Comets in Brhat Samhita!

Written by London swaminathan

Research Article No.1861; Dated 13 May 2015.

Uploaded in London at 10-38 am

It is amazing to read about the chapter on Comets in the Brhat Samhita which Varahamihira wrote 1500 years ago. No modern astronomer can appreciate it with today’s knowledge of comets. But if you consider the knowledge that existed 1500 years ago, Varahamihira’s knowledge was far better than others. He quotes his predecessors who might have lived at least a few hundred years before him. First let us look at what today’s scientists say about the comets:-

Comet Halebopp

What is a Comet?

 

Comets are essentially piles of rock, gravel, and dust held together by various kinds of ice – essentially water and carbon dioxide ice.

As the comet nears the sun, its icy tail turns into a gas and blows away – due to pressure from the solar wind and sunlight.

They also release dust and gravel which tend to follow the comet around the sun – and if the Earth’s orbit intersects this material, it results in annual meteor showers.

According to the latest count there are over 5000 comets.

Varahamihira’s Chapter on Comets:

Varahamihira wrote over sixty couplets about comets. He did not have the modern facilities like Telescope or other electronic equipment. He says that sages Garga, Parasara, Asita, Devala and others had already written about the comets. They must have observed the sky for hundreds of years to write so much about it.

Now scientists are warning about Dark Comets crashing on to earth which would not glow because they lost its ice. This means that our knowledge is growing slowly with all the modern equipment. Two centuries ago astronomers thought that there are only 500 comets. But Garga told us that there are 1000 comets!

I will just summarise the ancients’ thoughts on Comets:

1.It is not possible to determine by calculation the rising or setting of the comets. (It is true even today. Now and then amateur astronomers discover new comets and now there over 5000 comets. Unless we know the orbits, we can’t say whether it will come back to earth or not. Halley’s Comet is a regular visitor which appears every 85 years).

2.There are three categories of comets as celestial, atmospheric and terrestrial (It would not make any sense in modern astronomy).

3.The atmospheric Ketus (Dhumaketu=comet) are those that are sighted on flagstaff, buildings, trees, horses elephants and other animals. The celestial ones are seen amidst the constellations, and the terrestrial ones are those that do not come under either of the two categories (I honestly don’t know what Varahamihira means by these three categories).

Comet Mcnaught

4.Some sages like Parasara speak of 101 Ketus (comets), while others such as Garga of 1000 Ketus (comets). However sage Narada declares that there is only one Ketu which appears in many forms and places (Probably Narada means to say that all comets are made of same materials).

5.Next Varahamihira gives his opinion: “What difference does it make whether there is a single Ketu or many? Under any circumstance, its effects ought to be declared through the positions of its appearance and setting, contact with planets or asterisms, smoky mantle and colours.

Halley’s Comet

6.The effects of Ketu (comet):- The effects of comet (Ketu) would be felt for so many months as the number of days during which it remains visible. Similarly its effect would last for so many years as the number of months during which it remains visible. However the effects in all cases would come to pass only after the first three fortnights of its appearance (This verse has got different interpretations from Bhattotpala. Al Biruni also commented on this verse)

7.All Ketus are not evil. There are some which augur well for the world. If a Ketu be short, slender, clear, glossy, straight, white and visible and if its appearance is followed by rain, there would be abundance of food crops and happiness.

8.A comet whose form is contrary to what has been described above, is considered as Dhumaketu – a portentous comet – that has risen; and it is disastrous in its effects, all the more so when resembles the rainbow or is possessed of two or three crests.

My comments: These couplets show that the Hindus have been observing comets for several hundreds of years or thousands of years before 500 CE. Otherwise they could not write about different colours and different types. It is scientifically true that comets appear in different colours and shapes. But its effects are not proved scientifically. Tamils also believed in its effects. Sangam Tamil Literature confirmed the death of a king within seven days of the appearance of a comet. I have already given the full details from Purananauru verse in one of my articles.

Comet Lovejoy seen from Japan.

  1. Varahamihira introduces a new element in to the Study of comets. He had written about the effects of comets appearing in different directions from East to North

10.He described the types of comets in many verses which would not be understood by modern astronomers (Please see the charts).

  1. It requires lot of research by astronomers to see whether any of the information given by Varahamihira is useful today. We must appreciate that he had summarised the ancient Hindus’ knowledge in over 50 couplets 1500 years ago. The world was without much knowledge about comets at that time. Comets only created fear among the public in the ancient past.

I have followed Brhat Samhita translated in to English from Sanskrit by Prof. M Ramakrishna Bhat.


Comet Chart 1

Comet Chart 2.

Subham.

Is it good to see Three Suns in the Sky?

Picture of three Suns in Mongolia

Compiled by London swaminathan

Article No.1856; Dated 10 May 2015.

Uploaded in London at 20-30

A news item about the appearance of three Suns in Mongolia excited a lot of people around the world. It happened in the third week of January this year (2015) in Mongolia. When I was working as Sub Editor of Dinamani newspaper we published one such news item from Karaikal. Actually it happens very often, but go unnoticed because of the time and location.

We have one chapter on Mock Suns also known as Sun Dogs in the Sanskrit Encyclopaedia Brhat Samhita written 1500 years ago. Varahamihira in that book says that he has summarised all those information from twenty other authors who lived well before his time. So Hindus knew about this natural phenomena at least 2000 years ago.

Let us first look at what Varahamihira says and then the science behind the Mock Suns:

Chapter 37 of Brhat Samhita

1)A mock sun is auspicious, if it is glossy and possessed of the colour appropriate for the Sun in the particular season, if it is similar to beryl in lustre, and is clean and white, it is productive of happiness and plenty

Pratisuraka prasasto divasakrydrutuvarnasaprabhah snigdhah

vaiduryanibha svachchah suklasca kshemasaurbikshah

 

2)A mock sun that is yellow engenders diseases; one of the colour of the Asoka flowers (red) leads to clash of arms; and row of mock suns causes dangers from robbers, diseases and murder of kings.

Pito vyadhim janayatya sokarupascha sastrakopaya

Pratisuryanam mala dasyubhayatanganrupahantri

3)The mock sun appearing to the north of the sun causes rain; to the south, a strong wind; on both sides danger from water (i.e floods, Tsunami etc); the same appearing above the sun destroys the king; and below, the people.

Divasakrutah pratisuryo janakrududagdakshine stithognilakrut

Upabhayasthah salilabhayam nrupamupari nihanyadho janaha

4)The mock sun is nothing but a reflection of the Sun’s disc in the thin clouds near the Sun in the morning hours. This phenomenon may occur in the evening also.

Yamye vataprado njeya uttare vruddido raveh

Ubayoh parsvayobharti salilam bhuri yachchati

 

My comments:

1)Hindus are keen observers of the sky

2)Not only keen observers, but also recorded such events and made their own judgements/conclusions.

3)Whether Varahamihira agrees with modern science or not, he took care to write one chapter on it, that too 1500 years ago!

Science behind Mock Suns or Sun Dogs

They are created by the refraction of light passing through flat, hexagonal ice crystals in high, cold clouds.

The crystals act like prisms so that as light passes through them, it is bent by exactly 22 degrees before reaching viewers’ eyes to make the illusion.

If the crystals are more randomly located in clouds, a complete ring around the sun is visible, called a halo.

But if the crystals sink through the air, they become arranged in vertical lines, so that the sunlight is refracted horizontally, to make sundogs, as seen in these images.

They are reddest in colour when they are near to the sun and fade to yellow, orange and then blue as they move away. The colours of sun dogs merge into a white halo in some instances.

The strange phenomenon was recorded by Aristotle between 384 and 322 BC. The Greek philosopher wrote: ‘two mock suns rose with the sun and followed it all through the day until sunset’. He noted that they were always to the sun’s side and never rose above or below it.

The poet Aratus, who lived between 310 and 240 BC mentioned them in his catalogue of Weather Signs, saying that they indicate wind, rain or an approaching storm, while Artemidorus, a diviner in the second century, included the phantom suns in his list of celestial deities.

Sundogs were sometimes seen as an omen for bad times ahead, such as war, and observations of them feature in ancient texts by Aristotle, Seneca and Cicero, among others. This depiction of sundogs appeared in the Nuremberg Chronicle, an early printed book showing world history, published in 1493.

Subham.

255 Indian Trees, Herbs and Shrubs mentioned in Brhat Samhita- Part-1

acacia catechu_tree

Acacia catechu (used in Pan for red colour)

255 Indian Trees, Herbs and Shrubs mentioned in Brhat Samhita- Part-1

Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.1665; Dated 21 February 2015.

 

Varahamihira was a great scholar, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, biologist and a poet. He has mentioned over 250 plants in his encyclopaedic work Brhat Samhita. Prof. Ramakrishna Bhatt who has translated the work from Sanskrit into English has given the list of plants in the appendix section. I have added the Tamil names wherever possible:

1.Aguru = Aquilaria agallocha (Agil in Tamil)அகில்

2.Agnimantha = Premna spinosca

3.Ankola  = Alangium decapaetalum அழிஞ்சில்

4.Ajakarna = Vateria indica (Raala in Kannada)

5.Ajamoda  = Apium grveolens or Carum copticum (Voma in Kannada)

6.Aja = Ocimum americanum (Ramatulasi-Kannada)துளசி

7.Anjana = Memecylon umbellatum (Vishnukranta?) விஷ்ணுகிரந்தி?

8.Atasi = Linum usitatissimum (Aali Vithai in Tamil)

Linum_usitatissimum_plant

Linum usitatissimum (Ali vithai in Tamil)

9.Ati balaa = Sida rhombifolia

10.Atimuktaka = Chrysanthemum indicum (Sevantige in Kannada)சிவந்தி

11.Apamarga = Achyranthes aspera (Uttarane in Kan.)

12.Amrta = Eulophia campestris or Tenospora cordifolia (amrtaballi in Kan.)

13.Amba = Pongamia glabra (Honge in Kan.)

14.Arani = Breynia rhamnoides/

15.Arista = Xanthium strumarium

16.Arka = calotropis gigantea (Ekke in Kan and Erukku in Tamil)எருக்கு

17.Arjuna = Terminalia arjuna (matti or Bili matti in Kan.)மருத மரம்

18.Asmantaka = Bauhinia tomentosa? (Vanasampige in Kan)

19.Asvakarna= Shorea robusta (Raladamara in Kan.)சால மரம்

azhignchil_in_jaffna

(Alangium= Alinjil in Tamil=Ankola in Sanskrit)

( I have already written about Adi Shankara’s hymn about this rare tree)

20.Asvagandha = Withania somnifera (Sogade beru in Kan.)

21.Asvattha = Ficus religiosa (Arasa Maram in Tamil)அரச மரம்

22.Asana = Bridelia montana = Benga mara in Kan.

23.Amra = Magnifera indica (Mavina mara in Kannada; Ma Maram in Tamil) மா மரம்

24.Amraataka = Spondias magnifera (Ambate mara in Kannada

25.Iksu = Saccharum officinarum = Kabbu. In Kannada)கரும்பு

26.Asoka =  sarasa idica அசோக மரம்

yakshi under asoka

Yakshi under Asoka Tree.

27.Inguda = Balanites aegyptiaca (Ingalika mara in Kan., Nanjunda in Tamil)நஞ்சுண்டா

28.Indra taru or Svetakutaja= Wrightia tinctoria (kirigodesige in Kan)

29.Udumbara + Ficus racemosa அத்தி மரம்

30.Usira = Vetiveria zizanioides (Lavanca in Kan.)

31.Ela = Elettaria cardomonum (Elakkay in Tamil) ஏலக்காய்

32.Kakubha = Lagarstroemia speciose (Cemmaruta in Malayalam)

asoka, saraca indica

Asoka flower (two different species are called Asoka)

33.Kangu = Setaria italic (Navane akki in Kan.)

34.Katambhara = Picorrhiza Kurroa or Helleborus niger (Katukarohini in Tam., Kan.) கடுகரோகிணி

35.Katuka = see above 34 (Kadukkay is different)

36.Kantakari = Solanum xanthocarpus (Nelagulla in Kan.) கண்டங்கத்தரி

37.Kataka = Strychnus potatorum = Clearing nut tree (cilliamara in Kan., Tettaa maram in Mal)

38.Kadamba = Anthocephalus indicus கடம்பமரம்

39.Kadali = Musa paradisiac (Bale in Kan. Vazai maram in Tam.) வாழை

40.Kapikachchu = Colocasia esculenta (Kesavu in Kan., Sembu in Mal., Tamil )சேம்பு

Bo tree

Peepal Tree= Ficus religiosa= Arasa maram in Tamil

41.Kapitha = Feronica elephantum = Wood apple (Vilam pazam in Tam.Belada mara in Kan.)விளாம்பழம்

42.Kamala = Nelumbo nucifera (Tavare hu in Kan., Tamarai in Tamail, mal.) தாமரை

43.Kampillaka = Mallotus philippinensio (Honne mara in Kan)

44.Karanja = Pongamia pinnata (Honge in Kan., Korngu in Telugu)

45.Karavira = Nerium indicum அரளி

46.Karira = Capparis decidua

47.Karnikara = Pterospermum acerifolium (kanaka champaka in Kan) செண்பகம்

48.Karcura = Hedychium spicatum

49.Karpasa = Gossypium herbaceum (hatti in Kan.) பருத்தி

champaca

(Champaka=Michelia)

50.Kalama – Gryza sativa (Rice variety Kalame in Kan.)

51.Kallola = Luffa echinata (Devadangar in Kan.?)

52.Kakodambarika = Ficus hispida (Peyatti in tam. And Mal) பேயத்தி

53.Kasmari = Gmelina arborea (Kulimara in Kan. And Gumuducettu in Telugu)

54.Kutaja = Holarrhena antidysenterica (kodasige in Kan.and Kodisepala in Telugu)

  1. Kunda = Jasmium multiflorum (dundu mallige in Kan and Mogra in Marathi) மல்லிகை

56.Kunduruka = Boswellia serrata or thurifera (madimara in Kan. And Parangi sambrani in Telugu)

57.Kumari = Aloe barbadensis (Lolisara in Kan. Katrazai in Tamil)கற்றாழை

58.Kumuda = Nymphea stellate அல்லி, குமுதம்

59.Kuranta = Striga lutea =

60.Kuravaka = Baleria cristata (Kariculli in Kan.)

Ajowan

Ajowan = Ajamoda= Omam in Tamil

61.Kula = Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari in Kan.)கண்டங்கத்தரி

62.Kulatha = Dolochos biflorus (Huruli in Kan.)

63.Kusa = Desmosstycha bipinnata (Darbhe in Kan; Thrppai in Tam.) தர்ப்பை

64.Kushta = Sassurea lappa (Koshtam in Tam.Sepuddi in Mala) கோஷ்டம்

65.Kusumbha = Crocus sativus = Kunkumakesara in Kan and Kunkuma pu in Tam.) குங்குமப்பூ

66.Kustumburu = Coriandrum sativam (Dhania in Hindi; Kothumalli in Tam)கொத்தமல்லி

67.Kesara (punnaga) = Calophyllum inophyllum (punna in mal.) புன்ன

1024px-புன்னை_காய்களுடன்

Calaphyllum = Punnai in Tamil

68.Kodrava = Paspalum scrobikulatum (Varagu in Tam. And Kiraruga in Tel) வரகு

69.Kovidara = Bauhinia variegate (Kempu mandara in Kan.;Devakanchanamu in Tel)

70.Ksirika = Alstonia venenata (Addasarpa in Kan.; Pazamunipala in Mal.)

71.Ksema = Angelica glauca? or Fagonia cretica (Dhamasa in Mara.Dusparsa in Sanskrit, Cittigara in Tel.?)

72.Khadira = Acacia catechu (Kasu in Kan.);used in Paan for redcolour

73.Kharjuri = Phoenix sylvestris

74.Ghandhamamsi = Nardostachys jatamansi (Sugandhamuste or Ganigalamuste in Kan.Namattam in Tam)

75.Garudavega = Cocculus hirsutus (katterkodi in Tam.)காட்டுகொடி

76.Gangeruka = Canthium parviflorum (Karegida in Kan.Karai in Tam., Balusu in Tam)காரை

77.Girikarnika = Clitoria ternatea (Sankhapuspa in Kan; sangu pushpam or Kakkanam in Tam) காக்கணம் (sangu Pu, Karuvilai in Tamil)

Clearing nut ,strychnos_potatorum_

Cleaning Nut

78.Guggulu = Commiphora roxbhurgili (Gondhu in Tamil)

79.Gunja = Abrus precatorius (Kundumani in Tam.Gulukunji in Kan.) குந்துமணி மரம்

80.Guduci = Tinospora cordifolia (Siindil in Tam.Amrta in Kan.)

81.Gundra = Typha elephantine (Jambhuhullu in Kan.)

82.Goksura = Tibulus terrestris (neggilu Mllu in Kan. Nerunji in Tam) நெருஞ்சி

83.Godhuma = Triticum aestivum (Godhi in Kan, Kothumai in Tam)கோதுமை

84.Canaka = Cicer arietinum (Kadale in Kannada) கொண்டைக்கடலை

shenpakam

Michelia= Shrnpakam in Tamil)

85.Candana (sandana) = Santalum album (Srigandha in Kan.) சந்தன மரம்

86.Campaka = Michelia champaca (Sampige in Kan.) செண்பகம்

87.Cirabilva = Pongamia pinnata or Eleocarpus serrata (Bigadamara in Kan)

88.Coca = Kydia calcina

89.Coraka = Curcumba latifoliya or Angelica glauca

90.Jambu = Syzygium jambos (Jambu nerale in Kan.) நாவல்மரம்

91.Jati = Jasminum officinale ( Jaati mallige in Kan) ஜாதி மல்லிகை

Kutaja, Girimallika, Holorrhea

Kutaja= Giri mallika

92.jaathipalaa = Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg Tree, Jajikay in Kan. ஜாதிக்காய் மரம்)

  1. Jiraka = Cuminum cyminum ( Jirige in Kan ஜீரகம்)

94.Jivaka =Bridelia montana = Pantegi in Te. வேங்கை மரம்

95.Jivanti = Demotrichum fimbriatum or Trema orientalis (Kiruhali in Kan)கடலை, துவரை

96.Jyotismati = Cardiospermum halicacabum (Heart seed(Erumballi or agnipalli in Kan.)

  1. Tagara =Valeriana wallichi (Rishawala in Urdu)

98.Tala = Borassus flabellaformis (Talisepatra in Kannda) Panai in Tamil பனை மரம்

99.Talisapatra = Flacourtia jangomas (Talisapatre inKan.)

100.Tintidi = Tamarindus indica (Hunisemara in Kan. புளிய மரம்)

101.Tinduka =Diospryos paniculata (karunthuvarai in Tamil) கருந்துவரை

பல மரங்கள்

102.Timira = Turmeric?

  1. Tila = Sesamum indicum (Ellu I Kan. El in Tamil)

104.Tilaka = Clerodendrum phlomoides (Takkolamu in Tel.)

105.Turuska = Olibanum tree; Tagetes erecta (Banti in Tel)

106.Trayamana = Ficus heterophylla (kodiyatti in Tami, Datir in Mara) கொடி அத்தி

107.Triphala = Terminalia chebula (kadukkay (Anil kaye in Kannada) கடுக்காய்

  1. Trivrta = Vitis vinifera (Drakshai in Kannada)

109.Tvak = Cassia bark

110.Danti (Nagadanti) = Baliospermum montanum (Niradimuttu in Tamil, Nelajidi in Tel.)

111.Damanaka = Artemisia siversiana(Maru in Tamil) மருக்கொழுந்து

Balanites_aegyptiaca

Balanites aegyptica

112.Darbha = Desmostachya bipinnata (Tharppai in Tamil)

113.Davadagdhaka = (Vyamaka) = Costus specius or Arabicus (Pushkaramula in Kan.)

114.Dadima = Punica granatum (Dalimbe in Kanna) மாதுளம்

115.Durva = Cynodon dactylon  (Garike hullu in Kan)

  1. Devadaru = Cedrus devdara

117.Dhava = Anogeissus latifolia  (cirimanu in Tel.118

118.Dhatri Embilica officinalis (nellikay in Kan. And Tamil)

119.Naktamala = Pongamia pinnata

120.Nandikavarta =  Tabernacemontana coronoria  (Maddarasa in Kan)

121.Nala = Phragmites maxima (Peddarellu in Tel)

  1. Nalika = Hibiscus cannabinus (Gongura in Tel)

123.Navamallika = Jasminium arborescens

124.Nagakesara = Mesua ferrea = (Nagasampige in Kan)

125.Nicula = Vetasa = Calamus rotang = Betta in Kan.

126.Nimba = Azadirachta indica =Kahibevu in Kan. வேப்பமரம்

ராசி மரம்

127.Niragundi = Vitex negundo = (Bile nekki or Karlaki in Kan)

128.Nispava = Dolichos lab lab = Avare in Kan. (Mochai in Tamil)

129.Nipa = Anthocephalus indicus

130.Nyagrodha = Ficus bengalensis ( Ala maram in Tam and Kan) ஆலமரம்

Continued in Part 2………………………………..

(Most of these plants are used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicines)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.1665; Dated 21 February 2015.

 

Varahamihira was a great scholar, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, biologist and a poet. He has mentioned over 250 plants in his encyclopaedic work Brhat Samhita. Prof. Ramakrishna Bhatt who has translated the work from Sanskrit into English has given the list of plants in the appendix section. I have added the Tamil names wherever possible:

1.Aguru = Aquilaria agallocha (Agil in Tamil)அகில்

2.Agnimantha = Premna spinosca

3.Ankola  = Alangium decapaetalum அழிஞ்சில்

4.Ajakarna = Vateria indica (Raala in Kannada)

5.Ajamoda  = Apium grveolens or Carum copticum (Voma in Kannada)

6.Aja = Ocimum americanum (Ramatulasi-Kannada)துளசி

7.Anjana = Memecylon umbellatum (Vishnukranta?) விஷ்ணுகிரந்தி?

8.Atasi = Linum usitatissimum (Aali Vithai in Tamil)

9.Ati balaa = Sida rhombifolia

10.Atimuktaka = Chrysanthemum indicum (Sevantige in Kannada)சிவந்தி

11.Apamarga = Achyranthes aspera (Uttarane in Kan.)

12.Amrta = Eulophia campestris or Tenospora cordifolia (amrtaballi in Kan.)

13.Amba = Pongamia glabra (Honge in Kan.)

14.Arani = Breynia rhamnoides/

15.Arista = Xanthium strumarium

16.Arka = calotropis gigantea (Ekke in Kan and Erukku in Tamil)எருக்கு

17.Arjuna = Terminalia arjuna (matti or Bili matti in Kan.)மருத மரம்

18.Asmantaka = Bauhinia tomentosa? (Vanasampige in Kan)

19.Asvakarna= Shorea robusta (Raladamara in Kan.)சால மரம்

20.Asvagandha = Withania somnifera (Sogade beru in Kan.)

21.Asvattha = Ficus religiosa (Arasa Maram in Tamil)அரச மரம்

22.Asana = Bridelia montana = Benga mara in Kan.

23.Amra = Magnifera indica (Mavina mara in Kannada; Ma Maram in Tamil) மா மரம்

24.Amraataka = Spondias magnifera (Ambate mara in Kannada

25.Iksu = Saccharum officinarum = Kabbu. In Kannada)கரும்பு

26.Asoka =  sarasa idica அசோக மரம்

27.Inguda = Balanites aegyptiaca (Ingalika mara in Kan., Nanjunda in Tamil)நஞ்சுண்டா

28.Indra taru or Svetakutaja= Wrightia tinctoria (kirigodesige in Kan)

29.Udumbara + Ficus racemosa அத்தி மரம்

30.Usira = Vetiveria zizanioides (Lavanca in Kan.)

31.Ela = Elettaria cardomonum (Elakkay in Tamil) ஏலக்காய்

32.Kakubha = Lagarstroemia speciose (Cemmaruta in Malayalam)

33.Kangu = Setaria italic (Navane akki in Kan.)

34.Katambhara = Picorrhiza Kurroa or Helleborus niger (Katukarohini in Tam., Kan.) கடுகரோகிணி

35.Katuka = see above 34 (Kadukkay is different)

36.Kantakari = Solanum xanthocarpus (Nelagulla in Kan.) கண்டங்கத்தரி

37.Kataka = Strychnus potatorum = Clearing nut tree (cilliamara in Kan., Tettaa maram in Mal)

38.Kadamba = Anthocephalus indicus கடம்பமரம்

39.Kadali = Musa paradisiac (Bale in Kan. Vazai maram in Tam.) வாழை

40.Kapikachchu = Colocasia esculenta (Kesavu in Kan., Sembu in Mal., Tamil )சேம்பு

41.Kapitha = Feronica elephantum = Wood apple (Vilam pazam in Tam.Belada mara in Kan.)விளாம்பழம்

42.Kamala = Nelumbo nucifera (Tavare hu in Kan., Tamarai in Tamail, mal.) தாமரை

43.Kampillaka = Mallotus philippinensio (Honne mara in Kan)

44.Karanja = Pongamia pinnata (Honge in Kan., Korngu in Telugu)

45.Karavira = Nerium indicum அரளி

46.Karira = Capparis decidua

47.Karnikara = Pterospermum acerifolium (kanaka champaka in Kan) செண்பகம்

48.Karcura = Hedychium spicatum

49.Karpasa = Gossypium herbaceum (hatti in Kan.) பருத்தி

50.Kalama – Gryza sativa (Rice variety Kalame in Kan.)

51.Kallola = Luffa echinata (Devadangar in Kan.?)

52.Kakodambarika = Ficus hispida (Peyatti in tam. And Mal) பேயத்தி

53.Kasmari = Gmelina arborea (Kulimara in Kan. And Gumuducettu in Telugu)

54.Kutaja = Holarrhena antidysenterica (kodasige in Kan.and Kodisepala in Telugu)

  1. Kunda = Jasmium multiflorum (dundu mallige in Kan and Mogra in Marathi) மல்லிகை

56.Kunduruka = Boswellia serrata or thurifera (madimara in Kan. And Parangi sambrani in Telugu)

57.Kumari = Aloe barbadensis (Lolisara in Kan. Katrazai in Tamil)கற்றாழை

58.Kumuda = Nymphea stellate அல்லி, குமுதம்

59.Kuranta = Striga lutea =

60.Kuravaka = Baleria cristata (Kariculli in Kan.)

61.Kula = Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari in Kan.)கண்டங்கத்தரி

62.Kulatha = Dolochos biflorus (Huruli in Kan.)

63.Kusa = Desmosstycha bipinnata (Darbhe in Kan; Thrppai in Tam.) தர்ப்பை

64.Kushta = Sassurea lappa (Koshtam in Tam.Sepuddi in Mala) கோஷ்டம்

65.Kusumbha = Crocus sativus = Kunkumakesara in Kan and Kunkuma pu in Tam.) குங்குமப்பூ

66.Kustumburu = Coriandrum sativam (Dhania in Hindi; Kothumalli in Tam)கொத்தமல்லி

67.Kesara (punnaga) = Calophyllum inophyllum (punna in mal.) புன்ன

68.Kodrava = Paspalum scrobikulatum (Varagu in Tam. And Kiraruga in Tel) வரகு

69.Kovidara = Bauhinia variegate (Kempu mandara in Kan.;Devakanchanamu in Tel)

70.Ksirika = Alstonia venenata (Addasarpa in Kan.; Pazamunipala in Mal.)

71.Ksema = Angelica glauca? or Fagonia cretica (Dhamasa in Mara.Dusparsa in Sanskrit, Cittigara in Tel.?)

72.Khadira = Acacia catechu (Kasu in Kan.);used in Paan for redcolour

73.Kharjuri = Phoenix sylvestris

74.Ghandhamamsi = Nardostachys jatamansi (Sugandhamuste or Ganigalamuste in Kan.Namattam in Tam)

75.Garudavega = Cocculus hirsutus (katterkodi in Tam.)காட்டுகொடி

76.Gangeruka = Canthium parviflorum (Karegida in Kan.Karai in Tam., Balusu in Tam)காரை

77.Girikarnika = Clitoria ternatea (Sankhapuspa in Kan; sangu pushpam or Kakkanam in Tam) காக்கணம் (sangu Pu, Karuvilai in Tamil)

78.Guggulu = Commiphora roxbhurgili (Gondhu in Tamil)

79.Gunja = Abrus precatorius (Kundumani in Tam.Gulukunji in Kan.) குந்துமணி மரம்

80.Guduci = Tinospora cordifolia (Siindil in Tam.Amrta in Kan.)

81.Gundra = Typha elephantine (Jambhuhullu in Kan.)

82.Goksura = Tibulus terrestris (neggilu Mllu in Kan. Nerunji in Tam) நெருஞ்சி

83.Godhuma = Triticum aestivum (Godhi in Kan, Kothumai in Tam)கோதுமை

84.Canaka = Cicer arietinum (Kadale in Kannada) கொண்டைக்கடலை

85.Candana (sandana) = Santalum album (Srigandha in Kan.) சந்தன மரம்

86.Campaka = Michelia champaca (Sampige in Kan.) செண்பகம்

87.Cirabilva = Pongamia pinnata or Eleocarpus serrata (Bigadamara in Kan)

88.Coca = Kydia calcina

89.Coraka = Curcumba latifoliya or Angelica glauca

90.Jambu = Syzygium jambos (Jambu nerale in Kan.) நாவல்மரம்

91.Jati = Jasminum officinale ( Jaati mallige in Kan) ஜாதி மல்லிகை

92.jaathipalaa = Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg Tree, Jajikay in Kan. ஜாதிக்காய் மரம்)

  1. Jiraka = Cuminum cyminum ( Jirige in Kan ஜீரகம்)

94.Jivaka =Bridelia montana = Pantegi in Te. வேங்கை மரம்

95.Jivanti = Demotrichum fimbriatum or Trema orientalis (Kiruhali in Kan)கடலை, துவரை

96.Jyotismati = Cardiospermum halicacabum (Heart seed(Erumballi or agnipalli in Kan.)

  1. Tagara =Valeriana wallichi (Rishawala in Urdu)

98.Tala = Borassus flabellaformis (Talisepatra in Kannda) Panai in Tamil பனை மரம்

99.Talisapatra = Flacourtia jangomas (Talisapatre inKan.)

100.Tintidi = Tamarindus indica (Hunisemara in Kan. புளிய மரம்)

101.Tinduka =Diospryos paniculata (karunthuvarai in Tamil) கருந்துவரை

102.Timira = Turmeric?

  1. Tila = Sesamum indicum (Ellu I Kan. El in Tamil)

104.Tilaka = Clerodendrum phlomoides (Takkolamu in Tel.)

105.Turuska = Olibanum tree; Tagetes erecta (Banti in Tel)

106.Trayamana = Ficus heterophylla (kodiyatti in Tami, Datir in Mara) கொடி அத்தி

107.Triphala = Terminalia chebula (kadukkay (Anil kaye in Kannada) கடுக்காய்

  1. Trivrta = Vitis vinifera (Drakshai in Kannada)

109.Tvak = Cassia bark

110.Danti (Nagadanti) = Baliospermum montanum (Niradimuttu in Tamil, Nelajidi in Tel.)

111.Damanaka = Artemisia siversiana(Maru in Tamil) மருக்கொழுந்து

112.Darbha = Desmostachya bipinnata (Tharppai in Tamil)

113.Davadagdhaka = (Vyamaka) = Costus specius or Arabicus (Pushkaramula in Kan.)

114.Dadima = Punica granatum (Dalimbe in Kanna) மாதுளம்

115.Durva = Cynodon dactylon  (Garike hullu in Kan)

  1. Devadaru = Cedrus devdara

117.Dhava = Anogeissus latifolia  (cirimanu in Tel.118

118.Dhatri Embilica officinalis (nellikay in Kan. And Tamil)

119.Naktamala = Pongamia pinnata

120.Nandikavarta =  Tabernacemontana coronoria  (Maddarasa in Kan)

121.Nala = Phragmites maxima (Peddarellu in Tel)

  1. Nalika = Hibiscus cannabinus (Gongura in Tel)

123.Navamallika = Jasminium arborescens

124.Nagakesara = Mesua ferrea = (Nagasampige in Kan)

125.Nicula = Vetasa = Calamus rotang = Betta in Kan.

126.Nimba = Azadirachta indica =Kahibevu in Kan. வேப்பமரம்

127.Niragundi = Vitex negundo = (Bile nekki or Karlaki in Kan)

128.Nispava = Dolichos lab lab = Avare in Kan. (Mochai in Tamil)

129.Nipa = Anthocephalus indicus

130.Nyagrodha = Ficus bengalensis ( Ala maram in Tam and Kan) ஆலமரம்

Continued in Part 2………………………………..

Mesua ferrea, nagakesara, Ironwood

Mesua ferrea= Ironwood = Nagakesara

Beware of Wagtail Birds: Prediction by Varahamihira!

Whit browed WagtailBP1

Written by London swaminathan

Article No.1661; Dated 19th February 2015.

Varahamihira, the author of Sanskrit encyclopaedia Brhat Samhita deals with lot of scientific things; but yet he has devoted several chapters to omens and beasts, omens and birds. It is nothing but the reflection of his age. Tamil literature and the modern Panchang (ephemeris) also contain bird and lizard predictions. Several communities including the Etruscans believed in such things. It is easy to spot a street astrologer with a caged parrot in Indian streets.

Varahamihira did not ‘write’ this. He just compiled people’s beliefs and the books available at his time, i.e 1500 years ago.

White Wagtail 2-757101.jpgassam

He begins the chapter by saying

“I shall now expound the effects, enunciated by ancient sages, of the first sighting of the bird called wagtail.

A variety of wagtail named Bhadra, which has a stout body and a black raised neck, is auspicious.

One which is black from the face to the neck is called Sampurna and fulfils one’s ambition.

The one with the dark spots on the neck and white cheeks is named Rikta (empty) and causes disappointment

The one called Gopila which is yellow in colour produces troubles when sighted.

If a wagtail is sighted in the following places it will bring prosperity: Flowering trees, fruit trees, holy lakes and rivers, on the back of elephants, horses, cows and serpents; on temples, gardens, mansions, cow pens, places of sacrifices, assembly of virtuous men.

yellow wagtail

To get your dream girl

When the wagtail is seen perched on

Silt- one will enjoy sweet food

Cow dung – one will enjoy milk and milk products

Green grass – clothes

On a cart- devastation to country

Roof of the house – loss of wealth

On a piece of hide – imprisonment

On the backs of goats and sheep – immediate union with one’s beloved

perched on a brach

Negative effect

If the wagtail is seen sitting on a buffalo, camel, donkey, bones, burial ground, clod of earth, turret, heap of ashes, compound wall – the result would be disastrous.

If it is seen flapping its wings – inauspicious

Seen drinking water – auspicious

Sighting in the morning – beneficial

Sighting in the evening – harmful

drinking water

Do you want to find Treasure?

There will be a treasure underneath the place where the wagtail copulates; mica, where it vomits and charcoal, where it voids its excrements.

Every rule has an exception; for every sin there is some atonement. Even if a king sees a wagtail in an inauspicious place, he can avoid the negative consequences, by worshiping  Brahmins, Gurus, and pious men and avoid non vegetarian meal for a week.

on buffalo

Al like any bird prediction, Varahamihira also gives predictions for the people who wanted to leave early.

Source book: Brhat Samhita translated by Prof. M.Ramakrishna Bhat.

Amazing Encyclopaedia Brhat Samhita!

Brhat1

Research article written by London swaminathan

Research article No 1631; Dated 7th February 2015

 

Varahamihira (505 –587 CE) was a great astronomer, mathematician, scientist, poet, astrologer and a compiler. Samhita means compilation. He rightly named his book Big Compilation or Great compilation. He wrote it in Sanskrit. He deals with all the subjects under the sun in 106 chapters. Anyone that sees the contents of the book would understand the necessity of learning Sanskrit. A man who lived 1500 years before our time cared to gather whatever he can from different authors and sources and put them in a book for the future generations. We have lost thousands of books in course of time. But we are not that unlucky. We have still thousands of books in the libraries and Brhat Samhita is one of them. They are untapped sources. Someone has to study them with a modern science background. We can find new things.

In one of my articles I mentioned that Varahamihira and the Sangam Tamil poets who lived 500 years before Varahamihira refer to the link between the rain and planet Venus. No scientist has found the connection yet. There are many more in Varahamihira’s encyclopaedic work.

Though he wrote the book around 570 CE, he mentioned the name of his predecessors. This shows that India had great scientists before 500 CE. Some of the names he mentioned are Kapila, Kanabhuj, Ausanasa, Visnugupta, Purvasastra, Garga, Vrddha Garga, Parasara, Asita, Devala, Siddhanta, Surya Siddhanta (these two may be books) , Kasyapa, Vajra, MayaAtri, Bhaguri, Baladeva, manu, Sarasvata, savitra, Sakra, Sukra, Vagisa, Vasistha, Kapisthala, Garutmat, Rsaba, Bharatwaja, Visvakarman, Nagnajit, Narada, King Dravyavardhana, Saptarsimatra and Munis and Yatrakaras. So many subjects were dealt with by these people 2000 years ago and Varahamihira refers to all their works. He was very humble to say that he just compiled them.

domestic

He was a great Vedic scholar and poet. When he writes about rainfall and crops suddenly he bursts into beautiful Sanskrit poetry (I will deal with this topic separately). He quotes Vedic Mantras with the beginning line. He is an example for modern book writers and authors.

He wrote another astrological treatise known as Brhat Jataka. That is for the believers of astrology. But here in this book he writes on the following subjects:

Chapter 1 to 10: on Planets and their course

Chapters 11 to 20: Comets, Canopus (Agastya nakshatra), Sapta Rsi Mandala (Ursa Major constellation), Conjunction of Moon and other planets

Chapter 21 to 28: Clouds, Rainfall, Wind Circle, Moon’s conjunction with Rohini and Svati.

29: Flowers, 30, 31 Dawn and Twilight, 32 Earth quake, 33 Meteors

35 to 39: Halos, Rainbows, Aerial cities, Mock suns, Haze and Hurricane

Agriculture:

40 Crops, 41 Classification of Substances, 42 Price Fluctuation

42 to 47 Bird Omens (Wagtail) etc

48 to 50 Royal Ablutions, Crowns, Swords

51.52 Science of Limbs, Pimples,

53 Architecture, 54: Exploration of Water Springs, 55: Treatment of Trees

Country Diary : Crows fly through branches of a tree

Animals:

56 and 58 Temples and Idols, 57 Preparation of Adamantine Glue

59 Entering Forest 60 Installation of Images

61 to 68 : Features of Cows, Dogs, Cocks, Tortoises, Goats, Horses, Elephants

68,69,70 Signs of men and maidens

71:Omens 72, 73 Signs of Chowries and Umbrellas

74 Praise of Women, 75 Winning Affection

Erotic Recipes!

76 Erotic Recipes 77 Preparation of Perfumes

78 Union of man and woman

79 Signs of Couches and Seats

 gems

Gemmology

80 Examinations of Gems

81, 82, 83 Pearls, Rubies and Emeralds

84,85,86,87,88, 89 Lamps, Tooth sticks, Bird Omens, Beast omens, Dogs

90 to 96 Omens : jackal cries, Crow cries etc

97 Time of Fruition

98, 99: Asterisms and Lunar Days

Marriage matches and Birth Charts

100 Qualities of Karanas

101 to 106: Birth Horoscopes, Zodiac, Marriage planetary combinations, Transits of planets, worship of planetary deities and conclusion

body

We must learn Sanskrit and study the originals, because there are various interpretations on words. Apart from that one can enjoy poetry.

An amazing range of subjects dealt with 1500 years ago! They existed 1000 years before his time!! He just compiled them!!

In the next few articles I will give some interesting titbits from various chapters.