SRI DEVI AND JESHYTA DEVI IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL (Post No.5675)

 

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 18 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-34
Post No. 5675

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Jyeshta Devi, picture posted by Lalgudi Veda

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar was a great Hindu who authored the most famous didactic work Tirukkural, also called Tamil Veda by his contemporary poets. He praised Vishnu, Shiva but condemned Brahma for creating poverty in the world. he said if one has to beg in this world for living, let Brahma go to hell. He praised Shiva for maintaining equanimity and ecorumeven when his friends asked him to drink the poison to save them. he praised Vamanavatar and Gopi Krishna in other couplets (Kural in Tamil). He mentioned the greatness of Go Mata, Vedic Studies, Brahmins, Deva loka, Arita in innumerable couplets. He begins his book with praise of God using Sanskrit words and ending the book again with Sanskrit words. In fact there is no chapter without Sanskrit word. This shows that he treated both the languages as his two eyes.

Scholars in the past 100 years from V R Ramachadra Dikshitar, V V S Iyer, K V Jagannathan, very recently famous historian Dr R Nagaswamy to many more have shown that he borrowed lot from other great books. Having said that all these scholars praised Thiruvalluvar for hs great skill in assembling so much moral sayings in one single book and that too in the briefest couplet format. We have 1330 couplets under 133 headings. No work in any other language can be compared with this marvellous work of the greatest Tamil poet of ancient times. He stands unique in the world of moral literature.

Here in this article I want to show his praise for Sri Devi, i.e Maha Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth and hiscriticism of her elder sister Mu Devi or Jyeshta in Sanskrit, who is the Goddess of Mis Fortune.

Jyeshta, Goddess of Mis Fortune, bad luck has got her own shrines in several temples in Tamil Nadu. It is strange that Hindus see her as the elder sister of Maha Lakshmi who brings wealth.

Thiru valluvar says,

Goddess of Mis Fortune lives with the indolent and good luck of the Lotus Deity Lakshmi with strenuous strivers- Kural 617

Gambling is the ogress mis fortune. Those who are deluded and swallowed by her, suffer grief, misery and poverty- Kural 936

in both these couplets he used the same word Mukati (Mu Devi, Tamil word for Jyeshta Devi)

In the couplets where he praised Lakshmi, one can interpret it as Lakshmi or Fortune or wealth. But all the ancient commentators take it for Lakshmi.

Another interesting thing is the cognate words in English ,Tamil and Sanskrit for Lakshmi or fortune or prosperity:-

Sri = SIR title in English

Sri=Tiru in Tamil or Seer in Tamil

Sri Dhanam+ Seer or Seedhanam in Tamil

Linguists know very well that

S=T (Eg Sion= Tion)

wherever the tion comes English pronounce it as sion.

More about Jyeshta

The iconography of Jyeshta Deva is itself interesting. Jyeshta  generally means ‘elder’ in Sanskrit. Kashmiris called Shiva Jyeshta Rudra; elder son is called Jyeshta Putra.

Donkey Vahana

Jyeshta, Goddess of Mis fortune, is found in Hindu Puranas. She personifies poverty and is depicted with a  large belly and long nose. She was particularly worshipped in South India. A star—Nakashtra -also named after her (Jyeshta= Kettai in Tamil). This name also has bad connotation in astrology. Jyeshta’s vahana (mount) is ass. She has a banner with crow. In her hands she has arrow, cup, and her other attributes are  blue lotus, staff and hair ornament.

Cicero and Benjamin Franklin

S M Diaz in his English commentary on Tirukkural, adds more information:

The dark elder sister representing misfortune with go with the man of indolence

While the lotus born Lakshmi with reside with the man of industry- Kural/ couplet 617

Cicero is believed to have said somewhere, that Diligence is one virtue that contains in itself all the rest.

Benjamin Franklin said much later, that Diligence is mother of all virtues and certainly of good fortune.

Goddess Lakshmi is praised in couplets 617, 179, 519, 920

As I have mentioned earlier one can interpret the word Thiru as wealth, fortune, prosperity and Lakshmi. We always go by what the ancient interpreters say about it. Ten people wrote commentaries on Tirukkural and only half of them are available now.

Tags:- Jyeshta, Mudevi, Tirukkural, Goddess of mis- fortune

–subham–

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL: Rev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459)

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL: Rev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459)


Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 4 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  21-07

 

 

Post No. 4459

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Rev. G U Pope, a Tamil scholar and Christian preacher published The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in 1886 with his English translation. Throughout the book he had used his predecessors’ views. He had used Italian Jesuit priest Constantine Joseph Beschi’s Latin translation of Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda and also the translation of Ellis. They have compared some of the Kural couplets with the Manu Smrti, also known as Manava Dharma Shastra.

I will give their list below:

 

 

Role of a King

Valluvar says in his Kural Couplets,

The world clings to the feet of the great leader who wields his sceptre with love for his subjects (Kural 544)

The leader saves his subjects from enemies and flawlessly punishes wrong doers (549)

The judge gives capital punishment to wicked killers like removing weeds from a flourishing field (550)

 

 

Manu says in the Seventh Chapter,

  1. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.
  2. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.
  3. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice.
  4. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly perish; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man).

xxxxxx

Oppression of a Tyrant

Valluvar says in his Kural Couplets,

The leader who does not injure and adopt proper measures each day – his kingdom will perish day by day (Kural 553)

 

Let them that want their greatness to continue begin with sternness and punish within measure (562).

 

Manu says in the Seventh Chapter,

  1. Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the offender), let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly.

 

  1. Let the king, having carefully considered (each) affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.

xxxxx

Espionage

Valluvar says,

Kural Couplets 581-590

The reports given by one spy must be tested and verified through another spy (Kural 588)

The spies must be sent one by one, apart; if three spies agree, the information shall be confirmed (589)

Able spies watch keenly the officers, kinsmen and the enemies and all for information (584)

 

Manu says in the Seventh Chapter

  1. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.
  2. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).
  3. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect).

xxxxxxxx Subham xxxxxxxxxxxxx

 

 

 

HINDU GODS IN TAMIL BIBLE! (Post No.3069)

brahmin valluvar

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 17th August 2016

Time uploaded in London: 9-16 AM

Post No.3069

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks for the pictures.

 

Tirukkural, the Veda of the Tamils, is a book of great value to the Tamils. Foreign writers who translated it into English and other European languages said it is like the Bible for the Tamils. Though the author TIRU VALLUVAR has written a lot of common things acceptable to all the four oriental religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, his 1330 couplets mostly reflect Hindu thoughts.

 

Some people tried to show him as a Buddhist or a Jain and those theories were exploded because of his reference to GOD and “the god who lives in the heaven”(Kural/Couplet 50)

More over Tiruvalluvar supports death sentence (550) and violence against the misers (1077 and 1078), he was the Chanakya of the Tamil speaking world. So he cannot be a Jain.

 

For the forty or fifty years I have been quoting his couplets on moral themes in my articles and speeches. I used to wonder whether he was a Vaishnavite or a Saivite. My research shows that he was a Vaishnavite because of his references to Vishnu and his incarnation and Goddess Lakshmi in more couplets. Next comes his references to Vedic Gods Inrda and Yama. Of the Vedic Gods, Yama was his favourite. He gets more references than others. Siva was mentioned only indirectly. But his first ten couplets in praise of God, he makes general references to God in form. He refers to the FEET OF GOD in most of the couplets. So out and out he was a Hindu.

valluva-nayanar

He was a master of Sanskrit as well. He used the Sanskrit words Dhanam and Tavam/Tapas in more than one couplet. Above all, he structured his book on the Hindu values: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha. Since the Tamils do not write separately on Moksha, he has included it in the Dharma section.

 

In hundreds of Kurals/couplets, he refers to Vedas and Vedic customs, which I am not using here.

All the books that were published until 75 years ago, described Tiruvalluvar as a poet born to a Brahmin and a low caste woman. Dravidian political parties hid this information in later editions of the book and gave him a new date 31 BCE. Tamil Linguistics show that he lived in 4th or 5th century CE.

 

Let us look at the references to Hindu Gods in Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda:–

 

Trivikrama/Vamana Avatar – Kural Couplet 610

Adi Bhagawan – Kural 1

Amrita -64, 82, 720, 1106

Yama – 269, 326, 765, 1083, 1085

Pitrs/departed souls- 43 (who live in southern direction)

Brahma- 1062

Indra – 25

Krishna/Vishnu -1103 (Lotus Eyed)

Lakshmi (lotus seated)- 179, 519, 617, 920

Alakshmi- 617, 936 (Lakshmi’s sister)

Maya/charmer man- 1258 (may be Krishna of Gopis)

 

Couplet 377 refers to Brahma, as the man who writes fate on every one’s head. But commentators translate the word as GOD.

 

Couplet 580 refers to Siva drinking poison.

“Men of refined courtesy accept even a cup of poison and look cheerfully calm.”

I quoted this in my research article written in 1997 (in London Tamil Magazine Megam) and commented it may be a reference to Socrates or Siva. But Tamil saint Manikka vasakar used this epithet for Lord Siva. So I conclude that it is an indirect reference to Lord Siva drinking poison when the milky ocean was churned to get the Amrita/ambrosia.

Since more remarks point towards a person who worships Vishnu and Lakshmi, I conclude that Tiruvalluvar was a Vishnu Bhakta.

tiruvalluvar-at-soas-university-of-london

The Opening Ceremony took place on 13th May 1996. Dr L M Singhvi, High Commissioner of India in grey suit is at left extreme, Dr Stuart Blackburn in grey suit is in the middle and I am (London Swaminathan, author of this article) at the far right in the picture. Location: SOAS, University of London.

 

Please read my old articles on Tiru Valluvar and Tirukkural:-

Strange Link between Lord Shiva, Socrates and Thiruvalluvar, posted on 18 September 2011

 

Albert Einstein and Thiruvalluvar, Post No. 749 dated 17th December 2013.

Buddha and Tamil Saint on Good thoughts!, Post No 717 dated 21 November 2013

 

Who was Tiruvalluvar?, 24-7-2013

 

Tamil Merchant who dumped Gold into Sea, Post No. 1239; Dated 17th August 2014.

 

வள்ளுவன் ஒரு சம்ஸ்கிருத அறிஞன், 5 நவம்பர் 2012

திருவள்ளுவர் பற்றிய பழைய புத்தகம் (Post No. 2532) , 12 -2-2016

திருவள்ளுவர் யார்?,  Post No. 748 dated 17th December 2013.

 

ஏலேல சிங்கன் கதை!, கட்டுரை எண்:– 1238; தேதி 17 ஆகஸ்ட் 2014.

அவ்வையார், வள்ளுவர் பற்றிய அதிசய தகவல்கள்! 14-11-2015

 

–subham–