Who is a Dasyu? Kalidasa and Rig Veda explain! (Post No.3982)

Research article Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 8 June 2017


Time uploaded in London- 11-00 am


Post No. 3982


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Dasyu means a thief; but foreign ‘thieves’ who translated the Hindu Vedas wrote that Dasyu mean an aborigine- a deliberate distortion. In every community, there are thieves and we can find them even in all the scriptures. We have poems about robbers and thieves in Sangam Tamil literature. Some words gain wrong meaning in course of time. We have several caste names (Pariahs and Kallars) in Tamil literature which have earned wrong connotation in course of time. But nobody bothered about them.

English newspapers around the world use the Tamil word ‘PARIAH’ everyday with wrong connotation, which originally meant a drummer or an announcer. Countries and leaders are described as International Pariah in English newspapers and TV stations every day. The new meaning the English dictionaries give is AN UNTOUCHABLE!


Tamils were the only race in the world who fought among themselves for at least 1500 years according to Tamil literature and Tamil inscriptions. But nobody divided them on racial lines. The Chera, Choza, Pandya kings fought with each other for 1500 years continuously, killed one another, detained their women and made ropes out of their hair to pull their Victorious Chariots. The Tamil poets praised the kings as great heroes. The poets also say that they burnt the palaces of other Tamil kings and razed it to ground and ploughed it with donkeys just to insult the defeated Tamil king. The Sangam Tamil poets sang about rivers of blood as well. Even though the Tamil kings claimed different origins the foreigners never attributed any race into it.


But foreigners who wanted to divide the Hindus, deliberately divided the Hindu community into two : Aryan and Dravidian which are not found in Tamil or Sanskrit literature. Though we have the word Aryan in Sangam Tamil literature  and Arya in the Rig Veda, the meaning is ‘cultured’, ‘civilized’ or ‘saints in the Himalayas’. There is no racial division or connotation. But from the days of Max Mullers and Caldwells, they coloured the word with racial paint.

Dasyu in Kalidasa

In the Sakuntala drama, Sarngarava in his anger accused the king Dusyanta as a thief. It is because the king married Sakuntala secretly and abandoned her. When she was sent back to the king, the simile Kalidasa used was that sending the stolen property to a thief himself! The word Kalidasa used is DASYU for thief (Act 5-21)


Dasyu in Rigveda

In the Vedic Index, Keith and Macdonell say,

“Dasyu, a word of somewhat of doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rig Veda, clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated.

Dasyus are described as

God Hating (a-devayu) 8-70-11

Not sacrificing (a-yajvan) 4-16-9

Devoid of rites ( a karman); RV 10-22-8

Lawless (a vrata)

Addicted to strange vows (anya vrata) 8-70-11

Reviling the Gods (deva piyuu) AV 12-1-37

It is impossible in all cases to be certain that people are meant.

No clans of dasyus are mentioned;

Indra is Dasyu-hatya (killer of dasyus); but never mentioned as Dasa hatya. This means Indra was against criminals, thieves, robbers etc but not against people.

It is like later inscriptions describing Hindu kings as ‘parantapa’ scorcher of the enemies (Bhagavd Gita)


In one passage of the Rig Veda they were described as A-nas(RV 5-29-10); some wrongly translated this as nose less and attributed to Dravidians; Dravidians have big noses! As far as we know only the Japanese have small noses; some foreigners translated it as faceless, broken nose.

When the Rig Veda described them in one place as ‘Mrdhra vac’, they translated it as ‘stammering, unintelligible speech!’

Actually Sangam Tamil literature describe the Yavanas (Romans, Greeks and Arabs) as people of harsh speech; Tamil literature describe the shepherds as Kallaa Idaiyar ( rude, uneducated, uncultured etc). No one attributed any race or aborigine element into it.


Every scripture or every literature has such words to describe the enemies from their own clan or from the opposite sides.


In Iran there is a province with the name Dasyu!. What they meant was it was an enemy country. We can call Pakistan and China as Dasyus today. England which fought 1000 year war with France would have called them Dasyu!.

When Cumuri, Sambara and Susna fought Indra they were described as Dasyu, meaning ‘a brutal enemy’.


In the Aitareya Brahmana it meant uncivilized people.

In short Dasyu meant hostile, uneducated, uncultured thieves and robbers. These types of people are found in every scripture and  every ancient book. But only in Hindu scriptures they were coloured by foreigners as aborigines or Dravidians. A deliberate distortion with an ulterior motive. Marxists and Dravidian politicians spread the distorted version to laymen for their own political gains.

It is Hindus’ primary duty to translate the Vedas  properly and rewrite Indian History.


Drought in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3953)

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 29 May 2017


Time uploaded in London- 14-36


Post No. 3953


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contact: swami_48@yahoo.com


Our forefathers and writers gave a true account of the weather conditions prevailing in those days. These true accounts prove that they wrote genuine things and not concocted anything. We have reports of Tsunamis, earth quakes, accidents, shipwrecks, massive engineering works such as diverting River Ganga (by Bhageeratha) and River Kaveri (by Agastya), laying roads through the Vindhya Hills (Agastya ), population explosion in North India and migrating to South east Asia (Agastya drank sea) etc. Only thing is people could not understand their symbolic language. They though these are all mythological ‘stories’.


If we read through our literature, we can see many droughts which caused massive migrations. We even come to know the drying of Saraswati river ended the Indus Valley civilization and they migrated to different parts of India. These are very important events to know the history of the land.

Massive drought resulted in the migration of people from the Saraswati River Valley during Vedic days. Brahmins in India are generally divided into 10 groups: Pancha Goawda and Pancha Dravida. Gowda Brahmins lived in North India and Dravida Brahmins lived in South India. It is all in our literature. Many droughts caused the migration of Brahmins from one part of the country to the other.


Hindus believed that the 12 year orbit of Jupiter around the sun caused a drought every twelve years. Position of Venus was also considered to measure the amount of rain.

Tevaram sung by three Saivite saints mentioned the drought in different parts of Tamil Nadu. Lord Siva helped the saints by providing huge quantity of paddy and gold coins, which are considered great miracles by the Tamils. Those  1400 year old Tevaram verses are sung by all the Saivaite Tamils even today.


The word for drought in Sanskrit is Varkadam. In Tamil we have Varatchi and it is related to Varkata.


Tamil Tiruvilaiyaadal Purana talks about the drought in and around Madurai.


Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature

Kalidasa and other poets used drought followed by rains as similes in their poems.

रावणावग्रहक्लान्तमिति वागमृतेन सः।
अभिवृष्य मरुत्सस्यम् कृष्णमेघस्तिरोदधे॥ १०-४८

rāvaṇāvagrahaklāntamiti vāgamṛtena saḥ।
abhivṛṣya marutsasyam kṛṣṇameghastirodadhe || 10-48

rAvaNAvagrahaklAntamiti vAgamR^itena saH|
abhivR^iShya marutsasyam kR^iShNameghastirodadhe || 10-48


On showering ambrosian water called his speech on the desiccating crop called gods owing to the drought called Ravana, he that black cloud called Vishnu disappeared.

Rain=speech, dry crops=gods, drought caused by=Ravana, Black Cloud=Vishnu


Tamil poet Alankudi Vanganar used the same simile in Natrinai verse 230. A man came back to his wife after visiting a courtesan. She told that the very sight of him is like rain flooding the land affected by drought.


Raghuvamsa 10-48= Natrinai 230


Sangam Tamil poets (Pura nanauru 35, 383 and 397) say that even if the planet Venus is seen in the wrong direction there wont be any drought because of the just rule of the kings. This shows their belief n the position of Venus in the sky.


12 long Drought and Indus Valley Civilization


There is an interesting reference to the drying of River Saraswati, the mighty river which ran through Punjab, Uttapradesh and other states.


Sarasvata, son of Dadhichi and Sarasvata survived a twelve year long drought. But all other rishis had gone away  in search of food. They had forgotten the Vedas completely. Then Sarasvata rishi taught them the Vedas (Mahabharata 9-51). This gives credit to the story of Vedic Hindus migration from the Indus valley to other parts of India after a 12 year long drought. Story of Saraswata Brahmins’ origin also corroborates this.


During the reign of Ukra Kumara Pandya, a legendary king, there was a 12 year long drought. Then he went and prayed to Agastya. He showed them the way.


The reference to 12 year long drought and once in 12 year drought are plenty in our literature.

Two droughts during Tevaram days


Tevaram is a collection f hymns sung by three saints Sambadar, Appar and Sundarar.


Sambandar and Appar were contemporaries who lived during seventh century CE. Because of drought and famine they went to Siva temple and prayed for the sake of the people. They were given one coin each till they tided over the famine. They used the coins to buy food articles.


Sundarar, who lived later than Appar and Sambadar , was getting regular  supply of paddy  from a generous Shiva devotee.  Suddenly he stopped it due to a severe drought. When Sundara came to know about it, he was very much worried. Lord Shiva appeared in the dream of that philanthropist and promised him a good supply of paddy. The very next day he went to nearby Tiruvarur and informed Sundara about the miracle. When Sundara saw the huge hills of paddy I a village he was wondering ow to carry them. Shiva told him that the paddy would be in Tiruarur. His words came true and every house in Tiruarur had a heap of paddy in front of his/her house. Sundara was very happy to see the delivery at the doorstep.



Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 27 May 2017


Time uploaded in London: 13-57


Post No. 3946


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Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)


Tiruvalluvar is the author of Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda. It has got 1330 couplets organised in 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject dealing with virtues, wealth and love (between man and woman). It expresses the highest and purest truths. It is very rare to see a secular work like this in any other language in the world. It has become very popular because of its brevity and universal appeal. Anyone will enjoy reading it.


Kalidasa is the most celebrated poet of India. His seven literary works are considered the best in classical Sanskrit literature. He is more famous for his over 1300 apt similes, imageries and analogies. All the similes in other Indian literatures are his imitations or adaptations. His influence over Indian literature is enormous. There is lot of scope for comparative studies.


Here are some amazing similarities in the above two books on two subjects: Laughter and Friendship.


Tamil poet Thiru Valluvar is so obsessed with friendship, that he deals with it in 70 to 80 couplets under different headings.


Kalidasa says that the relationship with bad friends should be cut off like a poisoned finger affected by a snake bite. Tiruvalluvar says the bad friends are like harlots and thieves.


“Cunning friends whose motive is gaining money, are like harlots who sell their body for gold and thieves who plunder” (Kural 813)

“It is better to leave than have the friendship of mean, low minded people that are useless and unhelpful” (Kural 815)

Kalidasa says,

“A friend who is part and parcel of life should be discarded if wicked as a finger which is part of body is cut down if it is bitten by a snake. But a good man, though unfriendly should be accepted, as a medicine though distasteful is acceptable to the sick” (Raghuvamsa 1-28)

द्वेष्योऽपि सम्मतः शिष्टस्तस्यार्तस्य यथौषधम्।
त्याज्यो दुष्टः प्रियोऽप्यासीदङ्गुलीवोरगक्षता॥ १-२८

dveṣyo’pi sammataḥ śiṣṭastasyārtasya yathauṣadham |
tyājyo duṣṭaḥ priyo’pyāsīdaṅgulīvoragakṣatā || 1-28

dveSyo.api sammataH shiSTastasyaartasya yathauSadham |
tyaajyo duSTaH priyo.apyaasiida~NguliivoragakShataa || 1-28


Even if someone is despicable he becomes agreeable to King DilIpa, in case if he were to be a principled person, as with a pungent medicine somehow agreeable to a patient; and even if someone is dearer to him he becomes discardable to him in case if he were to be an unprincipled person, as with a finger fanged by a snake, severable for anyone. [1-28]

A friend indeed is a friend in need!

In the Rtu Samhara Kalidasa says,

“The bodies of elephants, lions and oxen were scorched by the fire due to the excessive heat in summer season. They quickly emerged from the grass where they were burnt by fire and they all rested on the banks of a river together, forgetting their natural enmity. They behaved like friends. The image suggests that a real friend is helpful, particularly during distress. Rtu Samhara 1-27


Valluvan defines a good friend more beautifully:

“Genuine friendship hastens to redress distress even like the hand which picks up quickly that garment that slips (Kural 788)

“Friendship with worthy men is like the taste in the good books; the more we study the more we know” (Kural 783)


There are two words for laughter in Tamil : one with good and another with bad connotations. Strictly speaking both are interchangeable. Only the context determines its meaning. Valluvar deals with laughter in over 16 couplets whereas Kalidasa used it in lesser places. But Kalidasas’ three plays have the Vidushaka (comedian, Jester) which gives good scope for creating mirth. All the ancient Sanskrit dramas have this Vidushaka/ jester character.


Let us look at one or two couplets from Tirukkural:

“Laugh when trials and troubles confront you, for there is no other way to overcome grief” (Kural 621)

It is very difficult to laugh when troubles come to us; one must be a saint like Tiruvalluvar to act that way. But most of us laugh at others’ troubles; particularly the troubles encountered by our enemies.

Valluvar echoed what Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita in the following couplets:

He does not suffer sorrow in sorrow, who does not look for pleasure in pleasure (Kural 629)

He is never afflicted by sorrow who knows the grief is natural and seeks no pleasure” (628)

Kalidasa says,

The lovely gardens resplendent with white jasmine flowers are imagined to be as bright as the sportive laugh f ladies, which is also considered white in colour—(Rtu Samhara 6-23)


In Hindu literature White is used for laughter, red is used for anger, Yellow is used for auspiciousness and Black for sorrow or wickedness. They have colour coded the emotions and feelings.

In the Raghu Vamsa (5-70) Kalidasa says,

“The dew drops fallen on the tender leaves with their interiors red resemble the sportive smile fallen on Aja’s lip brightened by the splendour of teeth”

Dew drops = smile; tender leaves = lips

ताम्रोदरेषु पतितं तरुपल्लवेषु

निर्धौतहारगुलिकाविशदं हिमाम्भः

आभाति लब्धपरभागतयाधरोष्ठे

लीलास्मितं सदशनार्चिरिव त्वदीयम्॥ ५-७०

tāmrodareṣu patitaṁ tarupallaveṣu

nirdhautahāragulikāviśadaṁ himāmbhaḥ

ābhāti labdhaparabhāgatayādharoṣṭhe

līlāsmitaṁ sadaśanārciriva tvadīyam || 5-70

taamrodareShu patita.n tarupallaveShu
nirdhautahaaragulikaavishada.n himaambhaH
aabhaati labdhaparabhaagatayaadharoShThe
liilaasmita.n sadashanaarciriva tvadiiyam || 5-70

“Like the thoroughly cleansed pearls in a necklace the dewdrops are now stringing on the surfaces of tender coppery leaflets only to expropriate their ochreish magnificence onto their whitely white bodies, in which process they look like your pleasing smiles occasionally gleaming with the sparkle of your teeth radiating onto your lower lip… [5-70]


Kalidasa uses tears of joy to express happiness:

The stream of the Himalayan snow melting under the rays of the sun is compared to the tears of joy shed by a woman when her  lover returns to her after a long absence (Raghu vamsa 16-44)


अगस्त्यचिह्नादयनात्समीपम् दिगुत्तरा भास्वति संनिवृत्ते।
आनन्दशीतामिव बाष्पवृष्टिम् हिमस्रुतिम् हैमवतीम् ससर्ज ॥ १६-४४

diguttarā bhāsvati saṁnivṛtte |
ānandaśītāmiva bāṣpavṛṣṭim
himasrutim haimavatīm sasarja  || 16-44

agastyacihnAdayanAtsamIpam diguttarA bhAsvati sa.nnivR^itte |
AnandashItAmiva bAShpavR^iShTim himasrutim haimavatIm sasarja  || 16-44


On the return of the Sun from her co-wife South (indicated by the star Canopus) after his southern solstice to the proximity of North, she that northerly quarter another wife of that Sun shed tears of joy duly dampened with her happiness to which the flow of melted snow from the Himalayas is hypothetical. [16-44]

(Agastya’s direction is South where the star Canopus is known as Agastya Nakshatra)


In the fourth act of famous drama Sakuntala Kanva, the foster father of Sakuntala, sheds tears of joy when she departs to join her husband King Dushyanta.

These are just some examples to show how great poets think alike and use forceful similes to bring out the emotions.

Sources: Raghuvamsa from sanskritdocuments.com

Tirukkural by A Aranganatha Mudaliyar, Trplicane, Madras, 1949

The Imagery of Kalidasa, Dr Vinod Aggarwal, Delhi, 1985




Prisoners: Barack Obama, Manu and Kalidas (Post No.3610)

Statue of Kalidasa in China


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 6 FEBRUARY 2017


Time uploaded in London:-  9-17 am


Post No. 3610



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.



contact; swami_48@yahoo.com



Kalidasa refers to the release of prisoners on the eve of the coronation of a king (Raghuvamsa 17-19). Barack Obama, outgoing US President also did the same just before leaving the office. This custom was started in Hindu India thousands of years ago. But India was one step ahead of all the countries. They even gave freedom to birds and animals! Caged birds were released! Domestic animals were unharnessed according to Kalidasa.

बन्धच्छेदन् स बद्धानान् वधार्हाणामवध्यताम्।
धुर्याणान् च धुरो मोक्षमदोहन् चादिशद्गवाम्॥ १७-१९

bandhacchedan sa baddhānān vadhārhāṇāmavadhyatām |
dhuryāṇān ca dhuro mokṣamadohan cādiśadgavām|| 17-19


On coronation Atithi ordered the release of prisoners; cancelled death sentences of those who are condemned to it; released the beasts of burden from burden, and interdicted the milking of cows. [17-19]



क्रीडापतत्रिणोप्यस्य पञ्जरस्थाः शुकादयः।
लब्धमोक्षास्तदादेशाद्यथेष्टगतयोऽभवन्॥ १७-२०

krīḍāpatatriṇopyasya pañjarasthāḥ śukādayaḥ |
labdhamokṣāstadādeśādyatheṣṭagatayo’bhavan|| 17-20


Even the caged birds of amusement such as parrots and others having gained their freedom through his order and became free birds to go as they wished. [17-20]


(Raghuvamsa translation from sanskritdocuments.org)

Kautilya also says that the king releases all the prisoners in the newly captured country. They are released when there is a coronation or a new child is born to the king. The joy is shared by everyone. Death sentence is commuted or cancelled.


The king should have all the prisons built on the royal highway, where the suffering mutilated evil doers can be seen 9-288


Manu says a prisoner should be excluded from the ceremony for the dead (Manu 3-158)


A priest (Brahmin) should not eat the food of a man bound in chains prisoner) 4-210


Prisoners Release in America


President Obama granted commutations Tuesday to 79 federal drug offenders who were imprisoned under harsh and outdated sentencing laws, pushing to more than 1,000 the number of inmates who have received clemency from him.

Obama’s historic number of commutations — more than the previous 11 presidents combined — was announced as administration officials are moving quickly to rule on all the pending clemency applications before the end of the president’s term. The Trump administration is not expected to keep in place Obama’s initiative to provide relief to nonviolent drug offenders.

About a third of the 1,023 inmates who have been granted clemency, 342 prisoners, were serving life sentences for their ­offenses.

“The President’s gracious act of mercy today with his latest round of commutations is encouraging,” said Brittany Byrd, a Texas attorney who has represented several inmates who have received clemency since Obama’s initiative began in 2014.

“He is taking historic steps under his ground-breaking clemency initiative to show the power of mercy and belief in redemption. Three hundred and forty-two men and women were set to die in prison. The president literally saved their lives.”

Eighteen of the inmates granted clemency Tuesday were serving life sentences.


My old article:

Prisoners Rehab in Ancient India! (Posted on 23 March 2013)



Custom of Garlanding and Flower Giving in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3550)

Giving Flowers to a woman began in India.


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 16 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-06


Post No.3550



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.



contact; swami_48@yahoo.com



Garlanding statues of Gods and leaders, garlanding visiting dignitaries are common sights in India. Exchanging garlands is a marriage ritual as well. Giving flowers to women, offering flowers to Gods are also an everyday sight in India. All these started with the Hindus thousands of years ago according to Sanskrit and Tamil literature.


Jayamala ceremony is part of a marriage in North and South, showing Indian culture is one.

In my article FLOWERS IN TAMIL CULTURE posted on 25th August 2012, I have dealt with the Flower vendors in Sangam Tamil Literature, Kapilar’s listing of 99 flowers, Tamil classification of flowers, Tamil’s obsession with flowers even in the wars, 27 leaves to God Vinayaka, Famous Andal garland of Srivilliputtur, Onam Pukkolam and Pushpanchali.


Garlands are used from the Swayamvara (A princess choosing a King as her husband by garlanding) days.


Giving flowers to women was also started by the Hindus at least 2000 years ago. Let me give some examples from Kalidasa’s works:-


In the most famous drama of Sakuntala (Act 7-1), we read about garlands:

“Glancing up with a smile at Jayanta, his son

who stood beside him longing inwardly for the same,

Hari placed around my neck the Mandara garland

tinged with golden sandal rubbed off his chest”




In the Kumara Sambhava (3-22), the Master’s command is imagined to be a garland offered as a gift of favour.

In the Raghu vamsa (18-29)the king was, as it were, the crest garland of his race suggesting thereby the marks of a good rule.

The Love god whose energy had diminished with the departure of spring seems to be regaining his vim and vigour through the head hair of pretty women, for they are letting it loose after a bath aesthetically, per-fumigating it tastefully, and slicing evening jasmine flowers pleasingly. [16-50]


(Kiraataarjuniiyam also has a reference).



In the Raghuvamsa (6-80), Indumati’s glance itself was like the Swayamvara garland to Aja. The flowers in the garland were fresh and white and her steady glances were also white.

Keeping flowers in the ear or just above the ear is also mentioned in Kalidasa:-

Meghaduta. – 28, 67


“Where women toy with a lotus held in hand

twine fresh jasmines in the hair

the beauty of their faces glows pale gold

dusted with the pollen of lodhra flowers

fresh amaranth blooms encircle the hair-knot

a delicate Sirisa mestles at the ear

and on the hair parting lie Kadamba blossoms

born at your coming (verse 67, Megaduta)


Sakuntala : 1-4; 1-30; 6-18; in the prologue as well.


Raghu.7-26; 9-28, 9-43, 16-62

In the Tamil literature

Flower or tender plant in the ear:

Kurinjip paattu (Kapilar) 119-120

Tiru murukku-(Nakkirar)-30-31; 207

Paripaatal – 11-95; 12-88



Kuruntokai belongs to Sangam period. The very first verse is about a man giving flowers to a woman he loves. It is sung by Tiputolar.


Natrinai, part of 2000 year old Tamil Sangam Literature, describes the garland worn by a man who came to see his lady love. He came wearing a garland made up of wild jasmine flowers and Bilva (Vilvam) leaves. Kalidasa also mentioned jasmine flowers in the hair of women. It showed that there was only one culture from the southern most part to the Northern Himalayas.


one of the verses in Marutham genre describes that when the farmers go to the fields, heroines (women) get flowers and garlands.

Natrinai verse 173 says that the women gathered flowers and made into a garland for Lord Skanda. She did it to so that her lover would marry her soon.

Purananuru verse 106 by Kapilar mentions that god wont reject even leaves and grass offered, reflecting the Bhagavad Gita verse 9-26 (Patram pushpam phalam toyam……)
This flower giving and garlanding is another proof to show that Indian culture is one from south to north and the Aryan-Dravidian Race theory is a fake one. No ancient culture has this flower culture.



Lucky No.5’s Link to Literature!


Article No. 2060

Written by London swaminathan


Date : 10  August  2015

Time uploaded in London :– 19-53

It is a strange co incidence that Sanskrit and Tamil scholars chose number Five to name their best five epics and minor epics.


(1) In Sanskrit the Five Great Epics (Pancha Maha Kavyas) are:

1.Raghuvamsam by Kaalidaasa

2.Kumaarasambhavam by Kaalidaasa

3.Kiraataarjuniiyam by Bhaaravi

4.Sisupaalavatham by Maagha

  1. Naisadacaritam by Sriharsa


(2) Five Tamil Epics

In the same way Tamils also chose the best five epics and named them ‘Aim Perum Kappiyangal’ meaning Five Great Epics and they are

1.Silapadikaaram by Ilango

2.Manimekalai by Siltalai Saattanaar

3.Siivaka Cintaamani by Tirutakkatevar

4.Valayapati – Anonymous

5.Kundalakesi – Naadakuttanaar

Tamil language has Five Minor Epics as well:


(3) Five Tamil Minor Works

Chulaamani – anonymous

Niilakesi – Tolaamozitevar

Udayanakumaara kaaviyam -anonymous

Nagakumaara kaaviyam- anonymous

Yasodaa kaaviyam- anonymous

(4) Grantha Pancakam

Even the Advaita philosophy chose number five to name their five great works ‘Grantha Panchakam’. They are


2.Bhasya of Sankara

3.Bhamati of Vacaspati Misra

4.Kalpataru of Amalananda

5.Parimala of Appayya Diksita


(5) Restraint from Speaking

Even a medicine man like Charaka instructs us to restraint from speaking

1.Harsh words= Parusam

2.Excessive words = Atimaatra

3.Back biting = Suucaka

4.Untruth =Anruta

5.Untimley utterance = Akaalayukta

Parusasyaatimaatrasya suchakasyaanruthasya cha

Vaakyasyaakaalayuktasya dhaarayetvehamuttitham

-Charaka sutra 7-28


(6) Five Types of Texts, Commentaries, Explanatory Notes






-Mahaabhaasya (Prastaavanaa)

(7) Five Blemishes in Writing

Illegible = Akaanti

Contradiction = Vyaaghaata

Repetition = Punarukta

Ungrammatical usage= Apasabda

Misarrangement = Samplava

Akaativyaardhatah punaruktamapasabdah samplavaiti lekadosaah   –Arthasastra 2-10-57


Oldest Girls’ Names in the World and No.8 Mystery!


Written  by London Swaminathan

Article No. 1962

Dated 29 ஜூன் 2015.

Uploaded at London time : 19-35

There are more wonders in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world! Three feminine names are repeated by various Rishis in almost all the Ten Mandalas of the Rig Veda! That too, they always say it in the eighth stanza of those hymns! Mysterious No.8 is linked to the Goddesses!

Those three names are SARASVATI, BHARATI, ILA!


This is a literary wonder in the world! All other Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek, Mayan goddesses have gone into museums or their corrupted names only are used today.

This blasts the theory, put forth by the half-baked foreigners, that Hindus worship male gods only. There is only one religion in the world, that is Hinduism, that worships the same Goddesses from the beginning until today. No other religion worshipped Goddesses like this. I have already given the names of 30 other names of the goddesses and 20+ names of the poetesses in my earlier posts. There also, Hindus scored another first by projecting 20 plus Vedic poetesses, which is unheard in any part of the world. Tamil Hindus presented another galaxy of 20 plus poetesses 2000 years after the Vedas.

Not only that Sarasvati became Sara and her husband Brahma became Abraham in the Bible. That is, since the ancient Yadu kula Hindus migrated to the Middle East, they retained the Hindu names. Like we name our daughters Saraswati today, Sara’s dad named his daughter Sarasvati. We abbreviated the names as Sarasu or Saras and the Jews abbreviated the name as Sara. I will write about the Yadu=Juda (Y=J) connection another day. Now let us look at the oldest names of the girls in the world.

Ila is more popular among Gujaratis. Sarasvati is more popular among Tamils. Bharati is famous in North India. Shankaracharyas take the name Bharati (Sringeri) or Sarasvati (Kanchi) when they take Sanyas until today. This started in the Rig Vedic days!


What are the APRI suktas? Where are they?

Names of Goddesses are in the Apri Suktas. Apri Suktas are repeated by everyone as a convention. The Apris are various forms of Agni according to Sayana.  Apris are divine or deified beings and objects to which the proprietary verses are addressed.

Apris are the collective names of gods and deified objects, according to Ralph Griffith.

A typical 8th stanza looks like the following:–

“May Bharati with all his sisters, Ila accordant with the gods, with mortals Agni, Sarasvati with all kindred rivers , come to this grass, three goddess , and seat them”.

Apri Suktas: RV 3-4-8; 7-2-8; 2-3-8, 1-13-8/9; 1-188-8; 5-5-8; 9-5-8; 10-70-8;10-110-8.

These three goddesses are also in the Yajur Veda 28-18; 27-17; 20-43 and several other places.

Rig Veda has more than 450 poets. We have all those beautiful names of the sages/poets in the Anukramani (Index). Hindus were the first in the world to add Contents and Index to a book!

All the important Rishis sung Apri Suktas in which these three goddesses are invoked in the eighth stanza. What is the significance of No.8? Why did they recite the three names in 8th Stanza of those hymns? No one knew the answer! Another mystery in Rig Veda!!

Rig Vedic poets are spread over at least ten generations which means not all the poets lived at the same time. It took 300 to 500 years to “see or hear” these many hymns. Rishis are called Manthra Drshta; they “saw” the mantras like we see the TV. They did NOT compose them.

Sangam Tamil literature also had over 450 poets. For them to compose 30,000 lines it took 300 years according to Tamil scholars. So, who did tell the Rig Vedic Seers to sing about these three goddesses in the eighth stanza? Was there a grammar book to dictate them some rules? Who did they tell them to sing about these three Goddesses in the Apri suktas? Another mystery!

Sarasvati is the goddess of wisdom. Hindus named the largest river Sarasvati. They praised Sarasvati more than the Sindhu and Ganga. Only when it dried and disappeared into desert, Ganga became more prominent. So anything that nourishes your physical body (by water) or your intellect, they named it Sarasvati. They associated the names Bharati and Sarasvati with the languages. In one sukta/hymn, Bharati is replaced by her other name Mahi.

Various names including Manu are occurring in the Apri Suktas

R veda

Controversy about Apri Suktas

Shrikant G.Talageri, in his book The Rig Veda – A Historical Analysis, gives the following:–

Under the title “Untrustworthiness of Anukramani- statements Shown by the Repetitions”, Bloomfield remarks that the statements of the Sarvanukramani betray dubiousness of their authority … the Anukramani ascribes one and the same verse to two or more authors, or to ascribe it to two or more divinities. The Apri stanzas 3-4-8 = 7-2-8 are ascribed in the third book to Viswamitra gathina, in the seventh book to Vasitha Maitravaruni.”

Talageri refutes this:-

The repetitions do not disprove the authenticity of the Anukramanis; in fact it proves the authority of the Anukramani(index):

a)The repetitions in the Rig Veda are representative of a regular phenomenon in classical and liturgical literature throughout the world. Consider for example what Gilbert Murray says about similar repetitions in Greek literature: “descriptive phrases … are caught up ready made from a store of such things: perpetual epithets, front haves of lines, back halves of lines, whole lines, if need be, and long formulae. The stores of the poets were full and brimming. A bard need only put it his hand and choose out a well-sounding phrase. Even the similes are ready made. Quoting this B K Ghosh notes, “All this may be maintained, mutatis mutandis, also of the Rig Vedic poetry.”

In the case of the Rig Veda it is significant that every single repetition pertains to a literary or liturgical phrase. In fact, the more the literary or liturgical the reference, the more the likelihood of repetitions: the longest repetition of three consecutive verses is in the liturgical apri suktas of the Visvamitras and Vasisthas: 3-4-8/11=7-2-8/11.

The composers of the RV were members of ten priestly families, and each family had its own Apri Sukta. In later times, during performance of any sacrifice, at the point where the Apri sukta was to be recited, the conducting Rishi was required to recite the apri sukta of his own family.

Shrikant Talageri used the Apri suktas to  decide the chronological order of the family mandalas as well.


My comments:

Repetitions in Tamil Literature!

Bloomfield is wrong and Gilbert Murray and Talageri are right. The repetitions are not only in the Vedas and Greek literature, but also in the Sangam Tamil literature. Sangam Tamil literature is not religious, but a collection of 2400 secular poems. The repetition is in the oldest Tamil grammar Tolkappiam as well. In fact Tolkappiar, the author of Tolkappiam, has used it unnecessarily, quite contrary to Panini.(Tolkappiar, while describing the six divisions of living beings repeat the same line six times in one Stanza!!. Another Tamil anthology Ainkurunuru (500 short verses) have got more than 100 repetitions. Oldest of the Sangam literature Purananuru has repetitions of lines, stock phrases and several other clichés. This is the trend in any classical literature.