Owls in Shakespeare and Hindu Literature (Post No.5693)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 23 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –18-28
Post No. 5693

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

I am adding following points from The Dictionary of Superstitions (year 1989) to my original research article on owls:-
It is interesting to see several cultures have views about owls similar to Hindus. In Hinduism it is mostly associated with death and secret activities. Stories from Panchatantra and Mahabharata adduce proof tp this. At the same time goddess Lakshmi and Chamunda have owl as their Vahanas

I want to add following information to my original article published in 2014
1.Taking owls to Athens is a parallel to the saying Taking coal to New Castle 

2.Theophrastus,319 BCE, says
If an owl is startled by him in his walk, he will exclaim Glory be to Athene!before he proceeds.

3.Ovid, 15 CE, says
The owl of the night sat on an opposite house top and uttered his ill boding funeral voice.
4.Pliny The Elder, 77 CE, in Natural History, says 
Owl seen in day time
The it is looked upon as a direful omen to see it in the city or in the day time.

It is similar to Hindu views. Sanskrit and Tamil literature link owls to crematorium and evil omens.

 

Shakespeare

5.Shakespeare,1595, says in Midsummer Night’s Dream,
Whilst the screitch owle, sctritching loud,
Puts the wretch that lies in woe,
In remembrance of a shrowd 

In 1599, Shakespeare adds in Julius Caesar, adds
Yesterday the Bird of Night did sit,
Even at Noone day, upon the Market place,
Howting and shreeking
……..
I beleeve, they are portentous things Unto the Clymate
That they point upon (an omen of Caesar s death)

Xxx

6.In 1625, Delaney Thomas of Reading , in 1725 Bourne refer to owls and death.
Bourne says in Antiquates Vulgares,
Omens and Prognostications are still in the mouths of all tho only observed by the vulgar. In country places they are in great repute… If an owl , which they reckon a most abominable and unlucky bird, sends forth it’s hoarse and dismal voice it is an omen of the approach of some terrible thing, that some dire calamity… is near at hand.

7.In 1773 White Selborne says
From this screaming probably arose the common people’s imaginary species of screech owl, which they superstitiously think attend s the window s of dying persons.

8.In 1829, Brocket of North country Words
The barn or the white owl has the reputation of being the herald of horror and disaster
In 1841 Hartsthorne writes
The singular cry or scream of this white owl is considered ominous of death.

9.Even in 1967, S Marshal writes in Fenland Chronicle,
If an owl sat on the roof, or flew up against a window at night, that meant a death actually in the house

OWLS : Are they Good or Bad Omens?
Lakshmi and her Vahana Uluka/owl

Written by London Swaminathan
Post No. 1062; Dated 24th May 2014.

Owls are nocturnal birds. They are known as very intelligent and good birds in the Western World. As a symbol of knowledge and of erudition that can see through obscurity, the owl appears in the emblems of educational institutions, book stores and publishing houses. In Greece owls are associated with Goddess Pallas Athena/Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom.

In India and China owls are not liked by the people because of its demonic gaze. They consider them as the harbinger of misfortune. Owls have earned a bird name in Indian mythology and folk lore. People associate their calls with the God of death.

Goddess Lakshmi and Chamunda have owls as their Vahanas. In Judaism, the female night demon Lilith is described in the company of the owl; Mayan death God Hunahau is often depicted with a head like an owl’s.
In the pre –Aztec civilization of ancient Mexico (Teotihuacan), the owl was the sacred animal of the rain god. But Aztecs considered it an evil omen.


Emblem of Birbeck college,London

Owls have negative associations in popular thinking: with their nocturnal habits, solitude, silent flight and plaintive cry they came to symbolize evil and death. Hooting of the owls was regarded an ill omen.

In India the famous fable book Panchatantra has a long story of a fight between the crows and owls. At the end, the owls are burnt with their nests by the clever crows. Indians who practise black magic kill owls during Deepavali to ward off evil or to gain magical powers. Villagers kill owls for their meat thinking that it would cure many diseases.

In the Vedas
“Uluka is the ordinary word for owl from the Rig Veda (10-165-4) onwards. The bird was noted for its cry and was deemed the harbinger of (nairrta) ill fortune (AV 6-19-2;Taittiriya samhita 5-5-18-1;Vajasaneyi samhita 24-38). Owls were offered at the horse sacrifice to the forest trees (Vajasaneyi Samhita 24-23; Maitrayani Samhita 3-14-4)”.
(page 102, Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, A A Macdonell & AB Keith)


Greek Goddess Athena with owl

Narada and owl
Scriptures refer to calls of owls as having the character of songs i.e. one note or or a simple combination of notes repeated at various intervals. Thus the call of the Brown Wood Owl is said to consist of four deep musical syllables, who—hoo—hoo–hoo. There is a story that narrates how sage Narada was advised to learn music from an owl residing near the Manasarovar lake on the Himalayas (Lingapuranam). This shows that the ancient Indians also appreciated the musical calls of the hated bird. (Tamils also had the same belief; see below for more details).

The long eared owl is distinguished by long tufts, usually borne erected and is most probably the ‘sasoluka’ which has served as a model for the face of a particular attendant of Lord Skanda (M.Bh. 9-45-79). One of the Matris of the same deity is said to have a face like that of the sasoluka (ch 30)
(Mayans also had the same description; see above)


University seal with owl.

Crow killing owls
A particular species of owl has the habit of killing crows. ‘Kakolukiya’ section of the Panchatantra describes it in detail. They live in the Himalayan region. They are the species of Dusky Horned Owls. Mahabharata describes them as Pravarakarna and long lived (3-199-4). There is also a reference in the Ramayana. When after a break with Ravana, Vibhishana goes to Rama, the latter’s ally Sugriva warns him against the owl like tactic of the enemy (96-17-19).

Again after seeing this owl work havoc among the crows at night, Aswaththamam decided to kill Pandavas while asleep during the night time ( M.Bh 1-2-296) and the epic gives an interesting description of the bird:
Ulukam ghora darsanam
Mahasvanam mahakayam haryaksham bhabrupidangalam
Sudhirgagonanakaram suparnamiva veginam
Suptanjagana subahun vayasan dayasantaka: (M.Bh.10-1-36)

The Skandapurana also relates the above incident and calls the owl the powerful bearded vulture a (31-44/45)
Page 179 of Birds in Sanskrit Literature by K.N Dave.

Greek Coin with owl

My Comments:

1.It is interesting to note that the Jews and Hindus believed that owls are messengers of death. Sanskrit literature and Sangam Tamil literature associate owls with death (See Tamil Purananuru verses 240, 261,364)

2.It is equally interesting that owl like face of Lord Skanda’s attendant and one of the Matri’s is like Mayan Death God Hunahau, who has owl like face.

3.It is also interesting God Indra is called Uluka and several Rishis have the name Uluka and Kausika ,another name of owl. It is same in Tamil literature, as many of the Sangam age poets have Andhai (owl) attached to their names. Previously it was thought they were from the towns with the name of owl (Andhai). So we can conclude that both the positive and negative notions existed side by side. Otherwise we cannot have many Rishis with the name Uluka, Kausika and many Tamil names like Kukai Koziyaar, Pisiranthaiyaar, Othal andhaiyaar etc.

  1. It is amazing to read that Tamils and their counterparts in the North has the same belief the owls have musical skills.

All these debunk the racist Aryan – Dravidian divisive theories created by foreigners with a motive to stabilise their rule and spread their religion.
We also have various types of demons named after large birds like Uluka (owl), Suparna (Eagle) and Grudhya (RV: 7-104-17)

We can also conclude that Hindus are very good observers of nature. There are lot of references to owls in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Tamil References:
The shriek of the owl in the Nemai tree in the desert tract is like the sound of the smithy (Natrinai 394)
A stanza in Natrinai (verse 83) is an apostrophe to the owl that has its abode in the deep recess of a tree on the bank of the village tank. Its shriek at night is said to be alarming and the lady-companion promises it a fine pleasant dish of meat boiled in ghee and fried flesh of rats if only it kept silent at nights when the hero comes on visit.

One description is of a night bright with the moon light and full of disturbances with the barking of dogs and the hooting of owls (Aka.122)

Owl’s Music


The owl’s harsh hooting is heard like the tune of the instrument called Makuli and seems to have some signification (Aka.351)
(Compare it with Narada learning music from owl :Linga Purana)
Jeevaka Chintamani, one of the Five Tamil Epics, says that the owl emitted sweet music like a lyre. It is in Nachinarkiniyar commentary on the epic.

In a rare reference in the epic, owl is praised as giving a positive message about the hero. But in other places the negative image is projected like other epic Manimegalai where the owl is described as the messenger of death. The oldest section of Sangam Tamil literature associated the bird with death and crematorium (See Purananuru verses 240, 261,364).

Kukai koziyar says that the shrill cry of the owl breaks the eerie silence of the graveyard (Pura.364)
The owl with nocturnal habits living in the burning grounds and other wastelands is said to make the sound ‘’cuttukkuvi ‘’and is imagined to call the dead (Pura. 240)

Owls hoot and keep time to peacock’s dance, says a poet (Aink.291)
Bilo Irudayanath, who has done research with the tribal peoples, says that if an owl sits on top of the hut, they will dismantle the old thatched roof and do a new roof.

Owl has several names in Tamil such as Aandhai,Aandalai, Kuukai, Kuraal, Kutinjai. But some names in Tamil Nigandu/Dictionary have the Sanskrit names Kinnara, Kinnari, Kausika, irudi (Rishi),Uluka and Pingalai. The words Kinnara, Kinnari are linked with musical skills.

Owl who saved Genghis Khan
The arms of the Tartar rulers contain a black night owl in a golden shield, because the first of them, Genghis Khan was saved his life with the help of such a bird. They believed that the barn owl saved his life. When his horse was shot in one of the battles he ran for his life and hid under a bush. His enemies were looking for him. At that time a white owl came and sat on the tree under which he was hiding. They did not even come near that tree thinking that he would definitely not be there. His enemies thought the owl would not have sat there if any man had been hiding under the tree. So owl earned a permanent place in their emblems!

Goddess Lakshmi with Uluka

From Mahabharata

Owl and Crow fight

(8).Uluka (owl) was the name of emissary sent by Duryodhana to tell the Pandavas that their peace proposal is rejected. Seer Kausika (Visvamitra) also means owl. In Tamil also we have many poets with owl name (Pisir Anthai, Othal Anthai). People thought that they are the names of their towns. My view is that they actually mean the bird of wisdom owl, which is the vehicle of Lakshmi and Greek Goddess Athena. In western countries it is a very common logo in the educational institutions.

This confirms my view that most of the tribal names are totem symbols I have already given the names of Tamil poets with frog names like their counterparts in Sanskrit. Tortoise is also the name of several rishis/seers.

Tags– Owl, owls in Shakespeare, Hindu literature, Tamil literature

–SUBHAM–

Where does Lakshmi reside? (Post No.5689)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 22 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –19-15
Post No. 5689

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

Turmeric is a medicinal plant. Turmeric powder has got anti- bacterial properties. Food made with turmeric powder don’t go off quickly. Turmeric was applied on wounds to cure it. Hindu women apply raw turmeric paste on their faces during their bath. This will prevent unwanted hair growth on their faces. In the olden days scholars praised turmeric as one of the auspicious symbols.

Nowadays we believe whatever published in a science journal though the same thing is contradicted  the very next week. ‘A coffee a Day keeps doctor Away’— they publish one story one week. The very next week you read ‘A coffee a day will take you near the grave’. We never go into the details of such research articles, but simply believe them.

In the olden days, scholars attributed all the rules to God so that people wouldn’t challenge them. Turmeric is also given such a holy status due to its medical properties.

Here are some interesting Slokas/couplets on the theme:-
Yadgrham rajate nityam mangalairalepanaihi
Tadgrhe vasate Lakshmihi nityam purnakalanvita

Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth, resides in full, in the house where a woman cleans the house and decorates it with Kolam or Rangoli.

One more sloka adds Lakshmi resides where there is no fight between husband and wife.
Yadgrhe kalaho nasti pujyante yadgrhestithaha
Tadgrhe vasate Lakshmiihi nityam purnakalanvita

Xxx


Married Hindu women are expected to present themselves with auspicious symbols on their faces. The couplets below say that it will increase the life span of their husbands. Now we know tensions can trigger cancer, increase heart attacks and blood pressure. If one of the partners can help in reducing the tension it will naturally help them to live longer. Here are two couplets which describe the auspicious symbols of a woman
Haridra kumkumam chaiva sinduam kajjalam tada
Kurpasakam ca tambulam mangalyabaranai tada

Kesa samskara kabari karakarnadibhushanam
Bharturayushya micchanti dushayenna pativrata

The symbols or the decorations that will help a husband are
Bathing with turmeric paste
Wearing Kunkum and Sinduram
Wearing blouse

applying kohl (black pigment) to eyes
Having supari, betel nuts
Adorning hands, nose, ear with ornaments
Hair do
These are considered good for husband’s life.
Previous post

Lakshmi resides | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/tag/lakshmi-resides

Posts about Lakshmi resides written by Tamil and Vedas. … which lists the places where Lakshmi, … //tamilandvedas.com/2017/01/20/where-does-lakshmi-reside-post-no ..

Tags- Lakshmi, Kolam, Turmeric
— Subham—

 

SRI DEVI AND JESHYTA DEVI IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL (Post No.5675)

 

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 18 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-34
Post No. 5675

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Jyeshta Devi, picture posted by Lalgudi Veda

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar was a great Hindu who authored the most famous didactic work Tirukkural, also called Tamil Veda by his contemporary poets. He praised Vishnu, Shiva but condemned Brahma for creating poverty in the world. he said if one has to beg in this world for living, let Brahma go to hell. He praised Shiva for maintaining equanimity and ecorumeven when his friends asked him to drink the poison to save them. he praised Vamanavatar and Gopi Krishna in other couplets (Kural in Tamil). He mentioned the greatness of Go Mata, Vedic Studies, Brahmins, Deva loka, Arita in innumerable couplets. He begins his book with praise of God using Sanskrit words and ending the book again with Sanskrit words. In fact there is no chapter without Sanskrit word. This shows that he treated both the languages as his two eyes.

Scholars in the past 100 years from V R Ramachadra Dikshitar, V V S Iyer, K V Jagannathan, very recently famous historian Dr R Nagaswamy to many more have shown that he borrowed lot from other great books. Having said that all these scholars praised Thiruvalluvar for hs great skill in assembling so much moral sayings in one single book and that too in the briefest couplet format. We have 1330 couplets under 133 headings. No work in any other language can be compared with this marvellous work of the greatest Tamil poet of ancient times. He stands unique in the world of moral literature.

Here in this article I want to show his praise for Sri Devi, i.e Maha Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth and hiscriticism of her elder sister Mu Devi or Jyeshta in Sanskrit, who is the Goddess of Mis Fortune.

Jyeshta, Goddess of Mis Fortune, bad luck has got her own shrines in several temples in Tamil Nadu. It is strange that Hindus see her as the elder sister of Maha Lakshmi who brings wealth.

Thiru valluvar says,

Goddess of Mis Fortune lives with the indolent and good luck of the Lotus Deity Lakshmi with strenuous strivers- Kural 617

Gambling is the ogress mis fortune. Those who are deluded and swallowed by her, suffer grief, misery and poverty- Kural 936

in both these couplets he used the same word Mukati (Mu Devi, Tamil word for Jyeshta Devi)

In the couplets where he praised Lakshmi, one can interpret it as Lakshmi or Fortune or wealth. But all the ancient commentators take it for Lakshmi.

Another interesting thing is the cognate words in English ,Tamil and Sanskrit for Lakshmi or fortune or prosperity:-

Sri = SIR title in English

Sri=Tiru in Tamil or Seer in Tamil

Sri Dhanam+ Seer or Seedhanam in Tamil

Linguists know very well that

S=T (Eg Sion= Tion)

wherever the tion comes English pronounce it as sion.

More about Jyeshta

The iconography of Jyeshta Deva is itself interesting. Jyeshta  generally means ‘elder’ in Sanskrit. Kashmiris called Shiva Jyeshta Rudra; elder son is called Jyeshta Putra.

Donkey Vahana

Jyeshta, Goddess of Mis fortune, is found in Hindu Puranas. She personifies poverty and is depicted with a  large belly and long nose. She was particularly worshipped in South India. A star—Nakashtra -also named after her (Jyeshta= Kettai in Tamil). This name also has bad connotation in astrology. Jyeshta’s vahana (mount) is ass. She has a banner with crow. In her hands she has arrow, cup, and her other attributes are  blue lotus, staff and hair ornament.

Cicero and Benjamin Franklin

S M Diaz in his English commentary on Tirukkural, adds more information:

The dark elder sister representing misfortune with go with the man of indolence

While the lotus born Lakshmi with reside with the man of industry- Kural/ couplet 617

Cicero is believed to have said somewhere, that Diligence is one virtue that contains in itself all the rest.

Benjamin Franklin said much later, that Diligence is mother of all virtues and certainly of good fortune.

Goddess Lakshmi is praised in couplets 617, 179, 519, 920

As I have mentioned earlier one can interpret the word Thiru as wealth, fortune, prosperity and Lakshmi. We always go by what the ancient interpreters say about it. Ten people wrote commentaries on Tirukkural and only half of them are available now.

Tags:- Jyeshta, Mudevi, Tirukkural, Goddess of mis- fortune

–subham–

HOW TO ACQUIRE WEALTH – THE HINDU WAY

devi by akila

Written by S Nagarajan

Article no. 1724; dated 17 March 2015

Up loaded at 8-25 am London time

By SANTHANAM NAGARAJAN

“The Hindu religion is not only a religion, it is also a philosophy not only religion and philosophy, it is a way of life”, so said the well known English writer Somerset Maugham in his book Points of View.

The Hindu religion shows the way to lead the life successfully. Needless to say, for anybody’s success wealth is important.

The Goddess Mahalakshmi is being worshipped as the promoter of prosperity by Hindus.
Mahalakshmi means the great source of the best in life. It also means ‘worshipful’ and ‘engrossed in appearance’.

devi

Lakshmi also means the thinker of the welfare of the devotees.
Sri and Lakshmi are the two manifestations of Mahalakshmi. Though they are two, yet they are one. The word Sri means luminosity, beauty, reputation, glory, magnanimity, splendor, prosperity and consolation.

In order to acquire wealth, the Hindu way of life suggests to worship Lakshmi every morning after taking bath. The Sri Sukta praises Goddess Lakshmi.

This Sukta forms the chapter two, Varga six of the Khilas appended to Rig Veda. The Rig Veda is the oldest known text of the world. There are fifteen mantras in Sri Sukta.
The Sri Sukta can be recited or those who had not learnt the Sukta can hear recorded audio tapes.

Those who would like to have enormous wealth usefully recite the one hundred eight name of Goddess Lakshmi, every day.

bowl

There is one more secret. If you keep water in a small bowl in the north-east corner of your hall in your home it will remove all negative vibration and pave the way to get the wealth you want. Every morning the water in the bowl should be drained and fresh water should be filled up. The bowl should be kept in the same place every day. Amazing results could be observed within forty eight hours.

The presence of Lakshmi, who is firm and steady, bestows gold, cattle, horses and human beings.

She is seated on a Lotus flower. She is implored to bestow fame and prosperity.
Lakshmi resides where the fragrance of sandal and camphor exists! Those who desire that the goddess Sri should always reside in their family should be pure. The purity is required both mentally and physically!

And hence the dwelling place should always be kept clean.

There are certain symbols associated with welfare, glory, prosperity and worship. They are lotus, elephant, conch, swastika, pot, garments, diamond, crocodile, owl, discus, mace, bullock, wish fulfilling tree or Kalpa tree, jack fruit, armour and a pair of fish. Hence using these symbols appropriately will make Lakshmi’s presence.

The Hindu literature gives details of performing Lakshmi puja or Lakshmi worship.
We will learn more about Lakshmi worship in our next article.

Quotations on Wealth and Fortune

akshaya-tritiya

Good Thoughts Calendar — November 2014
Post No. 1377; Date: 29 October 2014.
Compiled by London Swaminathan ©

30 Sanskrit quotations from Sanskrit texts are given in November calendar.
Important Dates: November 4 Muharram; Auspicious Days: November 2, 9, 12, 13, 21; Full Moon day- 6; New Moon (Amavasya)- 22; Ekadasi – 3, 18.

Quotes are taken from Suktisudha, Chinmya International Foundation.

November 1 Saturday
Amass wealth without straining the body — Manusmrti 4-3
Akléséna sariirasya kurvita dhana sancayam

November 2 Sunday
Never make money by evil means; such money will be snatched away by others – Yuktikalapataru
Adharmaanna dhanam kuryaat tatdhanam grhyaté paraih

November 3 Monday
Earn wealth with vigour — Vikramorvasiya 4 p90
Anirvéda praapyaani sréyaamsi

November 4 Tuesday
Wealth earned unscrupulously will get wasted the same way — Kahavatranakar p.86
Anyaaya arjita vittaanaamkumaargésu vyayó bhavét

November 5 Wednesday
Loss of wealth is due to undertaking tasks without assessing one’s ability — Sisupalavadha 2-94
Ayathaabhalamaarambhó nidaanam ksasyasampadah

RBI

November 6 Thursday
Wealth earned by one is happily enjoyed by another — Kahavatranakar p 102
Anyénópaarjitam vittam sukhamanyaisca bhjyaté

November 7 Friday
Lack of money makes a woman of man and its possession makes a man of woman Mrchakatikam 3, — Carudatta 3-17
Ardhatah prushó naari yaa naari saarthatah pumaan

November 8 Saturday
Friends wary of being asked for money desist from talking – Nitisataka 1-2
Artha praarthanasankayaa na kuruté sambhaasanam vai suhrt

November 9 Sunday
Know wealth as calamitous always — Subashita ratna bhadagara p.2
Arthamanartham bhaavaya nityam

November 10 Monday
Fired by passion for wealth, one regards neither tutor nor kin — Vikramacarita 132
Arthaa turaanaam na guruna bandhuh

currency bundle

November 11 Tuesday
Stable relationships are based on economics – Canakyanitisastra
Arthaadhiina éva niyatasambandhah

November 12 Wednesday
The ways of wealth are transient like autumnal clouds — Katha Sarit Sagara
Arthaanaam saradabhrcalaa gatih

November 13 Thursday
The whole world is one big money maniac — none is dear to none -Panchatantra 1-9
Arthaarthii jiivalókóyam na kascit kasyacit priyah

November 14 Friday
In this world wealth alone is one’s kith and kin Canakyaniti 5-2
Arthó hi looké purusasya bandhuh

November 15 Saturday
The wealthy blabber incoherently like drunkards –Sarngadharapadhdhati 341
Avyaktaani ca bhaasanté dhaninó madyapaa iva

british-1-pound-coins

November 16 Sunday
Wealth distorts the mind –Subashita ratna khandamanjusa p 4
Rddhis citta vikaarinii

November 17 Monday
Like liquor, excessive wealth too deludes — Brhatkatha manjari
Kam vaa naabhibhavaa lakshmiih vaaruniiva vimóhayét

November 18 Tuesday
Saving is duty, but boarding is undesirable Hitopadesa 1-161
Kartavyah sancayó nityam na tu kaaryóti sancayah

November 19 Wednesday
Whom does not wealth corrupt? Brhatkatha manjari
Kasya nónmaadanam dhanam

November 20 Thursday
Of what use is money for an ascetic? Brhatkatha manjari
Kim dhanair agrhasthasya

Pot full of golden coins

November 21 Friday
Who indeed is not satisfied by wealth? —- Subashita ratna bhadagara p 6
Koo na trpyati vitténa

November 22 Saturday
Wealth is ever fickle — Kahavatratnakar p 44
Cancalaa kamala sadaa

November 23 Sunday
Riches accrue through the affection of people —- Subashita ratna bhadagara 3-869
Janaanuraagaprabhavaa hi sampadah

November 24 Monday
Wealth begets wealth — Kahavatratnakar p 150
Dhanaadéva dhanam bhavét

November 25 Tuesday
It is in the minds of the rich alone that sins breed in plenty — Kahavatratnakar p 150
Dhaninaaméva cittésu paapavrttirudétyalam

Background Money

November 26 Wednesday
Wealth increases greed — Bharatmanjari 13-73-998
Dhanéna vardhaté trsnaa

November 27 Thursday
Wealth does not follow the departed soul –Ramayanamanjari 6-2-132
Na tvaatmani gaté vittam purusaananugacchati

November 28 Friday
Neither wealth nor misfortune lasts eternally — Hanumannataka 9-21
Na bhavanti ciram praayah sampadó vipadópi vaa

November 29 Saturday
Wealth resides in the diplomatic and the heroic — Hitopadesa 3-116
Nayé ca sauryé ca vasanti sampadah

November 30 Sunday
The lord is the wealth of the poor — Kahavatratnakar p 67
Nirdhanaanaam dhanam prabhuh.

Pound-Coins-2

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