KALLANAI DAM – MARVEL OF TAMIL ENGINEERING! (Posst No.6323)


Karikal Choza image

WRITTEN  by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 29 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 9-31 am

Post No. 6323

Pictures shown here are taken by london swaminathan.

This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

Agastya Rishi

Why Do British Judges Follow a Tamil King? | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/why-do-british-judges-follow-a-tamil-…

13 Nov 2011 – British judges and several others who preside over the courts of justice … King Karikalan removed his white hair wig (Narai Mudi in Tamil) and …

Did Agastya drink ocean? | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/03/25/did-agastya-drink-ocean/

1.      

25 Mar 2014 – Another story told about Agastya is that he travelled to south at the behest of Lord Siva. It is true that either Siva or a Saivaite saint requested …

Karikal Choza and Eagle shaped Fire Altar | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2012/01/14/karikal-choza-and-eagle-shaped-fire-altar/

1.      

14 Jan 2012 – Karikal Choza and Eagle shaped Fire Altar. –S Swaminathan. Fire altar, Kerala, April 2004. Ancient Tamil kings followed Vedic customs in their …

Paranar | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/paranar/

1.      

2.      

Paranar narrated a sad story where in Karikal Chola’s daughter Adi Manthi lost her husband Attanathi in the river Kaveri. She cried and cried and ran along the …

Population Explosion: Oldest Reference is in Hindu … – Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/population-explosion-oldest-reference…

1.      

2 Feb 2013 – The oldest reference to a population explosionissue is in Hindu scriptures! … The pre independent trend in India was to see the ‘ghost of …

Miracles in Mahavamsa! | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/09/10/miracles-in-mahavamsa/

1.      

10 Sep 2014 – b)Famous Tamil king Karikalan was made a king by an elephant. … d)Tamil Choza king ordered beheading of a child, but a bold poet stopped it

சோழர்கள் தமிழர்களா? | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/சோழர்கள்-தமிழர்கள…

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15 Jul 2013 – … இயற்றியதையும் பருவக் காற்றைப்பயன்படுத்தி கப்பல் விட்டதையும் ஏற்கனவே … பருவக்காற்றைக் கண்டுபிடித்தது தமிழனா? 14.

–subham–

Durga, Agastya, Tamil and Sanskrit in Indonesia! (Post No.5239)

COMPILED by London swaminathan

Date: 20 JULY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 13-30  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5239

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

I have collected some interesting details from three research books about

1.Durga in Indonesia

2.Agastya in Indonesia

3.Sanskrit, Tamil & Javanese inscriptions

4.Pandava hero Bhima

5.rare pictures from 100 year old book

Statues of Goddess Durga and sage Agastya are found more in Indonesia than any other country in South East Asia.

 

All towns with the Candi in its name are actually Durga shrines.

Goddess Durga is found in two forms in Java and Bali Island. She is portrayed as Mahisasura- mardini (Durga slaying the Buffalo Demon) and Durga in bas-reliefs in temples.

 

Historical places in Central Java are

Candi Borobudur

Dieng Plateau

Mount Lawu

Mount Merapi

 

Sites with Durga Statues are

Gedong Songo Complex

Candi Prambanan

Candi Sambisari

Candi Sukuh

Durga Sites are dated from Fifth Century CE CE to 1527 CE. Durga worship was there for 1000 years till Muslim invaders occupied the places.  Now Hindus are isolated in Bali.

 

 

Beginning of Vedic Religion in Indonesia

Earliest inscriptions show Brahmins presence in Indonesia from 350 CE.

According to seven Kutai (Borneo) inscriptions of Mulavarman, he performed a yaga called Bahu-Suvarnaka (gold Donation in great measure). He gave the brahmins gold and 20,000 cows. This happned in the sacred ground of Vaprakesava. The Brahmins who participated in the fire sacrifices immortalized the occasion by setting Seven Yupa Pillars (sacrificial Posts). 2000 year Sanagm Tamil literature also refer to Yupa pillars during Pandya, Choza and Chera periods in Tamil Nadu.

 

Mulavarman’s father was Asvavarman. Mulavarmans Sanskrit inscriptions are in ‘anustubh’ and ‘arya’ metres. They are in Pallava script. So the Brahmins must have travelled from Tamil Nadu.

 

Purna Varman’s Inscription in West Java

The evidence of the Kutai inscriptions is followed by evidence from West Java in the form of  the inscriptions of Purnavarman.  He founded a kingdom vcalled Tarumanagara (Dharma Nagar). It is the earliest known kingdom in Java dated to 5th century CE. Archaeological records show that he had his capital near Jakarta. His name is inscribed on a number of stones, one of which was found in a stream. The kings foot prints were engraved on a boulder and it indicated he ruled or conquered that area. In the text of the inscription he compared his foot prints to those of Vishnu. He was considered one of Vishnu’s incarnations according to Javanese sources. He was not only the saviour of the world, but also as the world sustainer.

 

Chinese traveller Fa – Hsien also confirmed that Hinduism was more prevalent than Buddhism in Indonesia. On his return to China by trip from India,  he had to wait in Java in 414 CE for the trade winds. (Once the wind blows in the favourable direction, the ships will sail towards China). He wrote that ‘heresies and Brahmanism were flourishing, while the faith of Buddha was in a very unsatisfactory condition.’

 

In Central Javanese inscriptions, Durga is used in the curses. If any one violated the orders of the king in the donated lands, Durga will punish that one. The purpose  of the curse was to protect the ownership.

Agastya in two forms

The iconographical representation of the Goddess Durga of Candi Singhasari features a prominent skull ornament in her crown. It occupies the North chamber of the shrine.

The image of Agastya occupied the south chamber of the shrine, and so also follows the standard of the Central Javanese pantheon. However his head dress has undergone some changes compared to the image at Prambanan. In Central Java the sage waesr the Jatamukuta associated with ascetics devoted to Shiva in Indian tradition, whereas in the East Javanese period the sage wears a turban like head dress which is also found very prominently on priestly figures in the narrative reliefs of East Java, and in Ketu headdresses of priests depicted in the wayang style of painting in Bali.

 

Agastya was sent to south b Lord Shiva in the Himalayas. A star is named after him in the Southern Direction and it is called Canopus- Agastya Nakshatra.

Hindu images of Mahadeva, Agastya, Nandisvara and Ganesa are found in the valley of River Pontun in East Borneo.

XXXX

 

DURGA IN INSCRIPTIONS

Pre Majapahit inscriptions mentioned Durga as Bhattari Arcarupa (Terep Inscription dated 1032 CE of King Airlangga)

The Camundi inscription (Of King Kertanagara 1292 CE) decribed Goddess Durga as a granter of victory. We see Durga as a curse giving deity in early inscriptions.

 

27 Inscriptions of AnakWungsu

27 inscriptions are issued during the reign of Anak Wungsu, the youngest son of Mahedradattaa and Udayana. The were issued between 1050-1070 CE. Many of these inscriptions refer to Anak’s parents as Bhatara (male) and Bhatari (female), which mean deity or defied ancestor.

From the historical point of view the marriage of Balinese prince Udayana and Mahedradattaa brought with it radical changes to Balinese culture. They had a son by name Airlangga and he went on to regain power in East Java. At that time Dharmawangsa was ruling. He was very much interested in literature and arranged several Sanskrit works translations into old Javanese.

‘Bharatayuddha’, ‘Arjunawivaha’ and ‘Ghatotkacasrya’ were some of the literary productions of this period.

 

Another famous son of Udayana-Mahendradatta was Dharmawangsa Marakata.

 

One of the 27 inscriptions refer to a Durga statue in Kurti.

The image of Durga Mahisasuramardhani at Kurti stands 2-2 meters high. It portrays the Goddess as having six arms. Her right arms are carrying a javelin, an arrow and a flaming disc, while her left arms are carrying a winged and flaming conch, a bow and a shield. She is standing on a buffalo with her legs spread apart. Durga was identified with Rangda in Bali in later periods.

Bhima and Bhairava Statues

 

Bhima cult is also prevalent in Bali. There is a statue of Bhima at Kebo Eda temple, Pejeng, Gijanyar District in Bali. The gigantic statue is often referred to as Bhima since he wears a head dress as Supiturang or lobster claw head dress which is typical head dress of Bhima in East Java.

 

The typical form of Bhima in the East Java culture of supernatural power can be found in massive figures of Bhima visible in reliefs at Candi Sukuh, located on the slopes of Mount Lawu, on the border of East and Central Java.

 

Since the statue at Kebo Edan temple is standing on a corpse some people consider it a Bhairava statue. The large dangling penis insert of this statue is shown protruding from  between the folds of his loin cloth. Several penis inserts are found in different temples in statues.

 

Another important feature of the Bhairava image at Pura Kebo Edan in Bali is that this gigantic figure, over 3-5 meters high, appears to be wearing a mask. Bhairava is called Ugra, Bhairava and Bhima by local people.

Three Tamil inscriptions

 

Tamil’s maritime trade is known from the three Tamil inscriptions in South East Asia and a bell in New Zealand. Some inscriptions are found in China as well; but all these are later than 1000 BCE. Though Pallavas, Pandyas and particularly Cholas were active in the sea front we don’t find many inscriptions; only literary sources give us the details.

 

Three Tamil inscriptions are found in South East Asia. Of these two have been found in Malaysia. One is the Thakupa inscription which refers to a powerful Tamil guild. This inscription is dated to ninth century.

The second Tamil inscription from Malaya is a damaged stele from Malaya is a damaged stele from the Choza period; it has been now preserved in a temple in Nakhon Sri Dhammarat.

The third Tamil inscription is from Sumatra, Indonesia. This one is from Loba Tuva and dated 1088 CE

 

OTHER INTERESTING INSCRIPTIONS

Long afterwards we come across an epigraphic record, usually called Grahi inscription, dated 1183. It records the orders of Maharaja Srimat Trilokya Raja Mauli Bhusana Varma deva for casting of a statue of Buddha.

 

Of more historical importance is the Caiya (Jaya) inscription of King Candrabhanu, also called Dharmaraja who has been designated Tambralingesvara.

Tambralinga was located on the former site of Grahi, and the details of the misadventure in Sri Lanka have been recorded in the chronicles of that island and records of South India.

 

Seven Buddhist inscriptions were found in Batu Pahat, near the springs of Sungai Tekarek.

Gold objects discovered in Limbangare preserved in Brunei Museum. Vestiges of Tantric shrine and other materials excavated at Bonkissam, Santubong, in Sarawak river delta are remarkable. The Santubong discoveries include a man made structure of stone. gold objects including a Linga. They belong to 11th or 12th centuries.

Sumatra Inscriptions

There are three from the Palembang region:-

Kedukan Bukit dated 682 CE

Talang Tuvo 684 CE

Telaga Batu – undated

and three more

Krang Brahi dated686 (located on the upper course of Batang Hari

Kota Kapur in the Bangka Island.

King Adityavarman Inscription found in Manangkabau Area

 

(Sumatran Tamil Inscription detail already given)

 

Thirty more inscriptions are available from Sumatra.

Inscriptions from Bali Island

Ten inscriptions before Anak Wungu (1050 CE)

One of them is in Old Balinese and Sanskrit languages. It is a bilingual inscription.

 

Reign of Anak Wungu (1050-1078)

52 inscriptions are listed

King Jayasakti (1113-1150) and King Ragajaya – 14

King Jayapangus- 37

Adiknteketana (1204)

His son Paramesvara

 

 

— subham–

 

 

TRADE AND COMMERCE IN VEDIC DAYS (Post No.5075)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

 

Date: 4 JUNE 2018

 

 

Time uploaded in London – 14-31

 

Post No. 5075

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU

 

Tamil epic Silappadikaram have two Sanskrit words Maha Nayaka (maanaaykkan in Tamil) and Maha Saarthavaaha (maasaaththuvaan in Tamil) as the names of the fathers of hero and heroine (Kannaki and Kovalan) of the poem. These are common nouns and not proper nouns.

 

The roots of these Sanskrit words are in ancient Sanskrit literature. Though the word Saarthavaaha (Leader of the Merchants) did not find a place in the Vedas they used the word ‘Pani’ for the businessmen.

The word Saarthavaaha is in Amarakosa. The commentator explains it- ‘one who is the leader of the travelling merchants who invested their own capital’. Saartha is defined as the group of travellers. They invest equal amount of money and travel to other market places in groups. Like the Hindu devotees go in groups under some Gurus, they have caravan leaders.

 

Atharva Veda (12-1-47 etc) speaks about trade routes. The Prithvi Sukta (Earth Hymn) says about Panthas or routes of our great land.

Now the salient features of Earth Hymn in connection with the Trade and Commerce:-

Thy many pathways for men to travel on

the roads for chariots, and for wagons to pass through

on which walk together both good and evil men,

may we be masters of those, and drive out the thief and foe. (12-47)

 

May the earth with people who speak various tongues

and those who have various rites

according to their places of abode

pour for me treasure in a thousand streams

like a constant cow that never fails (12-45)

 

(Vedic people visited several countries speaking different language)

 

Earth in which are cities, the work of Devas

and fields where men are variously employed;

Earth that bears all things kin her womb

may the Lord of Life make her graceful for us from every side (AV 12- 43)

 

 

The following points are considered important in the hymn:

1.This land has many routes

2.Thesee routes were the principal means of communication of the people.

3.On these routes the chariots plied.

4.They were routes for Bullock carts as well.

  1. Everyone had the right to use the routes.
  2. However it was necessary for the king to ensure the safety of merchants. He had to protect them from wild animals and robbers.

7.Well guarded and safe routes symbolised the happiness of the earth.

 

Ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature have several verses about the robbers who waylaid merchants and  snatched their goods or even goods of the public.

 

Panini, the grammarian of Seventh century BCE, says about Uttarapatha (Grand Route in North India). When he says ‘Uttara’, we may assume there was also Dakshina patha (Grand Route to/in South India).

Agastya laid a grand road route to South India between 800 and 1000 BCE. While Rama and others used coastal route before, Agastya for the first time laid a land route via the Vindhya mountains.

 

Following is from my very old post:

Did Agastya drink ocean?

 

Agastya was one of the greatest travellers of ancient India. He was mentioned in the Rig Veda and the Ramayana. He slowly moved southward and established an ashram at the western ghats- Pothya malai. There are lot of myths about him. All this can be explained scientifically. He did divert the river Cauvery to the present Chola mandala like Baghiratha diverted Ganga. But in thousands of years it became a myth and we read a crow tilted the ‘kamandalam’ (pot) of Agastya and thus came River Cauvery.

 

Another story told about Agastya is that he travelled to the south at the behest of Lord Siva. It is true that either Siva or a Saivite saint requested him to go to the south to disperse the population. The story of Siva’s (Meenakshi wedding) Tirulkalyanam makes it clear by  saying the overcrowding of the earth tilted the balance and Siva requested Agastya to go southward (with a big group). Our fore fathers were such a great planners that they did what we are doing today-building satellite cities! This story is in Tiruvilayadal puranam and other books.

Did Agastya drink the ocean? Agastya was the first person to cross the Indian ocean for the first time to establish a great Hindu empire in South East Asia.  We now knew that there was a flourishing Hindu colony in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia (Angkor Wat temple), Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Borobudur Stupi) for 1500 years. Now they are all converted as Muslims. Like Columbus and Magellan, he crossed the ocean- that is he ‘drank’ the ocean! It is a symbolic story. Agastya’s statues are displayed through out South East Asian countries even today.

 

One another myth about Agastya is that he made the Vindhya Hill not to grow again. This is another symbolic story to say that he crossed the Vindhyas for the first time through the ‘land route’. Before him North and South Indians used coastal sea routes. Tamil literature also makes it very clear in several places that Agastya came to the south with 18 groups of people and he was the one who codified a grammar for Tamil. A massive exodus from the North followed Agastya.

This is explained in the Puranas as Agastya ‘belittling’ the Vindhyas in the Puranas/mythology. Agastya was the first one to find a sea route to South East Asia around 1000 BCE which the Puranas .

 

 

The Dasakumara Charita of Dandi mentioned the name Raameshu (Hindu name) as Captain of a Ship. It is a typical Hindu name. Even today we can find names Ramesh, Rama Seshan, Ramesan in South Indian and North Indian telephone directories. Old authors guessed it as Rama jesus. It is wrong. It is like saying I am selling ‘Hot Ice Cream’.

–SUBHAM–

இலக்கியமின்றி இலக்கணமின்றே! இந்திய அதிசயம்!! (Post No.3007)

450px-agastyaprambananindonesia

Agastya in Indonesia

Research Article written by London Swaminathan

Date:26 July 2016

Post No. 3007

Time uploaded in London :–  16-45

( Thanks for the Pictures)

 

DON’T REBLOG IT AT LEAST FOR A WEEK!  DON’T USE THE PICTURES; THEY ARE COPYRIGHTED BY SOMEONE.

 

(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com)

 

 

agastya-in-london

Agastya in London V and A Museum

 

இலக்கியமின்றி யிலக்கணமின்றே

எள்ளின்றாயினெண் ணெயுமின்றே

எள்ளின் றெண்ணெயெடுப்பது போல

இலக்கிட்யத்தினின்றே பருமிலக்கணம்

 

என்று பேரகத்தியத்தில் ஒரு பாட்டுளது.

பொருள்:-

இலக்கியம் இல்லாமல் இலக்கணம் வராது. எள் இல்லாமல் எண்ணை வராது. எள்ளில் இருந்து எண்ணை எடுப்பது போல இலக்கியத்திலிருந்தே இலக்கணம் வரும்.

 

இது மிக அருமையான கருத்து. கோழி முதலில் வந்ததா? முட்டை முதலில்  வந்ததா? பதில் சொல்லுவது கடினம். கோழி இல்லாமல் முட்டை வராது. முட்டை இல்லாமல் கோழி வராது.

 

ஆண் முதலில் பிறந்தானா? பெண் முதலில் பிறந்தாளா? ஆணில்லாமல் பெண்ணில்லை; பெண்ணில்லாமல் ஆண் இல்லை. பதில் சொல்வது கடினம்.

 

ஆதாம், முதலில் வந்ததாகவும், அவரது இடது விலா எலும்பிலிருந்து ஏவாள் வந்ததாகவும் பைபிள் கூறும். இது இந்து மதக் கதை. ஆதாம் = அத்மா, ஈவ் (ஏவாள்)= ஜிவ்+ஆத்மா. அர்த்தநாரீஸ்வர ர்- சிவனின் இடப்பாகம் உமா. அதுதான் ஏவாள் .

 

சதரூபா-  பிரம்மா கதையிலும் இது வருகிறது. பிரம்மா தனது சொந்த மகள் மீதே காதல் கொண்டதாக புராணம் கூறும். இதன் உட்பொருள் ஆதாம் தானே உருவாக்கிய ஒரு பெண்ணுடன் கூடி மனித இனத்தை உருவாக்கினான் என்பதே இதன் உட்கருத்து.

 

முட்டையோ கோழியோ ஏதோ ஒன்று முதலில் வந்திருக்கவேண்டும். அதே போல் ஆணோ பெண்ணோ யாரோ ஒருவர் முதலில் வந்திருக்கவேண்டும்..

 

இலக்கணம் முதலில் வந்ததா?

 

இலக்கணம் முதலில் வந்ததா, இலக்கியம் முதலில் வந்ததா? என்பது மற்றொரு புதிரான கேள்வி இதற்குப் பேரகத்தியம் என்னும் நூலே பதில் சொல்லும்

agastyanepal-carole-r-bolon

Agastya in Nepal

 

இலக்கியமின்றி யிலக்கணமின்றே

எள்ளின்றாயினெண் ணெயுமின்றே

எள்ளின் றெண்ணெயெடுப்பது போல

இலக்கிட்யத்தினின்றே பருமிலக்கணம்

 

 

இலக்கியம்தான் முதலில் வந்தது. இலக்கணம் அதன் பின்னரே எழுந்தது. அப்படியானால் முதலில் எழுதியோர் இலக்கணமில்  லாமல் எழுதினரா? ஆமாம் அப்படித்தான். பின்னர் இதைப் பார்த்து இதிலுள்ள பொதுவான அம்சங்களை வைத்து இலக்கணம் எழுதினர். அதற்குப் பின் வந்தவர்கள் அதைப் பார்த்து, அதில் எல்லோரும் பின்பற்றிய விதிகளை வைத்து இலக்கணம் கற்பித்தனர். அதை ஒட்டி எல்லோரும் பிற்காலத்தில் எழுதினர்.

இந்தக் கருத்து சம்ஸ்கிருதத்திலும் உளது. மேலும் இலக்கணம், இலக்கியம் என்பன லக்ஷணம், லக்ஷ்யம் என்னும் வடமொழிச் சொற்களில் இருந்து பிறந்தவை!

 

தமிழ் மொழிக்கு அகத்தியர் என்னும் வடபுல முனிவர் இலக்கணம் எழுதினார். அவருக்கு முன்னரே தமிழ் மொழி இருந்தது . இலக்கியங்களும் இருந்தன. அதைப் பயன்படுத்தி அகத்தியர் இலக்கணம் யாத்தார். அகத்தியர் காலம் குறித்து பல கருத்துகள் உள்ளன. முதல் அகத்தியர் கி.மு 1000 வாக்கில் அல்லது கி.மு 700 வாக்கில் தமிழ் நாட்டிற்கு வந்தார். அப்படியானால் அவர் காலத்திலேயே தமிழ் மொழியும் இருந்தது; இலக்கியங்களும் இருந்தன. ஆயினும் அவை அனைத்தும் அழிந்து போயின. பிற்கால அகத்தியரின் சீடரே தொல்காப்பியர் எனக் கொள்ளல் வேண்டும் ஏனெனில் தொல்காப்பியர் காலத்தை கி.மு முதல் நூற்றாண்டு என்றே மொழியியல் காட்டுகிறது. ஆயினும் அவர் சொல்லும் ஏராளமான உவம உருபுகள் சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் இல்லாததால் அவருக்கு முந்தியிருந்த இலக்கியத்தில் இருந்தவற்றையே அவர் எழுதியிருக்கவேண்டும்.

 

பல அகத்தியர்கள் இருந்ததை சம்ஸ்கிருத இலக்கியமும் ஒப்புக்கொள்கிறது.

agastya

Agastya Statue

உலக மஹா இலக்கிய அதிசயம்!

இதே கருத்தை வடமொழிக்கும் பயன்படுத்தினால் உலக மஹா அதிசயம் வெளியாகும்.

 

தமிழ் மொழி இலக்கியத்தின் காலம் கி.மு முதல் நூற்றாண்டு. ஆனால வ்வேத இலக்கியத்தின் காலமோ கி.மு.1400 முதல் கி.மு,.6000 வரை என்று அறிஞர்கள் ஒப்புவர். அதற்குப் பின் ஏராளமான இலக்கண ஆசிரியர்கள் தோன்றினர். வேத இலக்கியத்திற்குப் பின் எழுந்த பாணினி என்னும் முனிவரின் இலக்கன்ணமே என்று எஞ்சி நிற்கிறது. அவர் கி.மு ஏழாம் நூற்றாண்டைச் சேர்ந்தவர். இன்றுள்ள இலக்கணங்களில் அவர் எழுதியதே பழமையான இலக்கணம். அவரே பத்து இலக்கணகர்த்தாக்களின் பெயர்களைச் சொல்லுகிறார்.

அபிசாலி, கார்க்ய,காஸ்யப, காலவ, சக்ரவர்மண,பாரத்வாஜ, சாகடாயன, சாகல, சேனக, ஸ்போடாயன.

 

இவர்களில் ஒருவர் எழுதிய இலக்கணமும் நமக்குக் கிடைக்கவில்லை. வேதங்களின்  பெரும்பாலான பகுதிகளும் ஆயிரக்கணக்கான சம்ஸ்கிருத நூல்களும் அழிந்துவிட்டன.

 

ஆயினும் வேதங்களில் இந்த முனிவர்கள் சிலரின் பெயர்கள் காணப்படுகின்றன.

 

ஆனால் ரிக்வேதத்திலேயே இலக்கணம் பற்றிய சொற்கள் இருக்கின்றன. இதனால் கி.மு 1400 அல்லது அதற்கு முன்னரே இலக்கணம் இருந்ததை அறிகிறோம். இன்றுள்ள மொழிகளில் மிகவும் பழமையான சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் இப்படி இருப்பது உலக அதிசயம் மட்டுமல்ல. உலக நாகரீகம் தோன்றியது இந்தியாவே என்பதை  ஐயம் திரிபற, உள்ளங்கை நெல்லிக்கனி எனக் காட்டும். ஏனெனில் ஒரு நாட்டின் மொழி வளர்ச்சி அந்நாட்டின் நாகரீக வளர்ச்சியின் அளவு கோலாகும். இலக்கியமும் இலக்கணமும் வேத காலத்திலேயே தோன்றியது என்றால் அதற்கு முன்னரே சம்ஸ்கிருதம் இருந்திருக்க வேண்டும்.

 

உலகில் மிகப்பரிய மொழி அதிசயம் இது;

உலகில் மிகப்பரிய இலக்கண அதிசயம் இது;

உலகில் மிகப்பரிய இலக்கிய அதிசயம் இது;

உலகில் மிகப்பரிய மொழி இயல் அதிசயம் இது.

 

வாழ்க சம்ஸ்கிருதம்! வளர்க தமிழ்!!
–Subham–

New Zealand Maoris and Chinese Worship Agastya!

450px-agastyaprambananindonesia
Agastya from Prambanan ,Indonesia

Research Paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1319; Dated 30 September 2014.

I have written about Agastya’s presence and worship in South East Asian countries outside India. We see his statues in all the countries of South East Asia and all major museums around the world. I have also pointed out what ‘Agastya drank the ocean’ and ‘Agastya Humbling the Vindhya Hills’ meant. It means he was the first Brahmin to cross the ocean to establish a Hindu empire in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and beyond. He was the first one to lay a road route to South India. Before that all the Rishis (sages) used the sea coast to travel around India where it was easy to cross the huge rivers with boats. They avoided travelling through thick forests of central India. But Agastya, a great engineer and a pioneer of ancient India, broke all these traditions. In fact he paved the way to Columbus, Magellan, Vasco Da Cama, Captain Cook, Marco polo and umpteen Greek and Roman sailors.

agastya ashram

Now let us look at his presence in China and New Zealand. Scholars have arrived at a conclusion about the origin of Polynesians. They say that they migrated from Taiwan area of China to different locations. But they settled in Indonesia and adjacent countries and slowly migrated to New Zealand and other Pacific islands.

Agastya’s name as a saint and a star is in China in Fu Lu Shou worship. But his presence in Maoris of New Zealand was not noticed by any one. When I was searching for the Star Canopus I was surprised to find his name in Maori worship in New Zealand. Since all Polynesians came from China region they could have brought it to Indonesia or they could have taken it from Indonesian Hindus. Whole of South East Asia was Hindu-Buddhist rule for 1300 years till Muslims occupied those lands.

Maori tribes have several names for Agastya/Canopus star:
Ariki= High born (one of the seven virtues of sages is high birth)
Atutahi, Aotahi = all these are corrupted form of AGATHI (ya)
Tapu = Tapas (penance)
dr k ravi kumaragastya
Agastya and Lopamudra, modern period.

Since scholars could not find any etymology in Maori language they used the ordinary meaning for those words stand alone, solitary etc.

Food is offered to the star as offering. This shows the respect and worship of Maoris.
One mythology says that Atutahi was left out of the basket when Tane wove it. This is a Hindu story where he was known to be born out of a pot (basket). Agastya is called Kumbha muni, Kalasi Suta, Ghatodbhava and Kumbha sambhava all meaning pot born or basket born. Atutahi sounds Agathi.

It is interesting to compare the veneration, worship, food offering and star staus with that of the Hindu Agastya. Hindus also has his name in Sraddha mantra ( ancestor worship). Sanskrit saying praises him as the patron saint of the sailors:
sriagathiyarlopamudratemple72

Agastyodaye jalani prasidanti = when the star Agastya rises, the waters become calm.

Mr A Kalyanaraman, author of Aryatarangini has done extensive research in Agastya cult and Maori culture. He gives lot of Sanskrit terms from Maori culture: See page 307 to 377 of Aryatarangini – part 2.
Hindu scriptures praise him as “fish of great lustre” born in a water jar.

He was very small when he was born, not more than a span in length and he was called Mana. Mana means term of measurement, respectful and son of Mana as well.

Canopus in Latin means a vase or jar. Vedas praise him as the priest respected by both the Varnas (RV 1-179), may be Devas and Asuras. We know the story of Asuras Vatapi and Ilvalan inviting him for dinner.

agastyanepal, carole R Bolon
Agastya from Nepal by Carole R Bolon

Agastya is associated with the South in Kalidasa’s Raguvamsam, Sangam literature and Hindu Puranas. He was one of the ancient Rishis in the rig-Veda. Shrikant G. Talageri points out five families of Rishis of early period including Agastya’s mention the three Vedic goddesses in the same order Bharati, Ila, Sarsvati. Later period Rishis change this order. Kalidasa links Agastya with Pandya kings.

All sages that were born in the Agastya gotra (clan) were called Agastya Rishis leading to lot of confusion. Ashramas of Agastya were shown in different places in different periods adding to this confusion. One must remember different Agastyas lived at different periods with the same surname.

Chinese_temple_malaysia
Chinese Temple in Malysia: Fu Lu Shou

Agastya in China

Chinese worship three Devas Fu, Lu, Shou representing Happiness, Prosperity and Longevity. They are worshipped as stars in the sky. Fu represents Jupiter (Guru), Lou represents Vasishta Nakashatra in Ursa Major constellation or Saptarishi Mandalam and Shou represents Agastya Naksahatra /Canopus in the southern sky. They have been worshipping these stars in the form of three human figures for at least 800 years. There is no doubt that they have learnt all these things from the Hindus. Vasishta and Arundhati are in Sangam Tamil literature which is at least 2000 years old. Agastya Star is visible only for people living in the southern latitudes. Only Hindus could have made him a God or a Star!

candi banon

My previous articles on Agastya in the past four years:

Is Brahmastra a Nuclear Weapon?
Agastya in Jataka Tales and Kalidasa
Did Agastya drink ocean?
Population Explosion: Oldest reference in Hindu scriptures
Ravana-Pandya Peace Treaty! Kalidasa solves a Tamil Puzzle

map_sirius_web
Star Canopus is at the bottom right.
Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

Ravana – Pandya Peace Treaty! Kalidasa solves a Tamil Puzzle!

pandya-flags
Flags of the Pandyas

Written by London Swaminathan
Post No. 1128; dated 24th June 2014.

N.B. If you want to reproduce this article, please email me for permission. You must get written permission from me for each and every article separately. swami_48@yahoo.com

A ninth century Pandya copper plate said that Ravana, King of Sri Lanka made a peace agreement with a Pandya king. Most famous Tamil commentator of 13th century also said an interesting story about this treaty in his commentary on Maduraikanchi, part of 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature. Many people were wondering whether it is just a story or an actual historical treaty. But Kalidasa, the greatest of the Indian poets, solved the problem by referring to the peace treaty in his Raghuvamsam (6-61 and 6-62).

Pathupattu in Tamil (Ten long poems) has ten books and one of them is Maduraikanchi. This very long poem has a reference to Ravana (lines 40-42). Nachinarkiniar, a Tamil commentator, was a prolific writer and well respected by one and all. He gives us an interesting story:-

Agastya
Statues of Agastya are found throughout South East Asian countries (Picture from Wikipedia)

Ravana was giving troubles in the southern part of the country. One day Agastya watched Ravana sitting in a part of Pothya hills (art of Tamil Nadu). Ravana was in deep contemplation. Agastya sensed some trouble from him. Immediately he started playing on his Veena. ((Both Ravana and Agastya were great instrumentalists. Ravana’s flag had Veena emblem)). As soon as Agastya played on the Veena, the rock melted and Ravana was stuck to the melting Rocks. He did not even notice it. Only when Agastya stopped and the rocks became solid again, he realised he was stuck to the rocks. He begged to Agastya to release him. Agastya put a condition that he should never ever do any mischief in the Pandya country. He agreed to the condition and “a peace treaty was signed between India and Sri Lanka”! He was released immediately.
We had this message repeated by Nachinarkiniar in his commentary on the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam. But there was no secondary confirmation from any other source except Kalidasa. Not many scholars knew about this reference. Kalidasa says,

“Pandya wore pearl garlands and sandal paste. He was soaked in Avabrutha Snanam during Asvamedha yajna. Ravana was so scared that Pandya may attack and capture his Janasthana (in Dandakaranya), so he made a peace treaty with the Pandya king and then went to win Indraloka. Pandya was praised for receiving a weapon (Brahmsiras) from Lord Shiva.

mount_kailash_tibet_465065
Ravana lifting Kailash, Ellora Cave Sculptures

Kalidasa’s details are corroborated by some archaeological finds. A coin with Asvamedha horse was found and it had Peruvazuthi inscribed on it. Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi did lot of Yagas and his country was full of Yupa poles, says the oldest part of Sangam literature.

I have written several articles in this blog to establish the date of Kalidasa as first century BCE. Tamil poets used 200 plus similes from Kalidasa’s 1000+ similes. I have followed several Sanskrit scholars and a Tamil scholar GU Pope in supporting this date. As soon as GU Pope (1828- 1920) read Tamil Kurinjipattu of Kabilar, he wrote, 100 years ago, that Kurinipattu, echoed Kalidasa. In fact Kabilar, a Brahmin poet, well versed in Sanskrit, composed Kurinjipattu just to show the greatness of Tamil to a North Indian King who ridiculed the Tamil language. Later that king became a Tamil enthusiast and wrote Tamil poems which were included in the Sangam corpus.

Kalidasa was the first tourist guide and travel writer in the world (better than Ulysseus). His Meghadutam is like a tourist guide. All the important places between the Vindhyas and the Himalayas are described. His knowledge about the geography is also amazing. He described the places and customs in countries from Iran to Indonesia. His remark about the Pandyas in six slokas (verses) in the sixth chapter of Raghuvamsam shows how much he knew about the Tamil history. Kalidasa also described the close relationship between Agastya and the Pandyas. All the Tamil inscriptions praise Agastya as the Kula Guru of Pandyas who play main part in the coronation ceremonies. Probably he met the Pandya king at one time. He even said that he was dark and drenched with the Avabrutha snanam (ritual bathing) during Asvamedha Yagas. Earlier in the fourth chapter of Raghuvamsam also he referred to Pandya and Agastya in consecutive verses.

_coin_of_the_Pandyas_Sri_Lanka_1st_century_CE
Pandy acoin found inSri Lanka, 1st Century CE

Other Tamil books and Tamil inscriptions say that Agastya was sent to the South by Lord Shiva to solve the population problem in the North ( I have already written a post about it describing the first population explosion in the world). Agastya was the one who codified a grammar to Tamil language. It was said that he brought Yadava tribes from Gujarat (Dwaraka).

Conclusion: Kalidasa and Nachinarkniar believed that Pandya kings ruled from time immemorial and the Pandya king who ruled during Ramayana period was a powerful king. Even Ravana was afraid of the mighty Pandya Empire. Pandyas were great Hindus who did Yagas a lot. Oldest section of Tamil Sangam poems corroborated it. Coins also confirmed it.

Pandya_territories
Mighty Pandya Empire.

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