‘அருந்தவத்து அரசி’ சபரி – ராமாயண இன்பம் (Post No.3004)

sabari

Picture shows Sabari with Rama, Lakshmana

Article Written by London swaminathan

Date:25 July 2016

Post No. 3004

Time uploaded in London :– 8-05 AM

( Thanks for the Pictures)

DON’T REBLOG IT AT LEAST FOR A WEEK!  DON’T USE THE PICTURES; THEY ARE COPYRIGHTED BY SOMEONE.

 

(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com)

 

 

கம்ப ராமாயணத்திலும், வால்மீகி ராமாயணத்திலும் சபரி என்னும் கானகப் பெண்மணியைப் பற்றிய பாடல்கள் மிகவும் குறைவு. ஆயினும் அந்தப் பாடல்களை, ஸ்லோகங்களைப் படிக்கும்போது இலக்கிய இன்பமும், பக்திச் சுவையும் கிட்டும்.

 

முதலாவது, கானகத்தில் தவம் செய்யும் கிழவிக்கு கம்பன் கொடுக்கும் அடை மொழி “அருந்தவத்து அரசி”. வால்மீகி அடிக்கடி பயன்படுத்தும் “தபோநிதி” – என்பதை கம்பன் வேறு வடிவத்தில், இப்படி மிகவும் அழகாகப் பகர்கிறான்.

 

கம்ப ராமாயணம் முழுதும், ராமனுக்கும் சீதைக்கும் அனுமனுக்கும் கம்பன் கொடுக்கும் அடை மொழிகள் படித்துப் படித்து இன்புறத் தக்கவை.

இருந்தனென் எந்தை நீ ஈண்டு எய்துதி என்னும் தன்மை

பொருந்திட இன்றுதான் என் புண்ணியம் பூத்தது என்ன

அருந்தவத்து அரசி தன்னை அன்புற நோக்கி எங்கள்

வருந்துறு துயரம் தீர்த்தாய்; அம்மனை வாழி என்றார்

பொருள்:

சபரி சொன்னாள்: என் தந்தையே! நீ இங்கே வரப்போகிறாய் என்று கேட்டு, உன்னை எதிர்பார்த்துக் காத்திருந்தேன். நீ வந்துவிட்டதால், இன்றுதான் என் தவம் பலித்தது ( என் புண்ணியம் பூத்தது).

உடனே, அருந்தவத்துக்கு ராணியான அவளைப் பார்த்து, அன்போடு ராமன் சொன்னான்: தாயே! வழிநடையால் ஏற்பட்ட களைப்பை, உன் உபசரிப்பால் தீர்த்துவிட்டாய், நீ வாழ்வாயாக.

 

அவள் சொல்கிறாள்: சிவனும் பிரம்மனும், இந்திரனும் என்னிடம் வந்து,  நீ சித்தி பெறும் காலம் வந்துவிட்டது. ராமன் இங்கே வருகிறான். அவனுக்கு உரிய உபசாரங்களைச் செய்துவிட்டு எம் உலகத்துக்கு வருக என்று அவர்கள் சொன்னார்கள்.

 

(பிரம்மா, சிவன் பெயரை மட்டும் சொன்னதிலிருந்து,   ராமனே விஷ்ணு என்பதையும் கம்பன் தெரிவிக்கிறான்.)

shabari

Picture: – சபரி என்ற வேடுவப் பெண்மணி

இன்னொரு பாடலில் ஞானிகள் யார் என்றும் கம்பன் சொல்கிறான். அவர்கள் “கேள்வியால் செவிகள் முற்றும் தோட்டவர்”. அதாவது, நமக்கு எல்லாம் காதில் இயற்கையாகவே துளை இருக்கிறது. சான்றோருக்கு,  கேள்வி  ஞானத்தால் – நல்லனவற்றைக் கேட்டதால் அத்துளை உண்டாயிற்றாம்!

 

சபரி வாழ்ந்த இடம் .மதங்க முனிவரின் ஆசிரமம் ஆகும். அந்த இடத்தின் இயற்கை அழகையும் பம்பா நதி தீரத்தின் இயற்கை அழகையும் வால்மீகி விரிவாக வருணிக்கிறார். கமபன் அந்த இடம் சொர்க்கலோகம் போல இருந்தது என்பான்:

எண்ணிய இன்பங்கள் அன்றித் துன்பங்கள் இல்லை ஆன

புண்ணியம் புரிந்தோர் வைகும் துறக்கமே போன்றது அன்றே

 

பொருள்:

புண்ணியம் செய்தோர் போகக்கூடிய சுவர்க்கம் (துறக்கம்) போல எப்போதும் இன்பம் மட்டுமே நிலவும் — துன்பமே இல்லாத – இடம் போல இருந்தது (மதங்க முனிவரின் இருப்பிடம்)

 

இறுதியில் ராமனுக்கு காய் கனிகளைக் கொடுத்து சபரி உபசரிக்கிறாள். அது மட்டுமல்ல சுக்ரீவன் வாழும் இடத்துக்கு எப்படி போவது என்றும் வழிகளை விரிவாகச் செப்புகிறாள். கடை சியில் யோக சக்தி மூலம் தன் உடம்பை விட்டு நீங்கி உயிர் துறக்கிறாள்.

 

வால்மீகி சிறிது வேறுவிதமாக முடிக்கிறார். யோக சக்தி என்பதற்குப் பதிலாக தீயில் புகுந்து சபரி உயிர் நீத்தாள் என்று இயம்புகிறார். அக்காலத்தில் சான்றோர்கள், தனது பணிகள் முடிந்தபின் இப்படி தீப்புகுந்து உயிர் துறப்பர்.

 

அதிகமான சங்கத் தமிழ் பாடல்களைப் பாடிய பிராமணப் புலவன் – “புலன் அழுக்கற்ற அந்தணாளன்” – கபிலனும் இப்படி தீப்புகுந்து உயிர்நீத்தான்.

 

சபரி பாடல்களில் இருந்து நாம் அறிவது என்ன என்று ஒரு ஆராய்ச்சி செய்வோம்:–

sabari ashram

Picture:– சபரி வாழ்ந்த இடம் .மதங்க முனிவரின் ஆசிரமம்

1.அந்தக் காலத்தில் பெண்களும் நல்ல ஆன்மீக அறிவு பெற்றிருந்த்னர். அவ்வையாருக்கு எல்லாம் சில ஆயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முந்தியவர் சபரி. அப்போதே பெண்கள் ஆன்மீக தாகம் கொண்டு தவம் செய்தனர்.

2.ராமன் போன்றாரும், சபரியும் கானகத்தில் – வெஜிட்டேரியன் உணவை மட்டுமே சாப்பிட்டனர். காயும் கனிகளும் கீரையும் தேனும் திணை மாவுதான் அவர்கள் உண்டவை.

3.சான்றோர்கள் தன் தவ வலிமையால் உடல் துறப்பது, தீப்புகுவது என்பது சர்வ சாதாரணமாக இருந்தது. அதாவது உடலைத் துச்சமாக எண்ணினர். நாம் பழைய உடைகளைக் குப்பைக் கூடையில் எறிவது போல அவர்கள் உடலைத் துறந்தனர்.

4.கானகத்தில் இருந்த ஆசிரமங்கள் மிகவும் இயற்கை அழகு மிக்கவை அவை சொர்க்க லோகம் போன்று இன்பமே எந்நாளும் என்ற இடமாகத் திகழ்ந்தன.

5.சபரி கடித்துச் சுவைத்து கொடுத்த பழங்களை ராமன்- மன்னன் மகன் — ஜாதி வேறுபாடின்றி சாப்பிட்டதையும் நாம் அறிவோம். ஜாதிகள் இல்லையடி பாப்பா என்ற பாடலை – ராமன் குகன் சம்பவத்திலும், சபரி சம்பவத்திலும் காட்டுகிறான்.

  1. எல்லாவற்றிற்கும் மேலாக ஆரிய-திராவிட வாதத்துக்கு செமையடி கொடுக்கிறது ராமாயணம். ஆதிகுடிகள், வேடுவர்கள் என்போரெல்லாம் திராவிடர் என்றும் , ராமன், கிருஷ்ணன் போன்றோர் எல்லாம் ஆரியர் என்றும் பிதற்றினர் வெளி நாட்டினர். அது தவறு – சபரியும் கூட யோக வாழ்வு நடத்தினாள் என்று காட்டுகிறது இந்த சம்பவம். மேலும் ராமனும், கிருஷ்ணனும் “காக்கா கறுப்பு நிறத்தோலினர் என்பதையும் நாம் அறிவோம். ஆக நிறவேற்றுமை புகுத்திய வெளி நாட்டுப் பேய்களுக்கு அடிமேல் அடி கொடுக்கிறது சபரி நிகழ்வு

7.சபரி என்ற வேடுவப் பெண்மணிக்கு நல்ல பூகோள அறிவு இருந்ததையும் இச்சம்பவம் காட்டும். அதாவது அவள், சுக்ரீவன் வாழும் ரிஷ்யமுக பர்வதத்துக்குப் போகும் வழியை இராம இலக்குவருக்கு இயம்புகிறாள். அடுப்பூதும் பெண்களுக்கு படிப்பு எதற்கு என்று ஒரு காலம் நிலவியது உண்மைதான். ஆனால் அதற்கு முன்னர் ‘கூகுள் மேப்’- ஐ (Google Map) விட அதிக அறிவு இருந்தது பெண்களுக்கு.

 

8.இப்படலம் சுவர்கம் பற்றிய தகலையும் நமக்குத் தருகிறது. சுவர்க்க லோகம் இன்பமே எந்நாளும் நிலவும் இடம். அங்கு துன்பம் என்பதே கிடையாது.

 

சபரி பிறப்பு நீங்கு படலத்தை கம்பன் முடிக்கும் முன்பாக, சபரி தன் யோக சக்தியால் உயிர் நீத்ததை ராமன் அதிசயத்தோடு பார்த்த செய்தியையும் கம்பன் கூறுகிறான்:-

அன்னது கண்ட வீரர் அதிசயம் அளவின்றி எய்தி

 

இந்த அதிசயத்தகவலை நமக்குக் கொடுத்த கம்பனுக்கும் வால்மீகிக்கும் நாமும் நன்றி சொல்வோம்.

 

–subham–

 

ARANYA KANDA PICTURES FROM VALMIKI RAMAYANA

Compiled by London Swaminathan

Article No.1836;  Dated 29 April 2015.

Uploaded at London time 18-40

So far I have posted Balakanda and Ayodhya Kanda pictures. Today I am posting Aranya Kanda (Chapter on Forest Residence) pictures. With this the number of pictures posted stands at 29. We have got forty more pictures from The Picture Ramayana published 100 years ago.

Viradha Killed: Rama and Lakshmana killed many demons in the Dandaka forest, all in self- defence. When demon Viradha attacked them, they attacked him back and buried him. Dandaka forest was frequented by lot of demons. Demons are nothing but uncivilized cannibals. They come out during night times and attack seers in the ashramas/ parnasalas (dwelling places of sages)

Surpanakha meets Rama:-Rama took the advice of great seer Agastya and built a hut on the banks of River Godavari. Shurpanakha, who was the cousin sister of Sri Lankan King Ravana went to Rama and said, “I have fallen in love with you; so I pray you to take me as your wife”. At this Rama’s wife Sita began to laugh, which excited the anger of Shurpanakha . She went to bite sita. Then she went to Lakshmana (Rama’s brother) and he cut off her nose and ears and drove her away. ( People from Sri Lanka can easily travel to India by using South West Monsoon. I have explained how Sri Lankan King Devanam Priya Tissa’s ambassadors reached Patna in Bihar to meet Emperor Asoka within two weeks. Please read my articles on Mahavamsa in my blog. Sri Lankan Rakshasas frequented the coastal areas and used them as their playing fields)

Khara, Dushana killed: Shurpanakha, wailing bitterly, went to her brothers Khara, Dushana and Trishira and reported that her nose and ears were cut off by Lakshmana. Immediately they attacked Rama and Lakshmana. Rama instructed Lakshmana and Sita to hide in a cave nearby, attacked the demons and killed all of them. Shurphanakha fled to her cousin Ravana in Sri Lanka. That cunning woman gave Ravana a different story!

Story of the Phantom Deer: Shurpanakha knew Ravana’s weakness. Though he was well educated, 50 percent Brahmin and fifty percent demon by birth, he was after women. A king can marry as many as he wishes in Hindu tradition. But he can’t touch another man’s wife. Shurphanaka misled him and inflammed Ravana’s passion by describing Sita’s marvellous beauty. Ravana asked Maricha to dress like a deer with golden deer skin and present himself there to divert Sita’s attention. Demons are notorious for cunning devices like this. Sita fell a prey to Ravana’s designs and asked Rama to chase it. Rama went after the PHANTOM DEER.

Maricha, when wounded by the arrow of Rama, cried “Help, Lakshmna, Help” to fool Sita and Lakshmana. Rakshasas are always cunning and cheating. They will try to achieve anything by hook or crook. Sita heard it and asked Lakshmana to help Rama. He told her that it was a false alarm; but Sita reproached him saying, “You want Rama to die so that you can marry me yourself”. Lakshmana wept bitterly at this unbearable taunt. He went out to see where Rama is. At that time Ravana appeared like an ascetic and asked her for food. When Sita crossed the danger line (which Lakshmana drew instructing her not to cross), Ravana abducted her. Vinasa Kale Vipareedha Buddhi!

JATAYU ATTACKED: Jatayu, the king of the vultures, saw Sita carried away by Ravana. He attacked Ravana, but Ravana drew his sword and cut its wings. Ravana was also wounded by Jatayu’s attack. He flew away to Lanka in his flying chariot .( I have explained elsewhere in my research papers that Jatayu, Jambhavan, Hanuman are not Eagles or Bears or Monkeys. They were hill tribes with totem symbols. They were called Eagle people, Bear people or Monkey people because of their symbols or tattoos. Since Ramayana was from a different Yuga period, people, particularly Pauraniks, lost touch with reality and dramatized everything).

When Rama’s arrow pierced Maricha, he assumed his true form i.e.the phantom deer became Maricha again. Rama was angry because Lakshmana came leaving Sita alone. But Lakshmana explained to him that just because Sita panicked he had to come. When they came back Sita was not there. Jatayu told them that Ravana carried off Sita.

When Ravana carried Sita first on his shoulders and then in the chariot, she threw some of her jewels towards the monkeys. Women are intelligent. They wanted to leave some clue at the crime scene so that the criminal will be caught.

Aranya Kanda Picture 9:  Rama and Lakshmana went towards south in search of Sita. Jatayu told them that Ravana went towards south. One day they came across a terrible demon named Kabandha. His mouth was in his mouth and he was one eyed. His thighs joined to his belly. When he attacked Rama and Lakshmana, they killed him. When they started cremating him, a celestial being arose from the fire. He was a spirit under curse and now released from the curse he was happy. He instructed them to go to Rishyamuka Mountain where they can get the help of Sugreeva, the king of the Monkeys (monkey tribe).

Aranya Kanda Picture 10

SABARI SALUTING RAMA: Rama was the first king in the world who demolished the caste and class restrictions by embracing all hunter tribes of Guha , monkey tribes of Sugreeva , hill tribe of Sabari , Eagle tribes of Jatayu, Bear tribes of Jambhavan, Rakshasas like Vibhishana. Monkeys, Eagles, Bears are actually tribal symbols; they are not animals and birds. We can’t see anyone in the world history who embraced different tribes and made them feel kith and kin. He was the one who gave back the kingdoms to Angada and Vibhishana. This is also unique in world history. We seldom see such a friendly gesture.

Next we will look at Kiskindha Kanda.

Dasyu Hindus in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature!

kannappan bronze
Kannappa Nayanar

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1448; Dated 30th November 2014.

Dasyus were Hindus but led a different life style in the forests. Vedic literature said they were the children of sage Visvamitra who went astray. Of course they were criticised by both ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literatures. Foreign “scholars” described them as aborigines which was wrong. Aitareya Brahmana, Mahavamsa of Sri Lanka, Sangam Tamil Literature, Tamil Epic Silappadikaram and Tamil Periya Purana described the life of hunters. One of the Dasyu tribes was the class of hunters/Sabaras. Another tribe known as Pulindas, who were also sons of Visvamitra, are described as the children of Yakshas in the Buddhist chronicle Mahavamsa (Chapter 7).

There is amazing similarity in the description of their life in both literatures which did not change for at least 2000 years. They did not do any fire sacrifice, but worshipped Hindu goddesses and led a rustic life. The description of the Sabaras (Eyinar or Marvar in Tamil) who were hunters and robbers in the forests is same in Tamil epic Silappadikaram. The episode described in the Tamil epic happened in the second century CE. Later Banabhatta of Sixth Century and Sekkizar of Tenth Century CE described their life. Sangam Tamil literature also described their life in various places.

Those who read the above can see the customs they followed in the forest were that of Hindus. Their “Kumari Festival” is described in detail in the Tamil epic Silappadikaram. Tamil epic gave only Sanskrit names to their goddess who rides a stag. All their dances and songs described Goddesses’ achievements including the Killing of Mahisasura (Buffalo headed Demon).

Ramayan_Sabari_EastYadavalli
Sabari of Ramayana

They worshipped Durga and offered human sacrifice. Several statues of offering their heads with their own swords were discovered throughout Tamil Nadu and there are inscriptions confirming their sacrifice of human heads. All their songs were on goddess Durga and Mahisasura Mardhani. They followed cremation and not burial! (For details about human sacrifice and pictures, see my earlier post)

Sabaras in Aitareya Brahmana 7-8
Aandhraahaa punaindraahaa pulindaahaa muthinaahaa
Ithyuthanthyaa bhahavoo dasyunaam bhuuyishtaa ithi

Earliest reference in the Aitareya Brahmana says that the eldest sons of Visvamitra were cursed to become the progeny of the most abject races such as the Andhras, Pundras, Sabaras, Pulindas and the Mutibas.

Bhanabhattaa (606 to 648 CE) in his prose Kadambari gives a graphic description of a tribal gang, which was moving in a forest in a day to day hunting activity:-
1.”Oh they live a life devoid of knowledge
2.Their life style is condemned by the wise men
3.For example human sacrifice – to present it to the gods –is their religious devotion.
4.They eat flesh, honey etc. which is forbidden in the civilized society
5.Their physical exercise is hunting
6.Their religious texts are the cry of jackals
7.They decide good and evil from the voice of owls
8.Their intelligence lies in understanding the nature of the birds
9.Their inmates are the dogs
10.Their kingdom is the lonely forest
11.Their friends are the bows which impart the cruel deeds
12.Their supporters are the poison tipped snake like arrows
13.Their sons are those which attract to captivate the deer
14.Their wives are those women who have been captured. They had been wives of others.
15.They live with cruel animals like tigers. Hence they are as cruel.
16.They propiate their gods with the animal blood
17.Theft is their life
18.Their ornaments are the jewels of cobras
19.They use the elephant’s musth as body lotion
20.They uproot and destroy the forests where they live
ashurbanipal-lion-hunt2
Ashura Babipala lion hunt in Assyria

In merely 20 sentences and less than 100 words – in Sanskrit —Bhanabhatta has narrated all that which the 19th and 20th centuries have narrated in voluminous books.

The chieftain’s name was Maatanga. This is the name of Shiva . Bhanabhatta says that the chieftain was an ardent believer of goddess Katyayani/Durga.

They collected from the forest hair and skin of deer and elephants tusks.
They covered their bodies with lion skin. They collected the colourful mayur puchcha or the long feathers of peacock. They pulled out the poison teeth of snakes. Probably they collected the snake poison. They collected fruits and roots of forest trees.

Source book : Tribal roots of Hinduism by Dr K S Tiwari.
KannappaNayanar
Kannappa offering his eyes

Now compare the above list given by Bhanabhatta with the information from Tamil literature summarised by Dr R Nagasamy, eminent historian and archaeologist and VR Dikshitar in his Translation of Tamil epic Sillapdikaram.

In the North they were known as Sabaras and Pulindas and in Tamil Nadu they were called Maravars and Eyinars.

1.They killed people who passed through the forests or arid lands (Puram 175)
2.They can shoot anyone without a miss. They covered the dead bodies with stones (Puram2)
3.They killed the merchants by attacking their caravans and shared the booty among themselves (Akam.89)
4.They had very long bows standing up to their shoulders (from the ground)- Akam.175
5.They are so uneducated that they will bite their bows (Akam 214) if they miss the target.
6.They had uncouth appearance with beard (Akam 297)
7.They had flesh for their food and toddy for their drinks. They never washed their hands ( Akam 297)
8. They took whatever they wanted and destroyed the rest (Puram 23)

Dr Nagasamy added the following from Periyapurana from the life story of Kannappa Nayanar, who became famous by offering his both eyes to Lord Shiva. Kannappan means who offered eyes and this is a household story in Tamil Nadu.

sabari1
Sabari of Ramayana

1.This tribes speaks a language of words with “Kill , Stab, Spear, Throw” according to Sekkizar of 10th Century CE.
2.They rob the cows (like Panis of Rig Veda) from the villages
3. They eat flesh and the worms wriggling on it.
4.They worshipped Lord Skanda and offered him Pea cocks and Cocks to Skanda.
5.They tied the teeth of tiger around the Children’s necks
6.Young boys of the hunters brought little boars, deer and tiger cubs for playing. They were their toys.
7.They had a chieftain and his son was trained in archery in a ceremony. This Bow Festival was celebrated grandly for 7 days. Sekkizar gives full details in hundreds of verses about their forest life.
8.On the seventh day of the Training/initiation ceremony the boy was initiated in to archery amidst all the fanfare . Big drums and horns were played by the tribe.

assyrian
Lion hunt

Salini’s Role as Soothsayer
9. They had a woman soothsayer by name Salini. She will give them directions about what should be offered to the goddess. She gave all the predictions when she was possessed. The old lady’s dance amazed even the cruel hunters. She advised them to give sacrifice to goddess Durga (Kotravai who rides a stag)
10.Tamil Epic Silappadikaram described a Kumari Festival inside the forest (It is a bit similar to Kumari festival in Nepal and other places). V R Dikshita summarised it from Vettuvavari of Silappadikaram:

“It was usual to select a virgin from among their community and make her appear like the goddess installed in the shrine. The virgin was taken in procession to the temple of their guardian deity and worshipped in front of the shrine, where the goddess was said to appear and approve what the damsel spoke.

The Eyinar/sabara decked their goddess with ornaments and peculiar to their mores. A tiger skin and elephant skin formed the clothing of their goddess. Similarly the teeth of tiger formed her garland. The virgin’s hair was dressed in the form of jata – the coiffure of Shiva – and ornamented with a small silver snake and a crescent like semi circular tooth from the wild hog . Her Tali/mangal sutra was a necklace made up of teeth plucked from a strong limbed tiger. Her girdle was a cleaned tiger skin. The bow in her hand was of heart wood. She was mounted upon a stag with twisted horns. The eyinar/sabara ladies followed her carrying paints, powders, cool and fragrant pastes, boiled grains, gingelli/sesame cakes, rice with meat, flowers, frankincense and fragrant scents. This was accompanied by the beating of the drum, blowing of the trumpet. The same drum and horn were used while they loot and rob caravans passing through the forest. There the virgin worshiped the goddess.

Following this, in their songs, they praised the goddess as Mahisasura Mardhani and wife of Shiva and Durga’s fight with Asuras/demons in various forms. Sanskrit names of Goddess such as Amari, Kumari, Gowri, Samari, Suli, Nili, Arya were used by Ilango, the author of the epic. Goddess was praised as Vishnu’s sister in accordance to the story in Hindu mythology. All this happened inside the deep forest of Tamil Nadu 2000 years ago!
hittite
Hittites hunting

This shows that all the foreigners’ accounts of tribes are wrong and spread with a motive. My study of all the tribes in India confirmed lot of Hindu customs. Most of their Goddess names are of Sanskrit origin.
The friendship between Guha , Sabari and Rama of Ramayana also stand as evidence that they were part and parcel of Hindu society, but living in their own way. Even in my country England, a fisherman’s life is very different from us, the Londoners. But no one called them Dasyus! A whaler in New Zealand and Japan may look like primitives for a Londoner or a New Yorker. They were not Dayus!

Mahabharata and Hindu mythology show that great people of wisdom even among butchers like Dhrmavyadha and Tuladhara. We have a saint Vyasa from the fishermen community and a Valmiki from the hunter community!
Long live Hindu Dasyus!

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