 91

कन्या वारवायती सोममपि सरुताविदत |
अस्तं भरन्त्यब्रवीदिन्द्राय सुनवै तवा शक्राय सुनवै तवा ||
असौ य एषि वीरको गर्हं-गर्हं विचाकशद |
इमं जम्भसुतं पिब धानावन्तं करम्भिणमपूपवन्तमुक्थिनम ||
आ चन तवा चिकित्सामो.अधि चन तवा नेमसि |
शनैरिव शनकैरिवेन्द्रायेन्दो परि सरव ||
कुविच्छकत कुवित करत कुविन नो वस्यसस करत |
कुवित पतिद्विषो यतीरिन्द्रेण संगमामहै ||
इमानि तरीणि विष्टपा तानीन्द्र वि रोहय |
शिरस्ततस्योर्वरामादिदं म उपोदरे ||
असौ च या न उर्वरादिमां तन्वं मम |
अथो ततस्य यच्छिरः सर्वा ता रोमशा कर्धि ||
खे रथस्य खे.अनसः खे युगस्य शतक्रतो |
अपालामिन्द्रत्रिष पूत्व्यक्र्णोः सूर्यत्वचम ||

kanyā vāravāyatī somamapi srutāvidat |
astaṃ bharantyabravīdindrāya sunavai tvā śakrāya sunavai tvā ||
asau ya eṣi vīrako ghṛhaṃ-ghṛhaṃ vicākaśad |
imaṃ jambhasutaṃ piba dhānāvantaṃ karambhiṇamapūpavantamukthinam ||
ā cana tvā cikitsāmo.adhi cana tvā nemasi |
śanairiva śanakairivendrāyendo pari srava ||
kuvicchakat kuvit karat kuvin no vasyasas karat |
kuvit patidviṣo yatīrindreṇa saṃghamāmahai ||
imāni trīṇi viṣṭapā tānīndra vi rohaya |
śirastatasyorigvedaarāmādidaṃ ma upodare ||
asau ca yā na urigvedaarādimāṃ tanvaṃ mama |
atho tatasya yacchiraḥ sarigvedaā tā romaśā kṛdhi ||
khe rathasya khe.anasaḥ khe yughasya śatakrato |
apālāmindratriṣ pūtvyakṛṇoḥ sūryatvacam ||


tags-  Rigveda, Apala, Sabari, Andal, RV.8-91



Post No. 10,037

Date uploaded in London – 31 AUGUST  2021     

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Festival Days- Sep.5- Teachers’ Day, Sep.8- Samaveda Upakarma, 10-Ganesh Chaturthy, 11-Bharati Memorial Centenary, Rishi Panchami , 21-Beginning of Mahalaya Pitru Paksha( Fortnight of Departed Souls begins)

New Moon Day- Sep.6, Full Moon Day- Sep.20,

Ekadasi Fasting Days-2, 16; Auspicious Days-1,3,8,9,




Agni is Mitra when enkindled duly, Mitra s priest, Varuna, Jataveda; Mitra as active Minister, and House-Friend, ,Mitra of flowing rivers, and of mountains RV.3-5-4



As holy food, Agni to your invoker , give wealth in cattle, lasting rich in marvels. RV.3-5-11



Bring with their Dames, the Gods, the Three and Thirty, ater your God like nature, and be joyful-3-6-9



Agni, forgive us, for our weal, even sin committed-6-7-10

Lord of the Forest, raise yourself up n the loftiest spot on earth.



Give splendour, fixed and measured well, to him who brings the sacrifice 3-8-3



Well- robed, enveloped he is come, the youthful, ; springing to life his glory waxes greater. Contemplative in mind and  God-adoring, sages of high intelligence upraise him 3-8-4



Adityas, Rudras, Vasus,careful leaders,  Earth, Heaven and Prithivi and  Air’s mid regions. RV.3-



Accordant  Deities, shall bless our worship  and make or sacrifice’s flag lofty -3-8-8



Sing, Agni, for long life to us  and noble sons 3-3-7



These speak of truth, praising the truth eternal, thinking on order as the guards of order RV.3-4-7



May Bharati with all her sisters,Ila accordant with gods ,with mortals agni ,

Sarasvati with all her kindred rivers, come to this grass. Three goddesses and seat them 3-4-8



Like swans that fly in  long lines, the (Yupa) pillars have come to us in arrayed in brilliant colour. They lifted on high by sages, eastward, to go forth as gods to the God’s dwelling places -3-8-9



Those Poles (Yupa) on the earth with rings that deck them seem to the like eyes like horns of horned creatures .3-8-10



Him who had passed beyond his foes, beyond continual pursuits, Him the unerring ones, observant, found in floods, couched like a lion in his lair 3-9-4



Offer to him who knows fair rites, who burns with purifying glow, swift envoy, active, ancient, and adorable; serve you the God attentively. RV.3-9-8



Three times a hundred Gods and thrice a thousand, and three times ten and nine have worshipped Agni.3-9-9



He verily , who honours you with fuel, Knower of all Life, , HE! Agni! Wins heroic might , he prospers well 3-10-3



As such O Purifier!, shine on us heroic glorious  might; be nearest friend to those who laud thee, for their weal. RV.3-10-8



O Agni! In our deeds of might, my we obtain all precious things. The Gods are centred in you 3-11-9



Indra and Agni, , singers skilled in melody hymn on, bringing lauds, ; I choose you for the sacred good  3-12-5



Infallible is Agni, he who goes before the tribes, a chariot swift and ever new 3-11-5



He /Agni, is the sage who guides these men, Leader of sacred rites is he, 

Who wins and bestows wealth 3-13-3



Approaching with raised hands and adoration, we have this day fulfilled for your longing 3-14-5



Approaching with raised hands and adoration, we have this day fulfilled for your longing RV. 3-14-5



As such, O Agni, deal us wealth and hero might, O Bounteous One! Most lofty, very glorious, rich in progeny, free from disease and full of power- 3-16 3



Help us to strength, Blessed  Agni! Rice in progeny in abundant, in our sacrifice. Flood us with riches yet more plenteous, bringing weal, with high renown, most Glorious One! – 3-16 6



May we rest ever in the loving kindness, in the auspicious grace of him the Holy  RV.3-1-21


Grant us abundant food , you priestly Herald, vouchsafe to give us ample wealth RV.3-1-22



Wishing to do you service, , Agni, they are there ,desirous of your friendship; grant them store of wealth -3-2-6



Agni , the friend of men, ever seek for wealth 3-2-15



Don’t leave us to destitution, Agni, nor want of heroic sons, RV.- 3-16 -5


Tags. –GANESH, RV 3rd Mandala, September 2021, Calendar, Rigveda



Post No. 9810

Date uploaded in London –3 JULY   2021           

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Tamil Veda is Titukkural written by Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar. It is considered the greatest Tamil work that Tamils contributed to the world. It contains 1330 couplets on moral and ethics in Tamil. It is dated 31 BCE by Tamil enthusiasts, but linguistically it belongs to 5th century CE.

Who said it is Tamil “Veda”?

Many contemporaries of Tiru valluvar by name Ukkirap Peruvazuthi, Paranar, Gowthamaanar,Vannakkaan sathanar, Sengkannanar, Velli Veethiyar, Mangudi Maruthanar sand Karikkannanar say it. And also Saraswati Devi says that she gave Veda and Tirukkural. All their verses are in Tiru Valluva Malai.


Rig Veda in Sanskrit is the oldest book in the world. It is the oldest anthology with over 1000 hymns which contain 10,000 mantras. Herman Jacobi and B G Tilak dated it between 4000 and 6000 BCE. Max Muller dated it 1500 BCE or before that. The seers sing the glory of Gods and call them Friends and Comrades.

The amazing fact is that Hindus are the only people in the world who glorified Friendship and Hospitality as virtues. Both Sanskrit and Tamil poets have sung hundreds of verses appreciating these two virtues. It is hardly seen in other cultures.

Here are some comparisons; the numbers in the Rig Veda (RV) are Mandala-Hymn-Mantra.

RV 1-5-1

Comrades , come here and sit down; sing the songs of praise to Indra



Come here from the light of Heaven; we are longing  for this.

A man who leads an ideal life in this world

Will be ranked amongst the Gods in the Heaven– Kural 50



So also is his excellence, great, vigorous, rich in cattle, like a ripe fruit tree to the worshipper.

When prosperity comes to a large hearted man,

It is like the useful village tree bearing fruit –Kural 216



Grant us high fame; o Indra , grant us riches bestowing thousands.

If one is born at all, he should be born to glory;

Otherwise it were better that he were not born –Kural 236



Hear, you whose ear is quick, my call; take these songs.

O , Indra let my praise come nearer , even than your friend.

Like the hand , that goes to the rescue when a garment slips, stepping in to help

When a friend faces adversity, is true friendship –Kural 788



You Come you here,  song of praise is sung. Drink of it like a thirsty stag (Gowra)

Some people translated Gowra as buffalo.

Just as a yak , which is shorn of its wool does not survive,

A man of honour will not live if he loses it- Kural 969

Here Gowra in Sanskrit and Kavari in Tamil are similar in sound. Both are confused with deer and buffalo.



As ministering priests, they were here once; their pious acts won them a share in the sacrifice with Gods.

A man who leads an ideal life in this world

Will be ranked amongst the Gods in the Heaven– Kural 50


1-23-19, 1-23-20

Amrit is water ; in the waters there is healing balm.

Within the Waters, dwell all balms, Soma told me

and Agni as well. The waters hold all medicines.

As the fallen rain sustains the world,

It must be deemed Amrita (Nectar of life)- Kural 11

Dhaanam and Tavam cannot be sustained

If the heavens will not give their bounty – Kural 19

Valluvar was a great Sanskrit scholar; he must have studied the Vedas. Here he uses the Sanskrit words Amrit, Dhaanam (Charity) and Tapas (Penance) in the same chapter on Rains. So I think Amrita is equated with Soma juice.

To be continued………………………………

tags- Tamil Veda, Tirukkural, Rigveda, Tiru valluvar,




Post No. 9793

Date uploaded in London – –29 JUNE   2021           

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Agni, you are the friend and protector of those who entertain you duly 4-4-10


Agni, rise again , drive off those who fight against us; destroy our foes whether our own relatives or stranger 4-4-5


Agni, your rays preserved blind Mamateya /Dirgatamas from affliction  4-4-13


Sharp pointed, powerful, strong, of boundless vigour, Agni who knows the lofty hymn, kept secret 4-5-3


What is our best course in this secret passage; we unreproached have reached a place far distant4-5-12


Agni, all these wise secret speeches I have uttered, sung to you, Sage, the charming words of wisdom with my thoughts and praises – 4-3-16


The bird protects earth’s best and well loved station 4-5-9


Though the cow is black, she gives the nutrious brightly shining milk that supports (human beings) -4-3-9


By Law the Angirases cleft the rock asunder, and ang their hymns together with the cattle

By Law the Immortal Goddesses the rivers flow onward swiftly and for ever



As in the days of  old our ancient Fathers, speeding the work of holy worship, Agni

Sought pure light and devotion, singing praises; they cleft the ground and made red Dawns apparent 4-2-16


Gods, doing holy acts, devout, resplendent, smelting like ore their human generations (they burn their sins by holy acts) 4-2-17


Destroy the miserliness in us. Come here, for we have shown you favour 3-58-2


Never ever go to the feast of one who harms us, the treacherous neighbour or unworthy kinsman 4-3-13


This shrine we have made ready for you like a loving wife attires her for her husband 4-3-2


Here did our human fathers take their places, fain to fulfil the sacred Law of worship

Forth drove they, with loud call, Dawn’s teeming Milch kine hid in the mountain- stable, in the cavern 4-1-13


Eager with thought intent upon the booty, the men with their celestial speech threw open

The solid mountain firm, compact, enclosing confining Cows, the stable full of cattle 4-1-15


Lead us O God, to wealth and noble off spring; keep penury afar and grant us plenty 4-2-11


The man who , sweating, brings you the fuel, and gets head ache, your faithful servant

Agni , be his strong protector; guard him from all mischief makers 4-2-6


Agni, Ruler of men, You joyous God, bring treasure splendid and plentiful to aid the toiler 4-2-13


Splendid were they when they had rent the mountain; others around, shall tell forth this their exploit

They sang their song, prepared to free the cattle; they found the light; with holy hymns they worshipped 4-1-14


May we , seven sages first in rank, , engender, from Dawn the Mother, men to be ordainers

May we , Angirases, be sons of Heaven, and, radiant, burst the wealth containing mountain 4-2-15


Accept with favour my song, be gracious to the earnest thought, like a bridegroom to his bride 3-62-8


Friendship with Indra have the Rbhus fully gained; grandsons of Manu, they skilfully urged the work

Sudhanvan’s Children won them everlasting life, serving with holy rites, pious with noble acts 3-60-3


The mighty powers wherewith you formed the chalices, the thought by which you drew the cow from out the hide,

The intellect with which you made the two Bay Steeds- through these – you Rhus, you attained Divinity – 3-60-2


Men, singers worship Savitar the God with hymn and holy rites,

Urged by the impulse of their thoughts 3-62-12


May we attainth at  excellent glory of Savitar the God; so May he stimulate our prayers 3-62-10 (Gayatri Mantra)


The Bull of men, whom none deceive, the wearer of each shape at will, Brhaspati Most Excellent – 3-62-6


No one can quantify your good deeds nor your heroic acts, Rbhus, Sudhanvan’s Sons 3-60-4



Mitra whose glory spreads afar, he who in might surpasses heaven. Surpasses earth in his renown 3-59-7


The ancient Milch cow yields the things we long for; the Son of Dakshina travels between them.

She with the splendid chariot brings refulgence. The prise of Usas has awaken the Asvins 3-58-1


Mitra , when speaking, stir men to labour; Mitra sustains both the earth and heaven.

Mitra is watching men without closing his eyes. 3-59-1


tags – Rigveda, Quotes, July 2021, Calendar

Rivers in the Rigveda and Panini’s Ashtadhyayi-2 (Post No.9779)


Post No. 9779

Date uploaded in London – –26 JUNE   2021           

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In this second part; let us look at the rivers in the Rig Veda and compare them with the rivers in Panini’s Ashtadhyayi.

We must remember that none of them wrote a book on geography. I wanted to point out the size of the books as well. Rig Veda is a book with over 1000 hymns running to 10,000 mantras running to 20,000 lines; but lot of repetitions are there. But we can expect more from the Rig Veda than from Panini who has only less than 4000 pithy sayings/Sutras on grammar.

We have over 30 rivers in the RV. And over 125 direct references are there to the rivers mentioned. Over 100 references to seas and oceans are in the Rig Veda. Apart from this, innumerable river, boat, sea, lake similes are there.

We have ancient rivers in the RV which are not found anywhere else. The best example is Aapayaa mentioned in the Third Mandala. No one can identify it.

We see a beautiful ode to Three Rivers by Visvamitra there.

In the matter of rivers, all the mischiefs of Griffith and gang are exposed by Shrikant Talageri in his scholarly work.



Rivers in Ten Mandalas of RV


1-3-10/12, 1-89-3, 1-13-9,, 1-142-9,, 1-164-49,52, 1-188-8

2-1-11, 2-3-8,2-30-8,2-32-8,2-41-16/18


No Sarasvati in Fourth Mandala


6-49-7,6-50-12,6-52-6,6-61-1/7, 6-10-11,6-13-14

7-2-8,7-9-5,7-35-11,7-36-6,7-39-5,7-40-3,7-95-1/2, 7-95-4/6,7-96-1,3/6

8-21-17,18, 8-38-10,8-54-4






1-83-1,1-44-12,1-122-6,1-126-1,1-186-5,1-94-6,1-94, refrain in the last verses of 1-96,1-98, 1-100,1-103,1-105,1-115

Sindhu is absent in Mandala 2&3



No Sindhu in 6&7

8-12-3,8-20-24,25, 8-25-14,8-26-18,8-72-7





Jahnavi 1-116-9,3-58-6

6-45-31, 10-75-5

















Asikni 7-5-3,8-20-25,10-75-5

Gauri 1-164-4,

Vipss 3-33-1,

Sutudri 3-33-1,10-75-5

Drsadvati 3-23-4,

Kusavaa 4-18-8

Parushni 4-22-2,7-18-8/9, 8-75-15,10-75-5

Vipas 3-31-1,4-30-11,

Kubha 5-53-9,10-75-6

Krumu 5-53-9,10-75-6

Anitabhaa 5-53-9

Asmanvati 10-53-8


Aarjikiiyaa 8-7-29, 8-64-11, 9-65-23

Suvaastu 8-19-371

Susoma 10-75-5

Susartu 10-75-6

Sveti 10-75-6

Svetyaavari 8-26-18

Mehatnu 10-75-6

Marudvrdhaa 10-75-5

Trstaamaa 10-75-6

Vitastaa 10-75-5

Hariyupia 6-27-5

Yavyaavati 6-27-6

Prayiyu 8-19-37

Vaiyiyu 8-19-37

River Sarasvati has the highest number of references.

SHRIANT  has arranged the Ten Mandalas in chronological order and made comments on the basis of the order.

He has found out Vedic Hindus migrated towards West from the East.

He has pointed out the blunders in Griffith’s translation and interpretation.

RV 3-33 and 10-75-5 and 10-75-76 are important.

The evidence of the rivers in the RIGVEDA is unanimous in identifying to the east of Sarasvati as the original homeland of the Vedic Hindus.

The reference in 1-116-9 associates river Jahnavi with sage Bharadvaja,Divodasa and Gangetic dolphin. It is clear that the river is specially associated with the oldest period of the Rigveda .

The Sarasvati is so important in the whole of the Rigveda that it is worshipped as one of the three great goddesses in the Apri suktas of all ten family composers . The Indus finds no place in these Apri suktas.

In the Nadi Stuthi, nearest river Ganges is mentioned first and then other rivers are mentioned. Griffith deliberately misleads the readers by adding a foot note that the most distant river (Ganges) is mentioned first. And in the same way in 3-33 also he adds a note to say ‘this shows the eastward expansion of the Vedic Aryans. but it is actually the Hindus westward march!


My comments

In RV 3-33 there is a beautiful ode to rivers. It is the fifth dialogue poem if you start from Mandala 1. Viswamitra says to the rivers ‘I have come from far away. The far away is Bihar. But Griffith mischievously puts the ‘far away’ beyond India’s borders. How do we know whether Shrikant is right or Griffith is right ?. Though Shrikant has stated enough reasons I will add one more point.

In the poems regarding rivers we see Jamadagni, Visvamitra, Bharadvaja and other seers. The three seers mentioned above are in Valmiki Ramayana as well. So we know for sure Visvamitra’s journey to Mithila in Bihar- Nepal border. We know where Janaka, Sita’s father ruled. We know Rama’s victory over Parasurama, son of Jamadagni. All these places the far away in Bihar- Nepal border and not Afghanistan or Iran . Mischief maker Griffith confesses in every other hymn of Rig Veda that he cant understand and yet he never stopped damaging the Vedas. Hindus must be careful about the 30 +++ clowns and jokers in the Max Muller gang.


 Tags- Rigveda, Rivers, Griffith, Westward , Hindus March,Panini



Post No. 9659

Date uploaded in London – –28 May   2021           

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This is the third part of the article.

There are 25 mantras in the hymn 1-112 of Rigveda.

Mantra 12

Here we get some interesting details about a river called Rasaa.

In the same mandala we saw River Sindhu is helped by God for a good flow. So naturally we expect River Rasa is also helped by the Vedic Gods. But Max muller and gang gives a new interpretation.

“The Rasaa known to the Zoroastrians as the Ranha, was originally the name of a real river, but when the Aryas moved away from it into the Punjab, it assumed a mythical character, and became a kind of Okeanos surrounding the extreme limits of the Earth”, says Max muller.

This is said through out the Vedas by all the white skinned foreign translators. From Mahatma Gandhi to Ambedkar every one rejected Aryan- Dravidian theory. Kanchi Paramacharya, a great linguistic scholar, clearly say Zoroaster migrated from Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Since Zend Avesta is dated around 800 BCE, Vedic Hindus migrated to Iran and named one River as Rasa.

Greek Okeanos also came after 800 BCE. More over Okeanos is Oceanus which means the ocean around the land. All Tamil and Sanskrit poems describe earth as wearing ocean as clothes. Hindu  poets always say ‘earth surrounded by water’.

Max muller gang tries to put the cart before the horse.

Mantra 13

Here we come across a reference to eclipse.

Asvins are said to compass the Sun in order to save him from eclipse. Vedic Hindus were very much conscious of astronomical events. This gives support to my interpretation of ‘wolf catching quail’ as solar eclipse.

Mandhata and Bharadvaja are referred to here. Both of them received help from the Asvins.

This will help us to pinpoint the date of these hymns. Scholars believe that the first mandala is the latest part of the Rigveda. They also believe that it took at least 500 years for the composition of 1000 plus hymns . Internal evidence also points out in this direction.

Mandhata was the son of Yuvanasva. Mandhata’s son is Purukutsa. Since all these names occur in the first and tenth mandalas, we may say they were added by Vyasa around 3150 BCE. Mandhata was 12th king in the Solar dynasty while Rama was 62nd in the line. This will give us a rough idea of the time of Mandhata. 1250 years lapsed between Mandhata and Rama.

Both these are important for Tamils as well. Bharadvaja who figures in Ramayana was associated with ‘Aindram’ grammar. Tolkappiar was an expert in it . Chola kings claim that Sibi Chakravarthy and Mandhata were their forefathers. Through out Sangam Tamil literature and Silapaadikaram we see this north -western origin of Cholas.

It is amazing to see so many names in one hymn. Kutsa angiras was the first one to give us a full list of kings. He is the first historian in the world.

Another interesting detail about Bharadvaja is the word means ‘a country’ and ‘a crow or a black bird’.

Mantra 14

Here we come across more kings of Vedic India.

Trsadasyu, Athithigwa, Divodasa and Kesojum are found in this mantra .

Sayana says Divodasa had the titles Kesojum and Athithiva.

I want to point out the suffix Daasa and Dasyu in two kings names.

They are all great Vedic kings.

Sambara was killed by both Indra and Divodasa. We see another Sambara killed by Dasaratha with the help of Kaikeyi.

Trsadasyu was a great philanthropist, friend of the Devas. He shattered the forts of his enemies.

Mantra 15

Here we get some interesting information about a drinker named Vamra. He was the son of Vikanasa. He was drinking different things.

Westerners interpreted ‘drinking’ as sucking the moisture from the earth.

Vedic seers always speak in secret, coded language

Wilson and Benfie say it is not Drinking, but getting rid of moisture.

Upastuta, Kali, Vyasva, Prithi are others mentioned here.

Vyasva means Horseless.

Kali (Black) is seen in another hymn.

Upastuta, according to Sayana, is an epithet of Vamra.

Vyasva is an epithet of Prithi.

All of them received help from the Asvins

More names are coming in the 13 more mantras.

To be continued ……………

tags– oldest historian-3, Rigveda,

Horse Bird Mystery in Rigveda :New Scientific Evidence (Post No.9344)


Post No. 9344

Date uploaded in London – –5 MARCH  2021     

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Brahmins in their thrice a day ritual called Sandhyavandana, recite a mantra where the word DADHIKRAVAN IS USED. No Vedic scholar can give the correct translation for this word. Literally translated it means Horse Bird. Some scholars thought it is a speedy horse. Horse Bird appear at least in twenty places in the Rig Veda spreading over four mandalas/ books RV.3,4,7,10. Some scholars think that it is an Ostrich. Now we don’t have ostrich anywhere except zoos and farms. An ostrich in Vedic India is not such

This is a summary from Sudhakar Raje’s article in Organiser dated May 29,2005 with my inputs.

The reason for discussing it now is the new evidence of Ostrich birds. Please see the paper cuttings below:-

Ostriches once roamed the Indian peninsula

Read more at:

he large species of flightless bird, Ostrich, are now native to Africa. After nearly decade-long research, Dr VT Ingole, a professor from Amravati district of Maharashtra, has discovered that Ostriches existed in Indian sub-continent, nearly 15,000 to 25,000 years ago, particularly in Vidarbha region.19 Dec 2018,DECCAN HERALD

After nearly decade-long research, Dr VT Ingole, a professor from Amravati district of Maharashtra, has discovered that Ostriches existed in Indian sub-continent, nearly 15,000 to 25,000 years ago – particularly in Vidarbha region. DH photo Highlight…

Read more at:


Ostriches could be found in India 25,000 years ago, new DNA study reveals

Geologists and archaeologists have found ostrich egg shell pieces in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh


Press Trust of India  |  Hyderabad Last Updated at March 14, 2017 04:13 IST

Ostrich, the flightless bird native to Africa, inhabited India about 25,000 years ago, a study conducted by the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) here has found.

Though it is native to Africa, several geologists and archaeologists have over the time found ostrich egg shell pieces in India, mostly in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

A DNA study of some partly fossilised ostrich egg shells was recently conducted at CCMB.

“We have successfully analysed the ostrich egg shells in our ‘ancient DNA’ facility and established that the egg shells (found in India) are genetically similar to the African ostrich,” CCMB’s senior principal scientist Kumarasamy Thangaraj had said recently.

“The carbon dating (of the ostrich egg shells) to determine the age shows that they are at least 25,000 years old,” Thangaraj had said.

The study was conducted jointly by the scientists of CCMB, Indian Institute of Technology (Roorkee) and others.

The findings of the research have been published in the March 9, 2017, issue of science journal PLOS ONE.

The origin and evolution of the ostrich is widely attributed to the continental drifting of Gondwanaland or Gondwana.

Around 150 million years ago, Gondwana was a super-continent comprising South America, Arabia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, India and Madagascar of the present times.

An initial break-up of this super-continent (during the Early Cretaceous period – 130 to 100 million years ago) separated Africa and Indo-Madagascar.

This bio-geographical dispersion eventually led to the hopping of ostriches in Africa through Eurasia (the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia), via land route around 20 million years ago.

However, the continental drift theory for the existence of ostriches in India was not proven scientifically, an official release said.

Further, only morphological pattern of the fragile egg shell pieces is not sufficient to prove the existence of ostrich in India.

The researchers thus analysed the mitochondrial DNA to come to the conclusion about the existence of ostriches in India, the release added.

Phylogenetic (relating to the evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group of organisms, or of a particular feature of an organism) analysis of the DNA sequence revealed a 92 per cent identity of the fossil egg shells to the African ostrich species – Struthio camelus, the release further said.

tags- ostrich, rigveda, dhadigravan, horse bird