முஸ்லீம் நாட்டில் துர்கை, அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகள்! (Post No.5242)

WRITTEN by London swaminathan

Date: 21 JULY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 9-24 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5242

 

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உலகிலேயே மிகப்பெரிய முஸ்லீம் நாடு இந்தோநேஷியா. இங்கே 1500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு இந்துக்களின் ஆட்சி நடந்தது. இப்பொழுது இது பற்றி நிறைய புதிய தகவல்கள் வெளியாகி வருகின்றன. நான் மூன்று புஸ்தகங்களில் இருந்து தொகுத்து ஆங்கிலத்தில் எழுதிய நீண்ட கட்டுரையின் முக்கிய அம்சங்களை மற்றும் குறிப்பிடுகிறேன்.

 

இந்தோ நேஷியாவின் ஜாவா, சுமத்ரா, போர்னியோ, பாலி தீவுகள் நான்கிலும் ஏராளமான ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகள், ஜாவனிய கல்வெட்டுகள் உள்ளன. அவற்றிலிருந்து பல தகவல்கள் கிடைக்கின்றன.

சண்டி என்று துவங்கும் ஊர்ப்பெயர்கள் அனைத்தும் துர்க்கையின் பெயரில் அமைந்தவை. இங்குள்ள துர்க்கை இரு வடிவங்களில் காணப்படுகின்றன. எருமை அசுரனை வதைக்கும் மஹிஷாசுர மர்தினி கோலம்,  சோழர் கோவிலில் சாதாரணமாக நிற்பது போன்ற கோலம்.

 

துர்க்கை பற்றிப் பல கல்வெட்டுகள் உள; அவைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். பழங்கால கல்வெட்டுகளில் துர்க்கையின் சாபம் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. யாரேனும் அரசன் கொடுத்த தானத்தை கபளீகரம் செய்தாலோ ஊறு விளைவித்தாலோ துர்க்கா தேவி அவனைத் தண்டிப்பாள் என்று பொருள்படும் கல்வெட்டுகள் உள.

 

பிற்காலத்தில் வெற்றி வரம் தரும் தேவி என்று போற்றப்படுகிறாள்.

இதே போல அகஸ்தியர் சிலைகளும் இரு வகைப்படும். ஒன்று ரிஷி முனிவர்கள் போல ஜடாமுடியுடன் காட்சி தரும் கோலம்; மற்றொன்று தலைப்பாகை கட்டிய கோலம்.

 

மற்றொரு விநோதம்- பிரம்மாண்டமான பீமன் சிலைகளாகும். பஞ்ச பாண்டவர்களில் மல்யுத்த வீரனான பீமனின் பெரிய சிலைகள் உள. இவைகளில் சிலவற்றைப் பைரவன் என்று கருதுவோரும் உண்டு. பெரிய ஆண் உறுப்புகளைச் சொருகி வைக்கும்படி சிலைகள் வடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன. இதுவும் ஒரு தனி அம்சம்.

 

பிராஹ்மணர் ஆதிக்கம்

மிகப் பழங் காலத்திலேயே தமிழ் நாட்டுப் பிராஹ்மனணர்கள் யாக யக்ஞங்களுக்கு அழைக்கப்பட்டதும் தெரிகிறது. பழைய  கல்வெட்டுகள் பல்லவ கிரந்தம் போன்ற எழுத்துக்களில் உள்ளன. ஆரம்ப கால மன்னர்களின் பெயர்களும் பல்லவர் போல வர்மன் பெயரிலேயே உள்ளன.

 

மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டு முதல் தகவல் கிடைக்கிறது. மூல வர்மன் என்ற மன்னன் பஹு சுவர்ணக யாகம் செய்து பிராஹணர்களுக்குத் தங்கம் மற்றும் 20,000 பசு மாடுகள் தானம் செய்த செய்தி ஏழு ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத கல்வெட்டுகளில் உள்ளன. அவர்கள் தானம் பெற்ற பின்னர் யூப ஸ்தம்பங்களில் இதைப் பொறித்துள்ளனர்.

 

யூபம் என்ற ரிக் வேத ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத சொல் புறநானூற்றில் இரண்டு பாடல்களிலும் அதன் தமிழ் ஆக்கமான வேள்வித்தூணம் என்பது வேறு இரண்டு சங்கப் பாடல்களிலும் வருவதை ஏற்கனவே எழுதிவிட்டேன்.

மூல வர்மனின் தந்தை பெயர் அஸ்வ வர்மன். மற்றொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் பெயர் பூர்ண வர்மன்.

 

மூலவர்மன் யாகம் நடத்திய புனித பூமியின் பெயர் வப்ரகெசவ. இது போர்னியோவின் அடர்ந்த காட்டுக்குள் இருந்தது; 70 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் மனிதர்களின் காலடி படாத கன்னி பூமிக்குள் நுழைகிறோம் என்று ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள் உள்ளே நுழைந்த போது அதிசயமான பிராஹ்மண வேள்வித் தூண்களைக் கண்டு அசந்து போனார்கள்.

 

பூர்ணவர்மனின் பெயர் பொறித்த கற்கள் நிறைய கிடைக்கின்றன. ஒரு கல் ஆற்றோடையில் கிடந்தது. மற்றொரு பெரிய பாறையில் அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகள் பொறிகப்பட்டுள்ளன. பெரியோர்களின் காலடிச் சுவடுகளைப் பதித்து வணங்குவது இந்து மரபு. அவனது காலடிச் சுவடுகளை விஷ்ணு பதம் என்று போற்றும் கல்வெட்டுக ளும் கிடைத்தன. அவனை உலகத்துக்கே ஆதாரம் என்றும் கல்வெட்டுகள் போற்றுகின்றன.

பூர்ண வர்மனின் தலைநகருக்குப் பெயர் தர்ம நகரம்; இது இப்போதைய இந்தோநேஷிய தலை நகரம் ஜாகர்த்தாவுக்கு அருகில் இருந்தது.

 

 

சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்திலும் மன்னனை, மநு சொன்னது போல, தெய்வமாகவே பார்த்தனர். இறைவன் என்பது மன்னனுக்கும் கடவுளுக்கும் கோயில் என்பது அரண்மனைக்கும் கடவுளின் இருப்பிடத்துக்கும் பயிலப்பட்டன.

 

சீன யாத்ரீகன் பாஹியான் பல சுவையான செய்திகளை அள்ளித் தெளிக்கிறான். “நான்  பொது ஆண்டு 414 ஆம் ஆண்டில் கப்பலைத் தள்ளும் காற்று துவங்கும் நாளுக்காக ஜாவாவில் தங்கியிருந்தேன்; இங்கு பிராஹ்மண மதம் கொடிகட்டிப் பறக்கிறது. புத்த மதம் பரிதாப நிலையில் உள்ளது” என்று பௌத்தன் (பாஹியான்) எழுதியுள்ளான். சீனாவுக்கு விரைந்து செல்ல காற்றின் திசைக்காக பாஹியான் காத்திருந்த போது கொடுத்த செய்தி இது.

 

தமிழர்களுக்கு பருவக் காற்றின் ரஹஸியம் தெரியும்; அந்தக் காற்று வீசத்துவங்கும் நாளில் புறப்பட்டால் இலங்கையிலிருந்து பாட்னா (பீஹார்) வந்து சேர ஏழே நாட்கள் போதும் அசோக மாமன்னனின் தூதுக்குழு இப்படி வந்த செய்தி மஹாவம்ஸத்தில் உளது ( எனது முந்தைய ஆராய்ச்சிக் கட்டுரைகளில் விவரம் காண்க)

 

இன்னொரு முக்கிய மன்னன் உதயணனுக்கும் மஹேந்திர தத்தாவுக்கும் பிறந்த மகன் ஐர்லங்கா ஆவான். ஆனக வாஞ்சன் என்பவன் காலத்தில் 27 கல்வெட்டுகள் வெளியாகின.

 

தமிழைப் பொறுத்த வரையில் சுமத்ராவில் ஒன்றும் மலேசியாவில் இரண்டுமாக மூன்று கல்வெட்டுகள் கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்டன. இவை 1000 ஆண்டுப் பழமை உடையவை. ஆனால் ஸம்ஸ்க்ருதக் கல்வெட்டுகள் ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேலாக (தென் கிழக்காஸிய நாடுகளில்) கிடைத்திருக்கின்றன.

 

தமிழ் சொற்களின் ரஹஸிய அர்த்தம்

வியட்நாம் நாட்டில் (சம்பா) கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்ட மிகப் பழைய கல்வெட்டு பாண்டியன் திருமாறன் என்பவனின் கல்வெட்டு ஆகும் ( நான் 1990-களில் லண்டன் “மேகம்” பத்திரிக்கையில் எழுதிய “வியட்நாமை ஆண்ட பாண்டியன்” என்ற கட்டுரையில் முழு விவரம் உளது; கண்டு மகிழக)

 

கடலுள் மாய்ந்த இளம்பெரும் வழுதி என்ற புறநானூற்றுப் பாண்டிய மன்னன் இந்திரன் அமுதம் பற்றி எழுதிய பாடல் ( 182) மிகவும் பிரஸித்தம். அவன் ஏன் கடலில் செத்தான்? தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளுக்குக் கப்பலில் செல்லும் போது புயலில் மாண்டான். அதை மறக்காமல் தமிழனின் பெருமையை உலகிற்குப் பறைசாற்ற புறநானூற்றைத் தொகுத்தளித்த மஹாதேவன் என்ற புலவனும் (தமிழில் பெருந்தேவன்) அப்படியே நமக்குக் “கடலுள் மாய்ந்த” என்ற பெயரைக் கொடுத்துச் சென்றார்.

 

கடல் சுவற வேல் விட்ட பாண்டியன் என்று திருவிளையாடல் புராணத்தில் ஒரு கதை உண்டு. கடலில் இருந்து நிலத்தை மீட்ட ‘நிலம் தரு வில் பாண்டியன்’ , பரஸுராமர் பற்றிய குறிப்புகளும் உண்டு. இதன் தாத்பர்யம்- அவர்கள் எல்லாம் கடலின் சீற்றத்துக்கு அஞ்சாது வில் தாங்கிய படைகளுடன் சென்று, தென் கிழக்காசிய நாடுகளில் இந்து தர்மத்தை நிலை நாட்டினர் என்பதாகும்.

 

பொது ஆண்டு 385-ல் போர்னியோ காட்டுக்குள் தமிழ் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் யாகம் செய்ய, மூலவர்மன் அழைப்பில் சென்றிருந்தால் அதற்கு முன்னதாகவே தமிழ் மன்னர் ஆட்சி அங்கு இருந்திருக்க வேண்டும். அது மட்டுமல்ல. சாதவாஹனர் என்ற பிராஹ்மண மன்னர்களின் காசுகளில் கப்பல் படமும் உள்ளது இவர்கள் 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் ஆண்டவர்கள்.

மேலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷி என்ற தமிழ் பிராஹ்மண ரிஷியின் சிலைகள் பல நாடுகளில் கிடைப்பதும் திருஞான சம்பந்தரின் கோத்ரமான கௌண்டின்ய கோத்ரப் பிராஹ்மணர்கள் நாக ராணியைக் கல்யாணம் செய்துகொண்ட தென்கிழக்காஸிய நாட்டுக் கதைகளும் இதற்குச் சான்று பகரும்.

 

ஆக, தென்னக மன்னர்களும் பிராஹ்மணர்களும் முதலில் அங்கே காலடி எடுத்து வைத்தற்கு பல்லவர் எழுத்துக்களும் தமிழ் இலக்கியமும் உறுதுணையாய் நிற்கின்றன.

 

கட்டுரையில் காணப்படாத விஷயங்களை ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரையிலும் , இணைக்கப்பட்ட படங்களிலும் கண்டு மகிழ்க. 1920 ஆம் ஆண்டு டச்சு மொழி நூலில் இருந்து எடுக்கப்பட்ட அரிய புகைப்படங்களும் அடக்கம்.

 

அகஸ்தியர் கடலைக் குடித்தார் என்று புராணங்கள் சொல்லும். அகத்ஸ்யர் கடலைத் தாண்டி தென் கிழக்காஸியாவுக்குப் போனார் என்று அர்த்தம்.

 

இந்தோநேஷியாவில் துர்க்கை சிலையை வட புற சந்நிதிகளிலும் அகஸ்த்ய ரிஷியின் சிலையைத் தென்புறங்களிலும் வைத்துள்ளனர் வடக்கில் இமய மலையில் இருந்த அகஸ்த்யரை தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் உருவாக்க சிவ பெருமான் அனுப்பிய கதை புராணங்கள் முதல் பாரதியார் பாடல் வரை உள்ளது அவர் தென் புறத்துக்கு வந்ததைச் சிறப்பிக்கும் முகத்தான் தென் வானத்தில் ஒளிரும் மிகப் ப்ரகாஸமான நக்ஷத்ரத்துக்கு அகஸ்த்ய நக்ஷத்ரம் என்றும் பெயர் சூட்டினர். அதன் அருகில் த்ரிஸங்கு சொர்கம் எனப்படும் நக்ஷத்ரத் தொகுதியைக் காணலாம்.

–சுபம்—

 

 

Ganesh and Navagraha in Japan!! (Post No.5125)

Compiled by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

 

Date: 18 JUNE 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  16-26  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5125

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

Those who are interested in the ancient history of India and Japan must buy Lokesh Chandra’s book

‘Cultural Interflow Between Indian and Japan’ (published by International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi, 2014) It is in A 4 size with lots of pictures an diagrams. It contains lot of information which is not known to the outside world. Mr Lokesh Chandra and his father Dr Raghuvira are renowned scholars and authority on Indo- Japanese relations of ancient periods.

 

I am going to give you some interesting information only in bullet points; for full information one must read the book.

Mahbaharata in the Kabuki Theatre

The well known kabuki drama Naru-kami is derived from the legend of Rsyasrnga known in Japanese as Ikkaku Sennin, that is Ekasrnga. The whole legend has been translated from Chinese into French by Edouard Chavanes. Hsuan tsang mentions a hermitage in Gandhara where Ekasrnga lived near the foot hills of Swat mountains

Homa and Homa Kundas in Japan

Goma (homa in Sanskrit) is lit in metallic vessel on a wooden altar. A ninth century scroll in the Toji monastery has different homa altars for the worship of planets (Nava Graha) and 28 constellations (naksatra- isti). This Goma- ro – dan -yo scroll has coloured illustrations of the planets, constellations and their altars. Goma is the esoteric fire, the calm and the fury of the ritual rhythms in the cosmic counterpoint of invocations with Sanskrit mantras.

Gigantic Rock with Sanskrit hieronym

Along a road stands an oval rock about ten feet high on flat roundish base of another rock, with the Sanskrit monogram RO. Sanskrit letters implying deeper levels. A modern Japanese girl in mini, her hair dyed blonde and perhaps with a styrene injection for a round feminine form, stops by, graciously puts a tangerine on a piece of paper, as an offering to the planets. RO is the symbolic syllable of the Biijaakshara for Nava Graha Puja (Nava Graha= Nine Planets). Such are the frozen levels of culture ever echoing at different strata of existence and consciousness.

Bugaku and Gigaku

Bugaku and Gigaku dances are performed on the occasion of the Great Consecration ceremony at the Todaiji temple. Indian cultural influence is very easily recognised in bugaku’s structure. For instance one of the popular stories of Bugaku is the Bali Dance, which reproduces Ramayana’s famous story of the fight between Vali and Sugriva in the Kishkinda forest.

Gigaku, introduced twelve centuries ago, reproduces Indian legendary stories. Gigaku was also performed at the Great Buddha Consecration ceremony and moved spectators to laughter. Gikaku, masked comical dance, was believed to have been very popularly performed at the Todaji and other temples in Nara in those times.

 

Biwa= Veena

The largest lake in Japan, Lake Biwa,  is named after its close resemblance to the shape of a biwa. Thus, the Indian Viina, became the origin of Japan’s largest lake.

Buddhism in Japan

In 552 CE, the monarch of Paekche (Kudara/Korea) presented a gilt bronze image of Saakyamuni, Sutras, banners and umbrellas to the Japanese emperor Kimmei. The emperor replied that, “never from former days until now have we had the opportunity of listening to so wonderful a doctrine”.

Korea sent monks, a nun, a Buddhist image maker and an architect to the Japanese emperor in 577.

In 584, a stone image of Maitreya was brought from Paekche.

Dharmabodhi

Indian monk Dharmabodhi (Hoodoo) came via China and settled in Hokkezan.

The Brahmin Archbishop

Floating in a sea of verdant woods in the golden ornament of the imposing roof of the Daibutsu-den “Hall of the Great Buddha” of the Todaiji temple. It enshrines the Viraat Rupa of Rocana, in the form of a gigantic statue, in the national temple eighth century Japan. Emperor Shomu had vowed to raise this statue to a height of 48 feet to symbolise the power of the profane and profound. Twelve years and immense materials were spent in casting the Daibutsu.

 

on 9th April 752 it was consecrated in a sumptuous ceremony, which was presided over by Bodhisena, the first historic Indian to have visited Japan. He was a Brahmin of Bharadvaja Gotra. Inspired by Manju Sri, he went to China to Wutai shan mountains sacred to Manju sri. At Imperial invitation, he arrived in Japan in 736 CE where he was warmly welcomed. The people knew him as the Baramon(Brahmin) Archbishop. He attained Samadhi on 25 February 760.

 

In Todaiji temple consecrated by the Brahmin Archbishop, we can view an expressive range of Nara sculptures of Brahma, Indra, Four Lokapaalass, Surya, Candra, Sarasvati and Sri Mahaadevi. Among them is a Krishna like figure playing the flute.

 

In front of the Great Hall of Buddha stands the eighth century octagonal bronze lantern adorned with musicians.

 

Largest Buddha statue in the largest wooden building is found here.

 

Bodhisena had rescued a  monk shipwrecked in the ocean on his way to China. This monk came to Japan along with him where he received a cordial welcome from monk Gyogi and was taken to the capital Nara in 736. His name was Buttestu (Buddhasthira??) He introduced music from his native land of Champa. He introduced Hindu- Buddhist music dances and dramas in Sanskrit.

 

Indian Cotton

Praajnaa (born 744 CE) was a monk from Kapisa who had studied at Nalanda University. In 781 he went to China and translated several Sutras. His writings in palm leaves were brought to Japan

 

In 799 an Indian was washed ashore somewhere in the Makawa province. A young man of twenty years, with nothing to cover his body except a straw coat and short drawers, he was stranded in a country where none understood him. Years later when he became conversant with Japanese, he said that he had come from India. He had seeds of cotton with him. He lived at the Kawadera temple at Nara. Two ancient chronicles Nihon -koki, and Ruiju-kokushi mention that he introduced the cultivation of cotton which became the most important clothing material. The Japanese words WATA or HATA for cotton are derived from Sanskrit ‘Pata’.

Ka, ka, ki, ki, ko, ku

 

India and Japan drink from common springs of culture. I go to children’s school and hear the Goju-on

a i u e o

ka ki ke, ke ko

It reminds me of my childhood when I recited, in like manner, the syllabary

Ka, Kaa, Ki, Kii, Ku, Kuu, Ke Kai …..

The Japanese language is written in the kana syllabary along with Kanji or Chinese characters. The kanji unites India and Japan at the deepest levels.

A Japanese child recites the IROHA poem, which has all the fifty sounds of the alphabet and every syllable occurs only once It is called Citrakaavya in  Sanskrit.

When many decades have passed, the child now matured, realises that he had sung impermanence in the IROHA, as he saw the cherry blossoms fade and fly away. It is a free translation of the Sanskrit poem.

 

One of the greatest poems in Japanese language, it was inspired by the Sanskrit work, Mahapari nirvana Sutra. To this day every Japanese child begins his education with this IROHA poem. Japan has preserved this stanza in original Sanskrit. It has been lost in India.

Ganesh Temples in Edo

The German doctor Phillip Franz von Siebold lived in Edo, Japan during he years 1823-28. He wrote Pantheon von Nippon (1832). He notes that Ganapati was popular among the masses in the Edo period, and there were several temples. The area is known as  Shoten Choo, Ganapati Township, to this day. I visited the Ganapati Temple Shotengu in the frequented area of Asakusa.  In 1970 I saw a huge gathering of young boys and girls who had come to pray for success in their courtship as he is Nandikesvara (Kangiten). Senior people too thronged for all kinds success.

There were 131 shrines to Sarasvati. The German text deserved to be translated into English to get vivid picture of vibrant Buddhism in Edo. In 1836 a shrine to Varuna was consecrated to prevent typhoons. The Japanese worshipped Indra for long life, Brahma to succeed in Imperial service, Varuna for rain, Garuda to cure poisoning and Mahaa  kaala (Good Time) for good business and for victory in war. Japan has the oldest functioning temple of Ganapati in the world.

 

 

My comments

The book by Lokesh Chandra has about 400 pages. It is an encyclopaedia on Indo-Japanese Cultural Links. If I give all the information in the book, it will be a gross violation of copyright rules. Everyone must buy the book and read it.

 

After reading the book, I feel Japan is a fertile field for spreading Hinduism. There we see a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.

 

 

 

 

Enku made 100,000 Chip Buddhas (see my article posted yesterday)

–Subham–

 

 

Brahmin Power in South East Asian Countries- (Post No 5095)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 10 JUNE 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  9-46 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5095

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

Brahmin Power in Cambodia ,Thailand Burma and Vietnam

(Campa)- Post No 5095

 

n Cambodia, Brahmins maintained powerful hierarchy for many centuries. They were well organised. They came there around fifth century and increased in number due to a constant flow of immigrants from India. During the reign of Yasovarman 889 CE, Saivism was predominant. We learn from the following inscription that they enjoyed a position similar to that which was theirs in India.

 

The king,well versed in kingly duties, performed Koti Homa and Yajnas, for which he gave the priest s magnificent presents of jewels, gold etc.

 

The cult of the Royal God, though founded by Jayavarman II, 802 CE, did not reach the heights of its development until two centuries after wards, and was especially associated with Vaishnavism and the temple of Angkor Wat. This cult led Brahmins enjoying even more exalted position . The priest hood became hereditary in the family of Sivakaivalya, who enjoyed immense power. This sacerdotal dynasty almost threw the royal dynasty into the shade. Brahmins were depicted on the reliefs of Angkor Wat and Coedes has identified Drona and Visvamitra amongst them. In one of the relief s which illustrates a royal procession, it is interesting that the Brahmins were the only onlookers who do not prostrate before the king, as was also the case in India. In the reliefs aristocracy wear the chignon and the lower castes short hair.

One remarkable sign of the power of the Brahmins was that they had even marriage alliances with the princesses. Bakus, the descendants of ancient Brahmins, chose one from them to succeed if the royal family failed.

 

As early as the reign of Jayavarman V, Buddhism and Hinduism got mixed and the Brahmin purohitas were expected to be well versed in Buddhist prayers and rites. But the Brahmin s of Cambodia never sank so low as did those of Campa (modern Vietnam). In the Po Nagar inscription of Campa, we read that the feet of the king were worshiped,even by Brahmins and priests.

 

 

In Thailand

 

Though the religion of Thailand was Buddhism the royalty recruited Brahmin s from Cambodia. For centuries Brahmin s enjoyed quite an important position.

The famous inscription dated about 1361 CE of King Dharma Raja mentioned the kings knowledge of the Vedas and of astronomy. The inscription on the Siva statue found at Kamben bejra recorded the desire of King Dharmasokaraja,(1510 CE), to exalt both Hinduism and Buddhism.

 

Brahmins had access to sacred books and law books and so they served the royal s in various capacities. The epigraph ic records demonstrate the powerful influence of purohitas in Burma and Cambodia, where they often served under successive rulers and provided continuity to the government in troubled times. In ninth century Angkor, for instance, Indravarman I had the service of Sivasoma, who studied VedantA under Shankara.

 

Indian Brahmins are occasionally mentioned in the south East Asian inscription s and one wondered how Brahmins travelled abroad when Manu and other lawmakers ban foreign travel for Brahmins. These prohibitions may have had little practical effect, and would n of have deterred ambitious men lured by the hope of honour and fortune in a distant land. In fact they were invited by some rulers.

 

Not only in the Hindu courts in Cambodia but also in the courts of Pagan in Burma and Sukothai in Thailand, the Brahmins conducted great ceremonies,such as the Royal Consecration and-functioned as ministers and counsellors . The grand ceremony in Pagan required the services of numerous Brahmins.

 

In Cambodia Jayavarman VIII built a temple for the scholar priest Jayamangalaartha and likewise for the Brahmin Vidyesavid. Who became Royal sacrificial Priest. The Chinese visitor Chou Ta kuan refers to the presence of Brahmins wearing sacred thread.

 

We have evidence of use of Sanskrit even in Sri Lanka. Thirteenth century work Kundamala was composed in Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, according to some scholars.

 

Source: Source books- From Turfan to Ajanta, Edited by Eli Franco and Monika Zin, Lumbini International Research Institute, Nepal;2010

 

–Subham–

36 YEAR VEDIC STUDY & EIGHT TYPES OF MARRAIAGES IN MANU (Post No.5081)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

 

Date: 6 JUNE 2018

 

 

Time uploaded in London – 16-31

 

Post No. 5081

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU

 

36 YEAR VEDIC STUDY & EIGHT TYPES OF MARRAIAGES IN MANU (Post No.5081)

 

Let us continue our study of Manu Smrti; We have already finished first two chapters out of the 12 chapters. Now look at the salient features of first 44 slokas/couplets in the Third chapter.

 

My Comments

The interesting points are….

1.Brahmins studied the Vedas for 36 years or 18 or 9 years; If it is three Vedas it took 36 years. Now we know the surnames such as Trivedi, Chaturvedi, Dwivedi mean study of three Vedas, or four Vedas or two Vedas. Those who are born in those families still keep those surnames. In Tamil Nakkirar, author of Tiru Murugatrup Padai said to have mastered the Vedas in 48 years. Indra advised one sage that he cant even finish the Vedas in three lifetime.’ what we learnt is of the size of a stone and what we have not learnt is the size of earth’ is a saying that came of the story. Each one studied only one ‘shaka’ i.e. branch from each Veda. Vedas has over thousand shakas/branches in the ancient days.

 

2.Coming to marriages, Manu wants one to choose a girl with good name, good body marks (samudrika Lakshnam). It is strange Manu bans girls with Nakshatra/Stars and Rivers’ names. Now a days it is common to see Ganga, Narmada, Sindhu, Kavei Swati, Krithika, Asvini, Bharani etc.

3.Gait of Hamsa or Elephant for a girl is typical Indian. It is found through out Tamil and Sanskrit literature. All these show our culture is indigenous not imported from outside the country.

 

4.Eight Types of marriages is also found in oldest Tamil book Tolkaappiam and other books. We see plenty of examples in Mahabharata, Ramayana and other scriptures for these types of marraiges.

5.Love marriage is known as Gandharva marriage.

  1. Manu discusses second marriage and so it was in practice in the ancient times. The inter-caste marriages also were in vogue from the days of epics.

 

7.Another interesting point is neither Swayamvaram marriage of Kshatriays nor eight different types of marriages were practised in any other culture ouside India. This is another proof that the Hindu culture originated and developed in this country. No one came from outside.

 

8.The study of Vedas or study of any other subject under Gurukula for 48 years also unique to Hindus. This is also another proof that the sons of the soil developed the culture here. No one came from outside. The use of water for marriages, boons, curses, rituals also show that this is a tropical culture.

9.Talking about 100 years life (decimal number) is also typical Vedic and not found in any other culture. One more proof to show that this culture evolved here in Bharat.Decimal system is found in every chapter of the Vedas.

 

  1. There is a reference to other Smrtis. If it is not an interpolation, we come to know Manu Smrti is not the only smrti that was followed in his times. If it is true one cannot blame the society only on the basis of Manu Smrti. When people were given choices, no one can find fault with Manu for certain slokas or rules.

11.Some of the rites (see 44) were not followed anywhere in India as far as we know. So Manu Smrti must be very ancient and later enlarged with more couplets. Particularly the slokas about the fourth caste- Shudra might have been later interpolations.

  1. The Hindu society was very health conscious. Manu warns about some diseases and advised people not to marry form those families.

 

xxx

THIRD CHAPTER OF MANAVA DHARMA

3-1. The vow of studying the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time (18 YEARS), or for a quarter (9 YEARS), or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them.

  1. A student who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the rules of studentship, shall enter the order of householders.
  2. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with the present of a cow and the honey-mixture/MADHUPARKA.

WHO TO MARRY?

3-4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana the rite on returning home, a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious bodily marks.

  1. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, is recommended to twice-born men for wedlock and conjugal union.
  2. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,

NO DISEASES OR THICK BODY HAIR OR RED HAIR

 

3-7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.

  1. Let him not marry a maiden with reddish hair, nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair on the bod) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red eyes,

 

NO RIVER NAME!! NO STAR NAME!!

3-9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.

GAIT OF HAMSA

3-10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.

  1. But a prudent man should not marry a maiden who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter and in the latter lest he should commit sin.

 

SECOND MARRIAGE

3-12. For the first marriage of twice-born men wives of equal caste are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed to marry again the following females, chosen according to the direct order of the castes, are most approved.

  1. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone can be)the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste the wives of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste the wives of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste the wives of a Brahmana.
  2. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any ancient story as the first wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the greatest distress.
  3. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.

 

OTHER SMRTIS/ LAW BOOKS!!!

3-16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).

  1. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will ( after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.
  2. The manes and the gods will not eat the offerings of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a LOW CASTE wife’s assistance, and such a ma) will not go to heaven.
  3. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.

 

EIGHT TYPES OF MARRIAGES

3-20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

  1. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).
  2. Which is lawful for each caste/ varna and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.
  3. One may know that the first six according to the order followed above are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.
  4. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa rite in the case of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.
  5. But in these Institutes of the sacred law three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.
  6. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.
  7. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.

GIFT OF DAUGHTER/ KANYAA DAANAM

3-28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

  1. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.
  2. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, ‘May both of you perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.
  3. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.

LOVE MARRIAGE

3-32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

  1. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.
  2. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.

 

USE OF WATER

3-35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by a libation of water; but in the case of other castes it may be performed by the expression of mutual consent.

  1. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.

TEN GENERATIONS (decimal system)

3-37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.

  1. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).
  2. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).

100 YEARS LIFE! (Decimal System)

3-40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.

  1. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.
  2. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).
  3. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).

STRANGE RITES

3-44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the bridegroom’s garment.

 

to be continued…………

–SUBHAM–

MANU’S PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES TO AVOID SEX ABUSE (Post No.5046)

COMPILED by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 25 May 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  15-29

 

Post No. 5046

 

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Manu was a great genius; he thought of possible loopholes which may be used for sex abuse. He says respect your teacher’s son but don’t touch him. You can do massaging or shampooing to your aged Guru and but not to his son even if he sits in the teacher’s seat.

The amazing thing about Manu Smrti is that he knww the human psychology thoroughly and discusses it in a very refined way; not using vulgar words.

You can respect your mother and sister, but never ever sit alone with the women. He knows that one in a million can go wrong. Apart from that, sister may be cousins; mothers may be step mothers or sisters of mothers.

Durga Sapta Sati says ‘Jnaninaam api chetami Devi Bhagavati hi sa balad aksrushya mohaya’……………. (Even saints will be falter if Goddess decides to attract one into illusionary pleasures)

 

ॐ ज्ञानिनामपि चेतांसि देवी भगवती हि सा।
बलादाकृष्य मोहाय महामाया प्रयच्छति॥१॥

He talks about Guru Dakshina (Fees to Guru during convocation) and advised to do it according to one’s ability. Manu was a practical man. With the original gems of Manu Smrti lot of gem like stones are also mixed up. So one must be careful to get rid of the chaff from the grains.

Since Manu talks about Sarasvati River and not saying anting about some later customs like Sati, he must have live during the Vedic times. Later many things were added for good or bad.

 

In the continuation of second chapter please see the highlights:-

Showing respect to Low caste women (2-210)

Learning from Low cate people (2-241)

Treating Teacher’s son (2-209)

Spending time with women (2-215)

Students’ Hair Style (2-219)

What is good?  (2-224)

Respect three people (2-225)

 

 

Manu Smrti Second Chapter (about Vedic School Students)

continued………………

 

2-206. This is likewise ordained as his constant behaviour towards other instructors in science, towards his relatives to whom honour is due, towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.

2-207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher’s relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.

  1. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father’s stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of the science of sacrifices or of other branches/Angas, deserves the same honour as the teacher.

 

DON’T TOUCH TEACHER’S SON

2-209. A student must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher’s son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.

  1. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation.
  2. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.
  3. A pupil who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet.
  4. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.
  5. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.

 

DON’T SIT WITH WOMEN

2-215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.

  1. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, ‘I, N. N., (worship thee, O lady).’
  2. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher’s wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.
  3. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher.

 

STUDENT’S HAIR STYLE

2–219. A student may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he lies asleep in the village.

  1. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it that he offended intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the next day, muttering (the Savitri).
  2. For he who lies sleeping, while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform that penance, is tainted by great guilt.
  3. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.

 

LOW CASTE MEN

2-223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything leading to happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as any other permitted act in which his heart finds pleasure.

  1. Some declare that the chief good consists in the acquisition of spiritual merit and wealth, others place it in the gratification of desire and(the acquisition of wealth, others in the acquisition of spiritual merit alone, and others say that the acquisition of wealth alone is the chief good here below; but the correct decision is that it consists of the aggregate of those three.

 

RESPECT THE THREE!

2-225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).

  1. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.
  2. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.
  3. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield).
  4. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.
  5. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.

 

THREE PEOPLE= THREE FIRES

  1. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.

(These three fires are 3 different fire places in a Brahmin’s House; 2000 year old Tamil Sangam literature praises Brahmins as the Worshipers of Three Fires)

  1. He who neglects not those three, even after he has become a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.
  2. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.
  3. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.
  4. As long as those three live, so long let him not independently perform any other meritorious acts; let him always serve them, rejoicing to do what is agreeable and beneficial to them.
  5. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.
  6. By honouring these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other act is a subordinate duty.
  7. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family.
  8. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe a lesson in good conduct, and even from an impure substance gold.
  9. Excellent wives, learning, the knowledge of the law, the rules of purity, good advice, and various arts may be acquired from anybody.

LEARNING FROM LOW CASTE PEOPLE

2-241. It is prescribed that in times of distress a student may learn the Veda from one who is not a Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve such a teacher, as long as the instruction lasts.

  1. He who desires incomparable bliss in heaven shall not dwell during his whole life in the house of a non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas.
  2. But if a student)desires to pass his whole life in the teacher’s house, he must diligently serve him, until he is freed from this body.
  3. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman.

GURU DAKSHINA (Student’s Fees)

2-245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before the Samavartana/ convocation; but when, with the permission of his teacher, he is about to take the final bath, let him procure a present for the venerable man according to his ability,

  1. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, even vegetables, and thus give pleasure to his teacher.
  2. A perpetual student must, if his teacher dies, serve his son provided he be endowed with good qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher.
  3. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing by day and sitting during the night, and thus finish his life.
  4. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world.

–subham–

 

 

 

TAMIL BRAHMINS IN THAILAND (Post No.5004)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 12 May 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 13-0 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5004

 

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Satya Vrat Shastri of Delhi University gives very interesting details of Tamil Brahmins settled in Thailand, probably 1000 years ago. They still recite the famous Tiruppavai of Andal and Tiruvempavai of Manikka vasagar, the Tamil saints who lived 1500 years ago. Though the Brahmins  speak only Thai language now, they still do the Tamil poems. Buddhism is the main religion of Thailand now; but Hinduism and Sanskrit are at all levels of the society.

 

Now I give below some facts about the Brahmins in Thailand from Shastri’s book ‘Sanskrit and Indian culture in Thailand’:-

Thailand Rajaguru with Kanchi Shankaracharya

Rajaguru

Not everyone born in a Brahmin family is called a Brahmin. Those who are initiated i.e. those who have Diksha are called  Brahmins.

Raja guru gives the initiation and he is selected from among the Brahmins. Next to him is Huana Phram. They get a very meagre grant from the king.

 

Annual Worship

It is of two kinds. One is Triyampavaaya and another is Tripavaaya (The first is Thiruvempavai on Lord Shiva and the second Thiruppaavai is on Lord Vishnu; both are popular in Tamil Nadu)

 

Tiruvempavai is celebrated in three stages: Invoking the god, placing the idol in the swing and the third is bathing the idol. Prasad offered to the deities is distributed to the public. An annual festival is held in December. At the time those who want initiation takes a vow. They stay inside the temple, eat vegetarian food and lie on the floor.

During Tiruvempava festival, they worship Ganesh, Uma and Shiva for ten days.

 

Tamil Brahmins wear only white clothes head to foot. Some wear dhotis.

During the Swing ceremony Lord Siva is placed in between two pillars with a cup of water. There is a story behind it. Brahma who created the world asked Isvara (Shiva) to protect it. Siva thought that the earth was not strong enough to support the living beings. To test its strength, he just set one of His feet on it. He then asked the Nagas to shake the mountain at the ends of the oceans. The Nagas did shake it but nothing untoward happened. Siva was pleased. Here the two pillars stand for the two mountains and the cup of water represents the ocean.

 

Tiruppavai in praise of Lord Vishnu is also celebrated in the similar way. People wear new clothes and decorate their houses during the festival period. In Tamil Nadu it is celebrated for 30 days during the Tamil month Markazi corresponding to December/ January.

 

THE PLOUGHING RITE

The Ploughing rite is an ancient Hindu rite practised from the  Vedic days. Tamil literature also has references to this rite. Sita Devi was discovered and received by Emperor Janaka during such a rite. Brahmins play a main role in it.

Brahmins fix a date after consulting the almanac (Panchang). They do the Puja after the Buddhists start it in the Temple of Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Keao). The king comes at the appointed time and he sends his deputy to act on his behalf. The priest worships Gauri, Ganga and Dharani (earth). Brahmins sprinkle water with the grains. Auspicious things are carried by the women. Bulls are also brought with the plough. The king’s nominee does the symbolic ploughing after worshipping the bulls. When all the ploughing finished, the bulls are sent to its place. In front of them seven things are placed: Paddy, Pulses, Corn, Sesame seeds, Water, Wine and Grass. When they show them to the bulls, naturally they run towards them ; the priests watch what they eat first.

If the bulls eat the corn or paddy or the pulses first, it is believed that the crops would be good the year round. If they eat grass or sesame seeds first, it is said that the crops (harvest) world be moderate. If, however, the bulls take to water first, the belief is that there would be floods and the crops would be damaged. If by chance, the bulls take to wine the belief is that drought conditions would prevail leading o unrest everywhere. After the announcement of the future position of the crops, the ceremony comes to an end.

Temple of Emerald Buddha

There are many more rites the Brahmins perform.

 

— SUBHAM–

Good and Bad Brahmins: Chanakya’s Definition! (Post No.4775)

Date: 22 FEBRUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 15-28

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Post No. 4775

 

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Various Types of Brahmins- Chanakya Niti

 

Chanakya classifies Brahmins according to the work they do and the virtues they possess. Some are called Rishis and others are called Mlechchas (Foreigners, barbarians)

 

A Brahmin who living life in a forest all times performs Sraadhdha with fruits and roots growing in untilled land every day is called a Rishi

11-11

akrusshta pala muulena vanavaasarataha sadaa

kurute aharahaha sradhdham rushi  vipraha sa ucyate

11-11

xxxx

 

One Meal a Day!

 

A Brahmin who is satisfied with only one meal and keeps himself engaged continuously in six activities and has coition with his wife in the period favourable for conception is called Dwija.

11-12

eka ahaarena santushtaha shatkarma nirataha sadaa

rtukaalaabigaamii ca sa vipro dwija ucyate

11-12

 

(Six activities of Brahmins: Teaching, Studying, Performing sacrifice, Helping others to perform sacrifice, Giving  charity and receiving charity)

xxxx

Vaisya Brahmana

 

A Brahmin who keeps himself busy in worldly affairs, looks after animals and engages himself in trade and agriculture is called a Vaisya.

laukike karmani rataha pasuunaam paripaalakaha

vaaniijya krsi kartaa yaha saha vipro vaisya ucyate

11-13

xxx

A Brahmin who sells lac and the like, oil, indigo, saffron, honey, ghee, liquor and meat is called a Sudra.

11-14

laakshaaditaila niilaanaam kusumba madhu sarpishaam

vikrato madhya maamsaanaam sa vipraha suudra ucyate

 

xxx

Brahmin Cat

A Brahmin who puts spokes in the form of others, is hypocritical, selfish, deceitful, envious, gentle and cruel is said to be Maarjaara, a he cat

11-15

parakarya vihantaa ca daampikaha svaartha saadhakaha

chalii dveshii mruduhu kruuro vipro maarjaara uchyate

11-15

xxx

 

Mlechcha/ Foreigner Brahmin!

A Brahmin who has no compunction in destroying an oblong reservoir of water, well and tank, garden and temple is called a Mleccha.

11-16

vaapii kuupa tadaagaanaam aaraamsu ravesmanaam

uchcheedane niraasankaha sa vipro mlechcha uchyate

11-16

 

(Real meaning of Mlecha is reflected in it; Foreigners distort the meaning  and attribute it to Dravidians, aborigines etc. But Mlechas are foreigners who destroyed Hinduism and India; in short Anti Hindus are called Mlechas; it is in Sangam Tamil literature as well.)

 

xxxx

Chandala/ outcaste Brahmin

A Brahmin who steals the money given as an offering to gods as also to teachers, outrages the modesty of the wives of others, and can get along with all kinds of people is called Caandaala

11-17

devadravyam  gurudravyam paradaaraabhimashanam

nirvaahaha sarvabuteshu viprascaandaala uchyate

11-17

Foreigners always distort the meaning of Chandala and the real meaning is Anti Social elements, immoral elements and thieves.

 

xxx

 

Feed the Brahmins

That is the food which is the left over of the Brahmins, friendship is that which is cultivated for the sake of others, wisdom is that which does not commit sin (= Which does not allow one to commit sin), Dharma is that which is followed with no show.

15-8

tad bhojanam yad dwija bukta sesham

tat sauhrudam yat kriyate parasmin

saa praakjnataa yaa na karoti papam

dambam vinaa yaha kriyate sa dharmaha

15-8

Since Chanakya and Manu insist that Brahmins should not save or accumulate money and ask them to beg for ever, Chanakya asks everyone to feed them; unless Brahmins are in begging condition, they would be lazy and woudn’t  go to any distant place for performing Yagas and Yajnas. If they are in begging condition, they would happily travel from village to village for getting Dakshina (fees). They are not allowed to save money like we save today.

 

Looking at the strict conditions Chanakya places, not many people can claim Brahminship today!

 

Source Book for verses: Canakyaniti, Translated by Satya Vrat Shastri

 

xxx SUBHAM xxxx

 

 

 

 

WHY DO WE LIGHT LAMPS AT HOME? (Post No.4657)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 24 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 17-53

 

Post No. 4657

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There are two stories in Tamil Nadu about lighting a lamp in the house when the sun sets. Even today most of the Tamils follow it despite electric lights in every room of a house. We do follow it in London despite the fire hazards.

 

In the days before electricity came to Indian towns and villages it was a must. But even today people follow the ancient custom of lighting the traditional lamp in the prayer room or a corner of a house.

 

To illustrate the importance of it there are some folk tales. Mr Natesa Sastri was a scholar who collected them from old people and published them in 1886 in Tamil and English. But I give below my own translation.

 

There was a farmer in a village who had two daughters. One of them got married locally and another was married to a Sozian ( a man form Chola country) in a nearby town. The eldest one who was married locally lost her husband and father in course of time. She had no issue. She made her living by working in the paddy fields. She had an unusual habit of consuming a large quantity of food i.e two measures of rice every day. Actually, ten people can eat in two measures of rice. (A Tamil measure is bigger than one litre). She was very shy and so she did not tell anyone about it and never sought a reason for it.

One day the eldest one felt sick. Sozian’s wife visited her elder sister. It was getting darker and the sun had set. The eldest one started cooking by adding an extra half a measure  because of her younger sister’s visit.

 

Two things surprised her younger sister. Firstly, two and half measures of rice for two people! Secondly, cooking in a pitch dark place. She slowly spoke to her elder sister. She asked why she was cooking in a pitch-dark place and why she cook for ten to twelve people. Her elder sister answered her saying that she had no money to buy oil and more over she was eating two measures of rice every day and she did not know why.

Then her younger sister insisted she must go and get some oil for the lamp, otherwise she could not stay there for night. At last she went out and got some oil for half a measure of rice and lighted the lamp and finished the cooking. When both of them felt contented after eating they saw three fourth of their rice was still in the cooking pot. While both of them were wondering how was it that after eating little they felt full in stomach.

At that time they heard a loud noise. One voice asked the other voice, ‘Oh Sokka, do we get food or not tonight?’ The other voice replied ‘Oh, No, Sozian came and spoiled it’. Both the sisters were puzzled by that noise because no one else was in that house. When they gathered enough courage, they asked who they were. One voice replied that he was a ghost and came to this house every day to take the food because it was dark. Today the Sozian made her to light the lamp and so they were running away from the place. Now the younger one reasoned out that was why her elder sister consumed two measures of rice every day. When the ghosts went out of the house the eldest daughter returned to her normal eating schedule.

Picture by Karthik Raghavan sent from Kaladi in Kerala

 

A crocodile story

There was a Brahmin youth in a village. He got married to a woman in a village nearby. After the traditional four day marriage, the first night was arranged. The newly married Brahmin youth went to the nearby tank (pond) for evening prayers and water ablution. The tank had several man eating crocodiles. No one warned the bridegroom. Suddenly a crocodile pulled him into water.

 

The bridegroom had the shock of his life. But in a moment, he managed to say a few words. ‘Oh Crocodile Unlce! leave me alone for this night. I am newly married and my wife is waiting for the first night meeting. Let us have our honey moon tonight and I will definitely come tomorrow morning and then you may eat me. If you swallow me  now, my wife and her aged father would die of sorrow and you would incur the sin of killing three Brahmins.”

 

The crocodile said to him, “Ok, you may go now and return tomorrow. Because you are a Brahmin who never go back on his words, I trust you”.

The young Brahmin returned home and went to bed with his wife. In the middle of night he explained everything that happened on that day. His wife told him, “Oh, My Darling! Don’t wait till tomorrow morning; others may not allow you to go to die; So go to the tank now!”

 

He was shocked to hear such horrible words from his new wife. He thought women must be devils; so, it is better to die in the pond by the crocodiles instead of living with this cruel woman. He came back to the tank and called the crocodile. The crocodile sprang upon him. At that moment, a sudden flash of light appeared in the place and disappeared. The crocodile said to him, Oh No, I can’t eat you. The light has gone out. No living being eats if the lights go out. Sorry, You may go home”.

 

When he turned back he saw his wife coming running with tears of joy in her eyes. She said to him,

“Oh My Darling I prayed to all the Gods in the world that my plan should work. I lighted a lamp in a pan ad covered it. When the crocodile sprang upon you I showed it to him and put it off. You know what happened then”

Then he hugged his wife and said to her, “Darling You are the most beautiful woman in the world. You are the most intelligent woman in the world;  all the people in the world would come to know the significance of lighting a lamp in the house through you”. From that day onwards village folk lighted lamps inside the house and put one lamp in the niche on the outside wall.

 

Both these stories are in wide circulation among villagers in South India.

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

WHY DOESN’T LAKSHMI LIKE THE BRAHMINS? (Post No.4636)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 19 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London 17-15

 

 

 

Post No. 4636

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Chanakya says some strange things about the Brahmins and the End of Kali Yuga

 

Chanakya says in his Chanakya Niti Sastra,

“Lakshmi’s words to Vishnu: O Lord, in disgust I avoid always the house of the Brahmins because the angry one (Agastya) drank my father (ocean), the sage Bhrgu hit with his foot my husband (Vishnu), right from childhood Brahmins carry my adversary (Sarasvati) in the cavity of their mouth, day and day out destroy my house (the lotus) for offering worship to Siva.”

 

Chapter 15, sloka 16

 

This sloka reveals two things:

1.There is a proverb in Tamil, Where is money (Panam), there is no Virtue (Gunam). In other words Lakshmi, Goddess of wealth never resides where there is Sarasvati, Goddess of Education. This is very true in Indian context. Most of the poets lived in acute poverty. Bharati, the greatest of the modern Tamil poets, suffered from poverty till his death. So the message is that Money and virtue don’t go together.

 

2.The second thing is a compliment to Brahmins, not a complaint against the Brahmins. Sarasvati lives in their tongues from their early childhood. This means they are well versed in the Vedas. Vak Devi and Sarasvati are praised in the Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world. And the Brahmins used the lotus flower for Siva Puja (flower offering to Lord Siva)

Fame comes from Luck!

 

In another sloka, Chanakya praises Lord Vishnu indirectly.

“A small hillock on the earth was held by you on a finger with ease. Because of this your praise is sung under the name of Govardhana both in the heaven and the earth.

Yasoda’s remark “I cary you, O Kesava,  the carrier of all the worlds, on the tips of my breasts. (Still nobody sings my praises), O Kesava, enough of words. Fame comes from luck”

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 15, sloka 19.

 

These are called Nindha Stutis. That is you criticise someone in words explicitly, but the real implicit meaning is that you praise him or her. You have to read between the lines.

 

Chanakya’s Strange Prediction

Chanakya, the greatest genius of ancient India, made a strange prediction in one of the slokas:-

 

“Hari leaves the earth with the passage of ten thousand years in Kali Yuga, in the half of that period does the Ganga water and in the half of that village deity”.

 

It is very strange that the village deity disappears first, then the River Ganges disappears and then only God leaves the earth. So we may measure  the progress of Kaliyuga  by the Ganges.

The sloka is as follows:

Kalau dasa shasreshu Harisyajati medhiniim

tadardhe jahnaviitoyam tadardhe gramadevataa

Chapter 11, sloka 4

We have already passed 5000 year limit In Kaliyuga. But Ganga is still flowing but not with its original pristine purity. So Chanakya might have mentioned Deva year and not the human year.

–Subham–

TAMIL POET AND CHANAKYA WARN ABOUT BRAHMINS! (Post No.4598)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 9 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London-8-09 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4598

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Don’t Walk In between Two Brahmins- Chanakya’s Advice; Tamils Agree!

 

Chanakya, the genius of ancient India, gives some strange advice. But It is found in later Tamil literature as well. Chanakya alias Kautilya lived 2300 years ago.

 

Here is the sloka/verse:

One should not walk in between two Brahmins, a Brahmin and fire, husband and wife, master and servant, the plough and the bull

 

Viprayorvipravahnyoho swamibhtyayoho

antarena nagantavyam halasya vrushabhasya ca

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 7,verse 5

 

xxx

 

One should not point feet towards fire, teacher, a Brahmin, a cow, a maiden, an old man and a child.

paadaabhyaam na sprusedagnim gurum braahnameva ca

naiva gaam wa kumariim ca vrudhdham na sisum tathaa

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 7,verse 6

 

xxx

Don’t be Over simple! Be crooked!

People should not be over simple; go to a forest and see. Straight trees are lumbered there while the crooked ones stay put.

naatyantam saralairbhaavyam gatvaa pasya vanasthaliim

chidhyante saralaastatra kubjaastishtanti paadapaahaa

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 7,verse 12

 

xxx

 

If the following seven are asleep, one should awaken them: a student, a servant, a wayfarer, one tormented by hunger, one tremulous in fear, the store keeper and a gate keeper .

vidhyarthii sevakah paantha; kshudhaartaa bayakaatarah

bhandaari ca pratihaari sapta suptaan prabhodhayet

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 9,verse 6

 

xxxx

These seven, if asleep, one should not wake up: a snake, a king, a tiger, a boar, a child, somebody else’s dog and a fool.

arhi nrupam ca saarduulam kiti ca baalakam  tathaa

parasvaanam ca muurkham ca sapta suptaan na bhodhayet.

Chanakya Niti, Chapter 9,verse 7

XXX

TAMIL VERSES

 

TIRIKADUKAM (Tri Kaduka) is one of the 18 minor didactic works. The author Nallaathanaar warns that one should deal with Brahmins carefully. One should treat a Brahmin like fire; don’t close too near; it will burn you; don’t go too far; you will feel cold and suffer. The message is treat them with due respect. Since Brahmins of the golden days—Krta Yuga—and the olden days  were pure in character, their words came came true; and if it was a  good word it  benefitted one; if it was a curse it harmed one.

Nallaathanaar says,

Oh, farmers! Wise men say three things are good for you—

1.Dont try to get money through gambling

2.Even if you know a Brahmin for long, fear him like fire

3.Do farming with interest

 

Tiruvalluvar, the author of Tamil Veda Titukkural use the same for a king

 

How to move with a king? It is just like one who warms oneself in the fire, neither going too near, nor too far – kural couplet 691

 

Adi Shankara was the one who used this fire imagery first. Later Tiruvalluvar, Nallaathanaar, Kamban,  Bhavananthi of Nannul and several authors used it.

 

Adi Shankara used it in the context of devotees; Lords says that he does not discriminate; those who are nearer to him get the benefits of his warmth; those who go away from him lose his grace.

 

It is very interesting to compare all of them.

 

–subham–