Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 10 NOVEMBER 2017


Time uploaded in London- 13-35



Post No. 4383

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



This is a story about the origin of Aitareya Brahmana.

The Brahmanas are the prose works in the Vedic literature. They deal with the fire sacrifices of the Vedic Hindus. Each Veda has separate Brahmanas. In fact each ‘Shaka’ of the Veda has one Brahmana. One of the oldest Brahmanas is Aitareya Brahmana of Rig Veda.


There is a curious story about the origin of this book. Sayana, the Vedic commentator said this story. There was a sage who had many wives, and one of them was called Itara. She had a son whose name was Mahidasa. The father neglected him and loved the other sons more than Mahidasa, and at a certain sacrifice, he allowed all the other sons to sit on his lap, but refused the honour to Mahidasa.

Thereupon Itara prayed to Goddess of Earth who appeared at once and offered a divine thrown to Mahidasa and seated him on it. The goddess then made him a great scholar. To Mahidasa Aitareya, enlightened by the boon of Earth,there appeared or was revealed. One Brahmana of the Rig  Veda  (of Sakala Saka was called after his name. Itara——-A/Itareya. The aranyaka is also called Aitareya Aranyaka.


(The legend says that Aitareya was the son of Itara; itara means the other woman, probably the woman was not the legal wife of the King and so her son was neglected.)

Aitareya Brahmana is divided into eitght Panchikas (pentads), each of which has five adhyayas and so it contains forty chapters; it deals with the duties of the priests, explanations of Soma, Uktya, Shodasa, Atiratra and other sacrifices including 12 minor sacrifices


How many Brahmana Books are there?


There is one more Brahmana of Rig Veda: Kaushitaki Brahmana.

Satapata Brahmana

Of all the Brahmana books, Satapata Brahmana is the most important one. It belongs to Sukla Yajur Veda. It deals with important fire sacrifices in addition to etymology, grammar and meanings of several other things. The name itself shows that it has hundred (sata) chapters. The Krishna Yajur Veda has Taittiriya Brahmana.  Atharva Veda has Gopata Brahmana.


The Brahmanas shows the oldest stage in the development of Sanskrit prose. It is a most interesting phase in the history of Indian thought. Some of the things are said in a symbolic language and so they appear as silly stories. The seers themselves often say the gods love mysterious language. The astronomical remarks in the Brahmanas show they belong to a period between 2000 BCE and 3000 BCE. Foreigners date them around 1000 BCE. This is wrong because Max Muler gave a rough date believing that a anguage changes every 200 years. This theory is not applied to any other language and proved More over, apart from language, there is huge difference between the Upanishadic stage and Brahmana stage.


–subham —



Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 15 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 19-32


Post No. 4215


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



The following extract from Satapata Brahmana (dated 850 BCE by foreigners) shows that even before the Greeks wrote their literature we have all the stars mentioned in our Vedic literature. So foreigners claim that Hindus borrowed astronomy from the Greeks is  false. They themselves contradict their dates. They believed that Greeks contact came only after Alexander’s invasion.


The following piece shows also how complicated and symbolic is the language of the Brahmanas.


it is interesting to note that Tamil Sangam literature says that the Tamils celebrated the marriages under the star Rohini (see my earlier research article).


It is also noteworthy that Agni, Krithika Star (the Pleiades) and Lord Kartikeya are always linked in later Puranas. This has its  origin in the Vedas. in short, Hindu astronomy is older than the Greek literature. But in the time of Aryabhata, some new elements were introduced in to Hindu astronomy. Since we have lost enormous amount of Vedic literature we may never know who proposed those things first.


Vedic astronomers calculated that Pleiades was rising star at the horizon around 2100 BCE. So this will help us to date the Satapata Brahmana.


“The priest may set up fire (Yaga fire) under the Pleiades (Krithika nakshatra) for the Pleiades are Agni’s constellation (asterism) so that if he sets up fire under Agni’s constellation he will bring about a correspondence between his fires and the constellation.


For this reason be may setup his fires under the Pleiades. The Pleiades are the most numerous  of asterisms; hence he thereby obtains an abundance. For this reason he may set up his fires under the Pleiades. And again they do not move away do move from the eastern quarter. Thus his two fires are established in the eastern quarter; for this reason be may up his fires under The Pleiades.


On the other hand it is argued why he should not set up fires under the Pleiades originally the later ( the Pleiades) were the wives of the Bears (Rikshas or the Ursa Major = the great bear constellation). for the seven rishis (Saptarishi) were in former times called Rikshas. They (the Pleiades) were however precluded from intercourses with their husbands, for the latter ( the Seven Rishis) rise in the north and the  the Pleiades  in the east.


Now it is a misfortune for one to be precluded from intercourse with his wife. He should set fires under the Pleiades. He therefore should not set up fires under the Pleiades lest he should thereby be precluded from intercourse. But he may nevertheless set up his fire under the Pleiades; for Agni doubtless is their mate, and it is with Agni that they have intercourse.



for this reason he may set up fire under the Pleiades’ He may also set up his fire under the  constellation of Rohinii for under Rohini it was that Prajapati, when desirous of progeny, set up his fires. He created beings, and the creatures produced by him remained invariable and constant, like red cows ;hence the cow like nature of Rohini. Rich in cattle and offspring therefore he becomes- whosoever, knowing this, sets up fires under Rohini. Under Rohini indeed, the cattle set up their fires thinking that they may attain to (ruh) the desire or love of men. They did attain the desire of men; and whatever desire the cattle then obtained in regard to men, that same desire he (the sacrificer) obtains in regard to cattle, whosoever  knowing this, sets up his fire under Rohini.


Satapata Brahmana . 2.1-2-1-7


Ursa Major= Saptarishi= Great Bear



In the time of Alexander the Great the Hindus did not claim greater antiquity than 6777 B. c. The mode of reckoning adopted by the Hindus by which they got the Yugas is very simple. Given the precession of 49-8 seconds as determined by Hipparchus, the period of one revolution through the whole circle of 360 degrees would be  26,024 and16/166 (fraction) years. Getting rid of the fraction in the usual way by multiplying by 166 and adding the 16 we have 4,320,000 years – a Yuga.   The same result is obtained by Parasara;s precession of 46-5 or Aryabhata’s 46-2



Sacred Cow in Satapata Brahmana (Post No.4050)

Cow attending Veda class

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 4 July 2017
Time uploaded in London- 10-41 am
Post No. 4050

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



Satapata Brahmana is one of the Brahmana books of Vedic period. Foreigners date it to 800 BCE to 1000 BCE. Hindus date it to thousands of years before that. Foreigners spread a false story that Hindus adopted vegetarianism only after Mahavira and Gautama Buddha appeared in India. Those stories are exploded by the Satapata Brahmana passage.

Cow photographed in Oldenburg ,Germany

Through out the Vedas cow and calf are used as the symbol of love and affection between a mother and her child. This is the oft used simile in the oldest portions of the Vedas. That shows that cow was equated to mother. Vaatsalyam is a Sanskrit word coined out of it (Vatsa=calf)


The biggest contribution of the Vedic Hindus to the world civilization are the DECIMAL SYSTEM and the COW’S MILK. In no other world literature, we come across such references or similes as we see in the Vedas. Until today the world has not found an alternative to the Decimal system and the Cow’s milk. These are used everyday. This shows at they are the oldest and highly advanced civilization. These type of concepts can evolve only after thousands of trial and error methods or experiments.

Here are some passages from the famous Satapata Brahmana (3-1-2-3):

“Let him not eat the flesh of either the cow or the ox; for the cow and the ox doubtless support everything on earth. The Gods spake: ‘Verily the cow and the ox support everything here; come let us bestow on the cow and the ox whatever vigour belonged to other species of animals; and, therefore, the cow and ox eat the most. Hence were one to eat the flesh of an ox or cow, there would be, as it were, an eating of everything, or, as it were, a going on to the end. Such a one, indeed, would be likely to be born again as a strange being, as one of whom there is evil report, such as, “He has expelled the embryo from a woman’ He has committed a sin; let him therefore, not eat the flesh of the cow and the ox”.

Most valuable fuel and manure– cow dung

Foreigners are so cunning and divisive that they quote from different sources (very old and the latest) to support their arguments. It may be from the latest books, which they would never mention. But if they see any good things, they will say that they are from the latest books. It was because of…………. They will bluff.


Atharva Veda talks about a huge geographical area from West Bengal to Iran. No ancient civilization had such a sway over a large region. When such things come they will say Atharvana Veda was the latest addition. How latest – no two scholars agree! They try to cramp the development of a huge civilization within a span of 200 to 400 years. It is not possible to any civilization even in the modern period.


Usefulness of the Cows:

Sale of Cow for the Soma plant

In Vedic times barter trade was practised. They exchanged cows for Soma herb. Here is a passage about it:

“He bargains for the King Soma; and, because he bargains for the king, therefore any and everything is vendible. He says,

Soma seller! is your King Soma for sale?

Soma seller: He is for sale

I will buy him from you.

Buy him

I will buy him of you for one sixteenth of the cow;

King Soma is surely worth more than that.

From the cow comes the fresh milk; from the boiled milk boiled milk comes ghee/butter cream, clotted curds, whey etc.

Soma seller: King Soma is worth more than that; but surely is the greatness of the cow

Adhvaryu Priest:-

Gold is yours;  a cloth is yours;  a milch cow, a pair of kine,  three other cows are thine.


They buy the Soma plant for a cow and then the cow is also taken back.

This type of conversation shows the importance of cow and they are shown as equal to mother and Soma plant.

Foreigners quote certain passages to show that a cow was sacrificed in the yaga; but there are also it is explained that a cow made up of dough or flour is sacrificed.


The very concept of sacrifice is uniquely Hindu. It shows that all you desire, all that you want, all you consider valuable are not yours—Idam Na Mama – it is not mine.


from this ritual ‘Idam na mama’ they take humans to a higher stage i.e. everything thing belongs to God – Isavaasyam Idam sarvam i.e.

Cow Puja at Kanchipuram

MANTRA ONE of Isavasya Upanishad


isavasyam idam sarvam

yat kinca jagatyam jagat

tena tyaktena bhunjitha

ma grdhah kasya svid dhanam


isa–by the Lord; avasyam–controlled; idam–this; sarvam–all; yat kinca— whatever; jagatyam–within the universe; jagat–all that is animate or inanimate; tena–by Him; tyaktena–set-apart quota; bhunjithah–you should accept; ma–do not; grdhah–endeavor to gain; kasya svit–of anyone else; dhanam–the wealth.




Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong. 


(This is the favourite hymn of Mahatma Gandhi)




31 Beautiful Quotations from Brahmanas -July 2017 Calendar (Post No.4040)

Compiled by London Swaminathan
Date: 30 June 2017
Time uploaded in London-16-35
Post No. 4040

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



Festival days:- Vivekanada’s Samadhi Anniversary- July4; Guru Purnima-8; Dakshinayana Punya Kala- 17;  Adi Amavsya-23; Adi Puram -26; Naga Panchami-27.

Auspicious Days:- 3, 16;  Ekadasi Fasting Day:- 4, 19; Full Moon Day- July 8;

New Moon Day- 23.


July 1 Saturday

Vedas are the hair of Prajapati’s beard (Taittiriya Brahmana 3-39-1) it means it is recited by Brahma

July 2 Sunday

Prajapati created King Soma. After him the three Vedas came TB 2-3-10-1)

July 3 Monday

Vach is called the Mother of the Vedas (TB 2-8-8-5); it means the word is god.

July 4 Tuesday

Mind is the ocean; from the mind ocean, with speech for a shovel, the gods dug out the triple Vedas; may the brilliant deity today know where they placed that offering which the gods dug out with sharp shovels. Mind is the ocean; speech is the sharp shovel—Satapata Brahmana (this shows Vedas were received by the Rishis after deep meditation).

July 5 Wednesday

Prajapati reflected: all beings are comprehended in the Triple Vedas; come let me dispose myself in the shape of the triple Vedas (TB 3-12-9-1)

July 6 Thursday

Prajapati desired: May I become, may I be propagated. He toiled in devotion, he performed austerity. From him when he so toiled, and performed austerity, there worlds were created – earth, air and sky- Bhur Bhuva:, suva:


July 7 Friday

Rig Veda came from Agni; Yajur Veda came from Vayu and Sama Veda from Surya/sun – SB11-5-8-1


July 8 Saturday

The Brahman is the foundation of everything here (SB.6-1-1-18)


July 9 Sunday

There are five great sacrifices, which are great ceremonies. The fifth is the Veda Offering. This means the study of Vedas. In this veda sacrifice, the speech is juhu, the soul upabhrit, the eye the Dhruva, intelligence the sruva (these four words indicate spoons or ladles used in the Yajna), truth the ablution and paradise the conclusion SB 11-5-6-1


July 10 Monday

He who, knowing this, daily studies the Vedas conquers an undecaying world more than thrice as great as that which he acquires who bestows this whole earth filled with riches –SB


July 11 Tuesday

Verses of the Rig Veda are milk oblations to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with milk oblations; and they being satisfied, satisfy him with property, with life, with fertility,with sound body, with all excellent blessings. Streams of butter, streams of honey flow as swadha oblations to the Fathers/departed souls—SB


July 12 Wednesday

Verses of the Yajush are butter offeringss to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with butter offerings; and they being satisfied, satisfy him with property, with life, with fertility, with sound body, with all excellent blessings. Streams of butter, streams of honey flow as swadha oblations to the Fathers/departed souls—SB

July 13 Thursday

Verses of the Sama Veda are Soma offerings to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily  reads these verses, satisfies the gods with Soma offerings; and they being satisfied, satisfy him with property, with life, with fertility, with sound body, with all excellent blessings. Streams of butter, streams of honey flow as swadha oblations to the Fathers/departed souls—SB

July 14 Friday

Verses of the Atharva Veda are fat offerings to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily  reads these verses, satisfies the gods with fat offerings; and they being satisfied, satisfy him with property, with life, with fertility, with sound body, with all excellent blessings. Streams of butter, streams of honey flow as swadha oblations to the Fathers/departed souls—SB


July 15 Saturday

There are four Vashatkaras in Vedic sacrifices- when the wind blows, when it lightens, when it thunders, when it rashes; wherefore when it blows, lightens, thunders or crashes, let the man, who knows is rad, in order these Vashatkaras may not be interrupted. He who does so is freed from dying a second time, and attains to union with Brahman- SB


July 16 Sunday

Study and teaching are loved. He who practises them become composed in  mind. Independent of others, he daily attains his objects, sleeps pleasantly, becomes his own best physician. Control of his senses, concentration of mind, increase of intelligence, renown, capacity to educate mankind, are the results of study.–SB

July 17 Monday

On every occasion when a man studies the Vedic hymns, he in fact performs a  complete ceremonial of sacrifice

July 18 Tuesday

And even when a man perfumed with unguents, adorned with jewels, satiated with food, and reposing on a comfortable couch, studies the Veda, he has all the merit of one who performs penance felt to the very tip of his nails—SB


July 19 Wednesday

Hotri priest:-There will be a Soma sacrifice of such and such a one.; you are respectfully requested to as Hotar at it. The priest’s question:- What is the reward for the priest? and the reply “one hundred and 12 cows”

(It has a symbolic meaning)


July 20 Thursday

All enemies and foes of him who knows this ceremony die round about him. Round him five deities are dying, viz. lightning, rain, moon, sun, fire. The rain when fallen is absorbed by the moon which disappears; the moon at the time of the new is absorbed by the sun which disappears; and out of fire the sun is born and out of sun the moon is born. From the moon the rain is born. In this way he puts his enemy down even should he wear a stone helmet (AB ends with this spell)

July 21 Friday

The Lord of Creatures offered himself a sacrifice for the benefit of the devas. The Devas were mortals who thus became divine (Tandya Brahmana)

July 22 Saturday

Whatever sins we have committed by day or night, sleeping or awake, knowing or unknowing, remove them (Tandya Maha Brahmana)

July 23 Sunday

One half of him was mortal and the other half immortal and that which was mortal, he (Prajapati) was afraid of death – SB

July 24 Monday

For whatever blunder the Hotris commit at the sacrifice, without being aware of it, all that Agni the divine Hotri makes whole; and this is confirmed by a verse from the Rig Veda (Kaushitaki Brahmana)

July 25 Tuesday

Prajapati, having created all living beings, through affection entered within them. But afterwards he could not get out of them. Whoever performs an Ashvamedha attains profusion of wealth by extricating Prajapati – TB


July 26 Wednesday

Prajapati alone existed here in the beginning. He generated Agni (fire) from his mouth. Agni is the consumer of food; he who thus knows agni, becomes himself a consumer of food -SB2-2-4-1

July 27 Thursday

When they had sung praises, they went towards east saying, We will go back thither! The gods came upon a cow which had sprung into existence -SB

July 28 Friday

They said, Auspicious indeed, is what we have produced here, who have produced the cow; for truly she is sacrifice, and without her no sacrifice is performed; she is also the food, for the cow, indeed,  is all food (meaning is without milk and ghee, there is no sacrifice)-SB


July 29 Saturday

Prajapati was alone. He created a man from his soul (mind), a horse from his eye, cow from his breath, sheep from his ear and a goat from his voice (SB and PB 7-5-2-6)

July 30 Sunday

The same skin which belongs to the cow originally was on man. The gods speak, “Verily the cow supports everything here on earth; come, let us put on the cow that skin which is now on man; therewith she will be able to endure rain and coat and heat

July 31 Monday

The cows being desirous of obtaining hoofs and horns, held a sacrificial session. In the tenth month of their sacrifice, they obtained hoofs and horns. (AB)


(Stories in the Brahmanas are symbolic; statements can be interpreted only by seers; foreigners couldn’t understand the symbolism and bluffed through their translations)




Interesting Horse Story from the Vedas (Post No.3131)


compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 7 September 2016


Time uploaded in London: 19-27



Post No.3131


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



“Vedic ritual is a highly systematized performance of various elements, that include manipulations, formulas, liturgy, exchanges where some of these elements are varied according to specific rite these elements have symbolic significance”.


“The horse appears in the Rig Veda in connection with the story of Dadhyanc, the son of Atharvana, who knows the mystery of the sacrifice. Dadhyanc is the teacher of Madhu-vidya, the mystical doctrine that brahman is present every where (SB the name of this Vidya comes from the essence of sweetness in all flowers, transformed by bees into honey, which is not apparent to anyone.

(S.B.= satapata Brahmana, Madhu= Honey, Vidya= knowledge, doctrine)


“Upon Dadhyanc a horse head is placed by the Asvins, who wish to learn his knowledge (R.V.1-117-22). This story is explained in SB 14-1-18/24:

Now, Dadhyanc Atharvana knew this essence, this sacrifice – how this head of the sacrifice is put on again, how this sacrifice becomes complete. Indra said to him, ‘if you teach this (mystery) to anyone else, I will cut off your head.’


Now the Asvins heard this : Dadhyanc Atharvana knows this pure essence, this sacrifice – how this head of the sacrifice is put on again, how this sacrifice becomes complete.”


They went to him and said, “Let us be your pupils”.

He asked, “What do you wish to learn?”

“This pure essence, this sacrifice – how the head of sacrifice is put on again, how the sacrifice becomes complete”, they replied.


He said, “Indra has told me, ‘if you teach it to anyone else, I will cut off your head’. Therefore, I fear that he might indeed cut off my head. I will not accept you as pupils.”

They said, “We too will protect you from him.”

“How will you protect me?”, he asked.

They said, “When you accept us as your pupils, we will cut off your head and put it aside elsewhere. Then we will bring the head of a horse and put it on you, and you will teach us with it. When you have taught us, Indra will cut off that head of yours. Then we will bring your own head, and put it on you again”. He agreed and accepted them as pupils.


When he had received them as pupils, they cut off his head and put it aside elsewhere, and having brought the head of a horse, they plaed it on him. With that he taught them. And when he had taught them, Indra cut off that head of his. Then they brought his own head and placed it on him again.


This story provides a lesson abacus the meaning of sacrifice. Dadhyanc Atharvana, SB 6-4-2-3 tells us, is speech, which is the true vehicle of sacrifice. Speech has the power to transform and it transforms the speaker himself. Having spoken, one is not the same person,so the sacrifices causes one to lose one’s original head. The horse is head (here symbolizing time) is the source of transcendent knowledge.


There is another reference to Dadhyanc in the Rig Veda (1-84). Here Indra uses his bones to slay ninety-nine Vrtras. There are various versions of this one, Indra finds the bones of a dead Dadhyanc to fashion a thunderbolt to slay the Asuras (demons). In the Mahabharata (12-343) version of the story, Dadhyanc, upon hearng the unstoppable power of the demon Visvarupa, the son of Tvastr, gives up his body so that Indra can fashion a thunderbolt out of his bones. With this irresistible weapon, Indra triumphs over Visvarupa. This shows how words, even old ones like the bones of Dadhyanc represent, have the power to vanquish ignorance.


Source book:

The Asvamedha, The Rite and its Logic by Subhash Kak, Delhi, 2002


My old post on the same subject:

Horse Headed Seer: Rig Veda Mystery – 1
Research Paper written by London Swaminathan

Post No.1255; Dated 27th August 2014.


29 Names of Brahma!

brahma (1)halebedu
Brahma from Halbedu temple, Karnataka

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1423; Dated 20th November 2014.

Please read the First part of this article: Science behind Hindu God Brahma.
Hindu Vedas (Prajapati) and Brahmana (satapata) literature preserved the legend of Brahma alias Prajapati. Brahma is four faced who could see the entire universe. His four faces emit the sounds of Four Vedas.
Four faced Gods are found around the world. Svetovid/ Svatovid/Sventovit (meaning world seer, white in colour) are the names of Slavic God. Another four faced god is found in Sumer, but no one knows much about this god. All went from India and lost their identities in course of thousands of years. Statues of Brahma are found throughout South East Asia. Cambodian statues of Brahma are preserved in Guimet Museum, Paris, France.
Brahma ,Lakkundi, Karnataka
Brahma in Lakkundi Temple, Northern Karnataka

Amarakosa gives the following 29 names for Brahma (I am not sure about a few words. Sanskrit Dictionary and Vsihnu sahasranama are used for some word meanings):

1.Brahma = Big, Supreme, creator; To breathe is also another meaning. We can see him as the life breath of every creature or one who crated all that breathes.
2.Atmabhu = self existent
3.Surajyeshta = elder of the Devas/Deities
4.Parameshti = Giver of supreme desire, Moksha; he who stays in the lotus of heart; also who is worshipped with Yajnas (ishti).
5.Pitamahah = Grandfather
6.Hiranyagarba = Golden Egg
7.Lokesah = Lord of the world
8.Swayambhu = self existent (originated)
9.Chaturanana = Four faced
10.Datha = exalted; leader
11.Abjayonih= Lotus born
12.Druhinah= creator of the world
13.Kamalasanah = Lotus seated
14.Shrashtah = creator of the world
15.Prajapatih = Lord of all creatures
16.Veda = Vedas come from him
17.Vidhata = Exalted in heaven (leader)
18.Viswasrush = one who hears everything
19.Vidhih = Lord of Vedas; one who is in charge of Vidhi/fate
20.Nabijanma = born from the navel (of Vishn)
21.Andajah = Egg born
22.Purvah = First
23.Nidanah =?
24.Kamalodbhava =Lotus born
25.Sadanandah = Ever ha[y
26.Rajomurti: = in charge of Rajoguna
27.Satyakah = Truthful
28.Hamsavahanah = one who has swan as vehicle
29.Virinchi = Creator

He is invoked in all religious ceremonies. He is properly worshiped in a temple in Pushkar near Ajmer in Rajasthan. His statues are found in many temples in India.

Temple of Brahma in Prambhanan, Indonesia

Satapata Brahmana says,
He uttered Bhur, the earth appeared;
He said Bhuvar and the air appeared;
He said Suvar and the sky appeared
From these five syllables he created the seasons.
Prajapati then stood up. He was born aged a thousand years.
Just as one can see the far shore across a river, so could he contemplate the far shore across his age ( XI.1, 6, 6).

After Prajapati issued the living beings, his joints started to dislocate. His joints were the junctions of the day and night, full moon and new moon and the beginning of each season. Gods cured him by the ritual of Agnihotra, which tightened his joints. The sun would not rise if the priest did not make the offerings of fire at dawn (Satapata Brahmana II.3,1-5)

Vedic seers enjoy speaking in symbolic language. Above passage is an example.
Mandasore Stone inscription of Yasodharman (533 CE) refers to Brahma as the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.

Brahma temple, Pushkar, Rajasthan

Sanskrit Words Brahma, Brahmana and Brahman are confusing. Brahma is the first god in the Hindu Trinity: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva. Brahmana is the caste name in the four fold caste system: Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Shudra. Brahman means God, the Supreme God.

Hindu God Brahma had five heads, but lost one to Shiva. He is in charge of creation. He is in Ptah of Egypt and Svetovid of Baltic countries. His wife is Sarasvati or Vach (word). His vehicle is swan. All are white in colour. Brahma is red in colour but wears a white robe. From his face came the Vedas. He is a never stopping radio station broadcasting Vedas every second. Brahma is very generous and he gave lot of boons to Asuras/ Demons. Bali and Ravana got boons from him.

Indian sculptures and paintings show him seated on a lotus that came out of the navel of Vishnu who was lying on the cosmic serpent Ananta in the primordial waters.

Brahma at Guimet Museum, Paris; from Cambodia

In his four arms he holds a sceptre, s spoon, a string of beads or his bow, a water jug and the Vedas. His name Brahma and his story occur in the Valmiki Ramayana for the first time. In the Vedas he is known only as Prajapati. All the major temples in India have his statues. In all the hymns he is praised along with Vishnu and Sadashiva. In fact he stands first in the hymns : Brahma, Vishnu Sadhashiva. There are temples like Suchindram in Tamilnadu where all the three forms of Hindu Trinity are worshipped (sthanu+mal+ayan).

museum brahma