255 Indian Trees, Herbs and Shrubs mentioned in Brhat Samhita- Part-1

acacia catechu_tree

Acacia catechu (used in Pan for red colour)

255 Indian Trees, Herbs and Shrubs mentioned in Brhat Samhita- Part-1

Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.1665; Dated 21 February 2015.

 

Varahamihira was a great scholar, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, biologist and a poet. He has mentioned over 250 plants in his encyclopaedic work Brhat Samhita. Prof. Ramakrishna Bhatt who has translated the work from Sanskrit into English has given the list of plants in the appendix section. I have added the Tamil names wherever possible:

1.Aguru = Aquilaria agallocha (Agil in Tamil)அகில்

2.Agnimantha = Premna spinosca

3.Ankola  = Alangium decapaetalum அழிஞ்சில்

4.Ajakarna = Vateria indica (Raala in Kannada)

5.Ajamoda  = Apium grveolens or Carum copticum (Voma in Kannada)

6.Aja = Ocimum americanum (Ramatulasi-Kannada)துளசி

7.Anjana = Memecylon umbellatum (Vishnukranta?) விஷ்ணுகிரந்தி?

8.Atasi = Linum usitatissimum (Aali Vithai in Tamil)

Linum_usitatissimum_plant

Linum usitatissimum (Ali vithai in Tamil)

9.Ati balaa = Sida rhombifolia

10.Atimuktaka = Chrysanthemum indicum (Sevantige in Kannada)சிவந்தி

11.Apamarga = Achyranthes aspera (Uttarane in Kan.)

12.Amrta = Eulophia campestris or Tenospora cordifolia (amrtaballi in Kan.)

13.Amba = Pongamia glabra (Honge in Kan.)

14.Arani = Breynia rhamnoides/

15.Arista = Xanthium strumarium

16.Arka = calotropis gigantea (Ekke in Kan and Erukku in Tamil)எருக்கு

17.Arjuna = Terminalia arjuna (matti or Bili matti in Kan.)மருத மரம்

18.Asmantaka = Bauhinia tomentosa? (Vanasampige in Kan)

19.Asvakarna= Shorea robusta (Raladamara in Kan.)சால மரம்

azhignchil_in_jaffna

(Alangium= Alinjil in Tamil=Ankola in Sanskrit)

( I have already written about Adi Shankara’s hymn about this rare tree)

20.Asvagandha = Withania somnifera (Sogade beru in Kan.)

21.Asvattha = Ficus religiosa (Arasa Maram in Tamil)அரச மரம்

22.Asana = Bridelia montana = Benga mara in Kan.

23.Amra = Magnifera indica (Mavina mara in Kannada; Ma Maram in Tamil) மா மரம்

24.Amraataka = Spondias magnifera (Ambate mara in Kannada

25.Iksu = Saccharum officinarum = Kabbu. In Kannada)கரும்பு

26.Asoka =  sarasa idica அசோக மரம்

yakshi under asoka

Yakshi under Asoka Tree.

27.Inguda = Balanites aegyptiaca (Ingalika mara in Kan., Nanjunda in Tamil)நஞ்சுண்டா

28.Indra taru or Svetakutaja= Wrightia tinctoria (kirigodesige in Kan)

29.Udumbara + Ficus racemosa அத்தி மரம்

30.Usira = Vetiveria zizanioides (Lavanca in Kan.)

31.Ela = Elettaria cardomonum (Elakkay in Tamil) ஏலக்காய்

32.Kakubha = Lagarstroemia speciose (Cemmaruta in Malayalam)

asoka, saraca indica

Asoka flower (two different species are called Asoka)

33.Kangu = Setaria italic (Navane akki in Kan.)

34.Katambhara = Picorrhiza Kurroa or Helleborus niger (Katukarohini in Tam., Kan.) கடுகரோகிணி

35.Katuka = see above 34 (Kadukkay is different)

36.Kantakari = Solanum xanthocarpus (Nelagulla in Kan.) கண்டங்கத்தரி

37.Kataka = Strychnus potatorum = Clearing nut tree (cilliamara in Kan., Tettaa maram in Mal)

38.Kadamba = Anthocephalus indicus கடம்பமரம்

39.Kadali = Musa paradisiac (Bale in Kan. Vazai maram in Tam.) வாழை

40.Kapikachchu = Colocasia esculenta (Kesavu in Kan., Sembu in Mal., Tamil )சேம்பு

Bo tree

Peepal Tree= Ficus religiosa= Arasa maram in Tamil

41.Kapitha = Feronica elephantum = Wood apple (Vilam pazam in Tam.Belada mara in Kan.)விளாம்பழம்

42.Kamala = Nelumbo nucifera (Tavare hu in Kan., Tamarai in Tamail, mal.) தாமரை

43.Kampillaka = Mallotus philippinensio (Honne mara in Kan)

44.Karanja = Pongamia pinnata (Honge in Kan., Korngu in Telugu)

45.Karavira = Nerium indicum அரளி

46.Karira = Capparis decidua

47.Karnikara = Pterospermum acerifolium (kanaka champaka in Kan) செண்பகம்

48.Karcura = Hedychium spicatum

49.Karpasa = Gossypium herbaceum (hatti in Kan.) பருத்தி

champaca

(Champaka=Michelia)

50.Kalama – Gryza sativa (Rice variety Kalame in Kan.)

51.Kallola = Luffa echinata (Devadangar in Kan.?)

52.Kakodambarika = Ficus hispida (Peyatti in tam. And Mal) பேயத்தி

53.Kasmari = Gmelina arborea (Kulimara in Kan. And Gumuducettu in Telugu)

54.Kutaja = Holarrhena antidysenterica (kodasige in Kan.and Kodisepala in Telugu)

  1. Kunda = Jasmium multiflorum (dundu mallige in Kan and Mogra in Marathi) மல்லிகை

56.Kunduruka = Boswellia serrata or thurifera (madimara in Kan. And Parangi sambrani in Telugu)

57.Kumari = Aloe barbadensis (Lolisara in Kan. Katrazai in Tamil)கற்றாழை

58.Kumuda = Nymphea stellate அல்லி, குமுதம்

59.Kuranta = Striga lutea =

60.Kuravaka = Baleria cristata (Kariculli in Kan.)

Ajowan

Ajowan = Ajamoda= Omam in Tamil

61.Kula = Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari in Kan.)கண்டங்கத்தரி

62.Kulatha = Dolochos biflorus (Huruli in Kan.)

63.Kusa = Desmosstycha bipinnata (Darbhe in Kan; Thrppai in Tam.) தர்ப்பை

64.Kushta = Sassurea lappa (Koshtam in Tam.Sepuddi in Mala) கோஷ்டம்

65.Kusumbha = Crocus sativus = Kunkumakesara in Kan and Kunkuma pu in Tam.) குங்குமப்பூ

66.Kustumburu = Coriandrum sativam (Dhania in Hindi; Kothumalli in Tam)கொத்தமல்லி

67.Kesara (punnaga) = Calophyllum inophyllum (punna in mal.) புன்ன

1024px-புன்னை_காய்களுடன்

Calaphyllum = Punnai in Tamil

68.Kodrava = Paspalum scrobikulatum (Varagu in Tam. And Kiraruga in Tel) வரகு

69.Kovidara = Bauhinia variegate (Kempu mandara in Kan.;Devakanchanamu in Tel)

70.Ksirika = Alstonia venenata (Addasarpa in Kan.; Pazamunipala in Mal.)

71.Ksema = Angelica glauca? or Fagonia cretica (Dhamasa in Mara.Dusparsa in Sanskrit, Cittigara in Tel.?)

72.Khadira = Acacia catechu (Kasu in Kan.);used in Paan for redcolour

73.Kharjuri = Phoenix sylvestris

74.Ghandhamamsi = Nardostachys jatamansi (Sugandhamuste or Ganigalamuste in Kan.Namattam in Tam)

75.Garudavega = Cocculus hirsutus (katterkodi in Tam.)காட்டுகொடி

76.Gangeruka = Canthium parviflorum (Karegida in Kan.Karai in Tam., Balusu in Tam)காரை

77.Girikarnika = Clitoria ternatea (Sankhapuspa in Kan; sangu pushpam or Kakkanam in Tam) காக்கணம் (sangu Pu, Karuvilai in Tamil)

Clearing nut ,strychnos_potatorum_

Cleaning Nut

78.Guggulu = Commiphora roxbhurgili (Gondhu in Tamil)

79.Gunja = Abrus precatorius (Kundumani in Tam.Gulukunji in Kan.) குந்துமணி மரம்

80.Guduci = Tinospora cordifolia (Siindil in Tam.Amrta in Kan.)

81.Gundra = Typha elephantine (Jambhuhullu in Kan.)

82.Goksura = Tibulus terrestris (neggilu Mllu in Kan. Nerunji in Tam) நெருஞ்சி

83.Godhuma = Triticum aestivum (Godhi in Kan, Kothumai in Tam)கோதுமை

84.Canaka = Cicer arietinum (Kadale in Kannada) கொண்டைக்கடலை

shenpakam

Michelia= Shrnpakam in Tamil)

85.Candana (sandana) = Santalum album (Srigandha in Kan.) சந்தன மரம்

86.Campaka = Michelia champaca (Sampige in Kan.) செண்பகம்

87.Cirabilva = Pongamia pinnata or Eleocarpus serrata (Bigadamara in Kan)

88.Coca = Kydia calcina

89.Coraka = Curcumba latifoliya or Angelica glauca

90.Jambu = Syzygium jambos (Jambu nerale in Kan.) நாவல்மரம்

91.Jati = Jasminum officinale ( Jaati mallige in Kan) ஜாதி மல்லிகை

Kutaja, Girimallika, Holorrhea

Kutaja= Giri mallika

92.jaathipalaa = Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg Tree, Jajikay in Kan. ஜாதிக்காய் மரம்)

  1. Jiraka = Cuminum cyminum ( Jirige in Kan ஜீரகம்)

94.Jivaka =Bridelia montana = Pantegi in Te. வேங்கை மரம்

95.Jivanti = Demotrichum fimbriatum or Trema orientalis (Kiruhali in Kan)கடலை, துவரை

96.Jyotismati = Cardiospermum halicacabum (Heart seed(Erumballi or agnipalli in Kan.)

  1. Tagara =Valeriana wallichi (Rishawala in Urdu)

98.Tala = Borassus flabellaformis (Talisepatra in Kannda) Panai in Tamil பனை மரம்

99.Talisapatra = Flacourtia jangomas (Talisapatre inKan.)

100.Tintidi = Tamarindus indica (Hunisemara in Kan. புளிய மரம்)

101.Tinduka =Diospryos paniculata (karunthuvarai in Tamil) கருந்துவரை

பல மரங்கள்

102.Timira = Turmeric?

  1. Tila = Sesamum indicum (Ellu I Kan. El in Tamil)

104.Tilaka = Clerodendrum phlomoides (Takkolamu in Tel.)

105.Turuska = Olibanum tree; Tagetes erecta (Banti in Tel)

106.Trayamana = Ficus heterophylla (kodiyatti in Tami, Datir in Mara) கொடி அத்தி

107.Triphala = Terminalia chebula (kadukkay (Anil kaye in Kannada) கடுக்காய்

  1. Trivrta = Vitis vinifera (Drakshai in Kannada)

109.Tvak = Cassia bark

110.Danti (Nagadanti) = Baliospermum montanum (Niradimuttu in Tamil, Nelajidi in Tel.)

111.Damanaka = Artemisia siversiana(Maru in Tamil) மருக்கொழுந்து

Balanites_aegyptiaca

Balanites aegyptica

112.Darbha = Desmostachya bipinnata (Tharppai in Tamil)

113.Davadagdhaka = (Vyamaka) = Costus specius or Arabicus (Pushkaramula in Kan.)

114.Dadima = Punica granatum (Dalimbe in Kanna) மாதுளம்

115.Durva = Cynodon dactylon  (Garike hullu in Kan)

  1. Devadaru = Cedrus devdara

117.Dhava = Anogeissus latifolia  (cirimanu in Tel.118

118.Dhatri Embilica officinalis (nellikay in Kan. And Tamil)

119.Naktamala = Pongamia pinnata

120.Nandikavarta =  Tabernacemontana coronoria  (Maddarasa in Kan)

121.Nala = Phragmites maxima (Peddarellu in Tel)

  1. Nalika = Hibiscus cannabinus (Gongura in Tel)

123.Navamallika = Jasminium arborescens

124.Nagakesara = Mesua ferrea = (Nagasampige in Kan)

125.Nicula = Vetasa = Calamus rotang = Betta in Kan.

126.Nimba = Azadirachta indica =Kahibevu in Kan. வேப்பமரம்

ராசி மரம்

127.Niragundi = Vitex negundo = (Bile nekki or Karlaki in Kan)

128.Nispava = Dolichos lab lab = Avare in Kan. (Mochai in Tamil)

129.Nipa = Anthocephalus indicus

130.Nyagrodha = Ficus bengalensis ( Ala maram in Tam and Kan) ஆலமரம்

Continued in Part 2………………………………..

(Most of these plants are used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicines)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.1665; Dated 21 February 2015.

 

Varahamihira was a great scholar, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, biologist and a poet. He has mentioned over 250 plants in his encyclopaedic work Brhat Samhita. Prof. Ramakrishna Bhatt who has translated the work from Sanskrit into English has given the list of plants in the appendix section. I have added the Tamil names wherever possible:

1.Aguru = Aquilaria agallocha (Agil in Tamil)அகில்

2.Agnimantha = Premna spinosca

3.Ankola  = Alangium decapaetalum அழிஞ்சில்

4.Ajakarna = Vateria indica (Raala in Kannada)

5.Ajamoda  = Apium grveolens or Carum copticum (Voma in Kannada)

6.Aja = Ocimum americanum (Ramatulasi-Kannada)துளசி

7.Anjana = Memecylon umbellatum (Vishnukranta?) விஷ்ணுகிரந்தி?

8.Atasi = Linum usitatissimum (Aali Vithai in Tamil)

9.Ati balaa = Sida rhombifolia

10.Atimuktaka = Chrysanthemum indicum (Sevantige in Kannada)சிவந்தி

11.Apamarga = Achyranthes aspera (Uttarane in Kan.)

12.Amrta = Eulophia campestris or Tenospora cordifolia (amrtaballi in Kan.)

13.Amba = Pongamia glabra (Honge in Kan.)

14.Arani = Breynia rhamnoides/

15.Arista = Xanthium strumarium

16.Arka = calotropis gigantea (Ekke in Kan and Erukku in Tamil)எருக்கு

17.Arjuna = Terminalia arjuna (matti or Bili matti in Kan.)மருத மரம்

18.Asmantaka = Bauhinia tomentosa? (Vanasampige in Kan)

19.Asvakarna= Shorea robusta (Raladamara in Kan.)சால மரம்

20.Asvagandha = Withania somnifera (Sogade beru in Kan.)

21.Asvattha = Ficus religiosa (Arasa Maram in Tamil)அரச மரம்

22.Asana = Bridelia montana = Benga mara in Kan.

23.Amra = Magnifera indica (Mavina mara in Kannada; Ma Maram in Tamil) மா மரம்

24.Amraataka = Spondias magnifera (Ambate mara in Kannada

25.Iksu = Saccharum officinarum = Kabbu. In Kannada)கரும்பு

26.Asoka =  sarasa idica அசோக மரம்

27.Inguda = Balanites aegyptiaca (Ingalika mara in Kan., Nanjunda in Tamil)நஞ்சுண்டா

28.Indra taru or Svetakutaja= Wrightia tinctoria (kirigodesige in Kan)

29.Udumbara + Ficus racemosa அத்தி மரம்

30.Usira = Vetiveria zizanioides (Lavanca in Kan.)

31.Ela = Elettaria cardomonum (Elakkay in Tamil) ஏலக்காய்

32.Kakubha = Lagarstroemia speciose (Cemmaruta in Malayalam)

33.Kangu = Setaria italic (Navane akki in Kan.)

34.Katambhara = Picorrhiza Kurroa or Helleborus niger (Katukarohini in Tam., Kan.) கடுகரோகிணி

35.Katuka = see above 34 (Kadukkay is different)

36.Kantakari = Solanum xanthocarpus (Nelagulla in Kan.) கண்டங்கத்தரி

37.Kataka = Strychnus potatorum = Clearing nut tree (cilliamara in Kan., Tettaa maram in Mal)

38.Kadamba = Anthocephalus indicus கடம்பமரம்

39.Kadali = Musa paradisiac (Bale in Kan. Vazai maram in Tam.) வாழை

40.Kapikachchu = Colocasia esculenta (Kesavu in Kan., Sembu in Mal., Tamil )சேம்பு

41.Kapitha = Feronica elephantum = Wood apple (Vilam pazam in Tam.Belada mara in Kan.)விளாம்பழம்

42.Kamala = Nelumbo nucifera (Tavare hu in Kan., Tamarai in Tamail, mal.) தாமரை

43.Kampillaka = Mallotus philippinensio (Honne mara in Kan)

44.Karanja = Pongamia pinnata (Honge in Kan., Korngu in Telugu)

45.Karavira = Nerium indicum அரளி

46.Karira = Capparis decidua

47.Karnikara = Pterospermum acerifolium (kanaka champaka in Kan) செண்பகம்

48.Karcura = Hedychium spicatum

49.Karpasa = Gossypium herbaceum (hatti in Kan.) பருத்தி

50.Kalama – Gryza sativa (Rice variety Kalame in Kan.)

51.Kallola = Luffa echinata (Devadangar in Kan.?)

52.Kakodambarika = Ficus hispida (Peyatti in tam. And Mal) பேயத்தி

53.Kasmari = Gmelina arborea (Kulimara in Kan. And Gumuducettu in Telugu)

54.Kutaja = Holarrhena antidysenterica (kodasige in Kan.and Kodisepala in Telugu)

  1. Kunda = Jasmium multiflorum (dundu mallige in Kan and Mogra in Marathi) மல்லிகை

56.Kunduruka = Boswellia serrata or thurifera (madimara in Kan. And Parangi sambrani in Telugu)

57.Kumari = Aloe barbadensis (Lolisara in Kan. Katrazai in Tamil)கற்றாழை

58.Kumuda = Nymphea stellate அல்லி, குமுதம்

59.Kuranta = Striga lutea =

60.Kuravaka = Baleria cristata (Kariculli in Kan.)

61.Kula = Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari in Kan.)கண்டங்கத்தரி

62.Kulatha = Dolochos biflorus (Huruli in Kan.)

63.Kusa = Desmosstycha bipinnata (Darbhe in Kan; Thrppai in Tam.) தர்ப்பை

64.Kushta = Sassurea lappa (Koshtam in Tam.Sepuddi in Mala) கோஷ்டம்

65.Kusumbha = Crocus sativus = Kunkumakesara in Kan and Kunkuma pu in Tam.) குங்குமப்பூ

66.Kustumburu = Coriandrum sativam (Dhania in Hindi; Kothumalli in Tam)கொத்தமல்லி

67.Kesara (punnaga) = Calophyllum inophyllum (punna in mal.) புன்ன

68.Kodrava = Paspalum scrobikulatum (Varagu in Tam. And Kiraruga in Tel) வரகு

69.Kovidara = Bauhinia variegate (Kempu mandara in Kan.;Devakanchanamu in Tel)

70.Ksirika = Alstonia venenata (Addasarpa in Kan.; Pazamunipala in Mal.)

71.Ksema = Angelica glauca? or Fagonia cretica (Dhamasa in Mara.Dusparsa in Sanskrit, Cittigara in Tel.?)

72.Khadira = Acacia catechu (Kasu in Kan.);used in Paan for redcolour

73.Kharjuri = Phoenix sylvestris

74.Ghandhamamsi = Nardostachys jatamansi (Sugandhamuste or Ganigalamuste in Kan.Namattam in Tam)

75.Garudavega = Cocculus hirsutus (katterkodi in Tam.)காட்டுகொடி

76.Gangeruka = Canthium parviflorum (Karegida in Kan.Karai in Tam., Balusu in Tam)காரை

77.Girikarnika = Clitoria ternatea (Sankhapuspa in Kan; sangu pushpam or Kakkanam in Tam) காக்கணம் (sangu Pu, Karuvilai in Tamil)

78.Guggulu = Commiphora roxbhurgili (Gondhu in Tamil)

79.Gunja = Abrus precatorius (Kundumani in Tam.Gulukunji in Kan.) குந்துமணி மரம்

80.Guduci = Tinospora cordifolia (Siindil in Tam.Amrta in Kan.)

81.Gundra = Typha elephantine (Jambhuhullu in Kan.)

82.Goksura = Tibulus terrestris (neggilu Mllu in Kan. Nerunji in Tam) நெருஞ்சி

83.Godhuma = Triticum aestivum (Godhi in Kan, Kothumai in Tam)கோதுமை

84.Canaka = Cicer arietinum (Kadale in Kannada) கொண்டைக்கடலை

85.Candana (sandana) = Santalum album (Srigandha in Kan.) சந்தன மரம்

86.Campaka = Michelia champaca (Sampige in Kan.) செண்பகம்

87.Cirabilva = Pongamia pinnata or Eleocarpus serrata (Bigadamara in Kan)

88.Coca = Kydia calcina

89.Coraka = Curcumba latifoliya or Angelica glauca

90.Jambu = Syzygium jambos (Jambu nerale in Kan.) நாவல்மரம்

91.Jati = Jasminum officinale ( Jaati mallige in Kan) ஜாதி மல்லிகை

92.jaathipalaa = Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg Tree, Jajikay in Kan. ஜாதிக்காய் மரம்)

  1. Jiraka = Cuminum cyminum ( Jirige in Kan ஜீரகம்)

94.Jivaka =Bridelia montana = Pantegi in Te. வேங்கை மரம்

95.Jivanti = Demotrichum fimbriatum or Trema orientalis (Kiruhali in Kan)கடலை, துவரை

96.Jyotismati = Cardiospermum halicacabum (Heart seed(Erumballi or agnipalli in Kan.)

  1. Tagara =Valeriana wallichi (Rishawala in Urdu)

98.Tala = Borassus flabellaformis (Talisepatra in Kannda) Panai in Tamil பனை மரம்

99.Talisapatra = Flacourtia jangomas (Talisapatre inKan.)

100.Tintidi = Tamarindus indica (Hunisemara in Kan. புளிய மரம்)

101.Tinduka =Diospryos paniculata (karunthuvarai in Tamil) கருந்துவரை

102.Timira = Turmeric?

  1. Tila = Sesamum indicum (Ellu I Kan. El in Tamil)

104.Tilaka = Clerodendrum phlomoides (Takkolamu in Tel.)

105.Turuska = Olibanum tree; Tagetes erecta (Banti in Tel)

106.Trayamana = Ficus heterophylla (kodiyatti in Tami, Datir in Mara) கொடி அத்தி

107.Triphala = Terminalia chebula (kadukkay (Anil kaye in Kannada) கடுக்காய்

  1. Trivrta = Vitis vinifera (Drakshai in Kannada)

109.Tvak = Cassia bark

110.Danti (Nagadanti) = Baliospermum montanum (Niradimuttu in Tamil, Nelajidi in Tel.)

111.Damanaka = Artemisia siversiana(Maru in Tamil) மருக்கொழுந்து

112.Darbha = Desmostachya bipinnata (Tharppai in Tamil)

113.Davadagdhaka = (Vyamaka) = Costus specius or Arabicus (Pushkaramula in Kan.)

114.Dadima = Punica granatum (Dalimbe in Kanna) மாதுளம்

115.Durva = Cynodon dactylon  (Garike hullu in Kan)

  1. Devadaru = Cedrus devdara

117.Dhava = Anogeissus latifolia  (cirimanu in Tel.118

118.Dhatri Embilica officinalis (nellikay in Kan. And Tamil)

119.Naktamala = Pongamia pinnata

120.Nandikavarta =  Tabernacemontana coronoria  (Maddarasa in Kan)

121.Nala = Phragmites maxima (Peddarellu in Tel)

  1. Nalika = Hibiscus cannabinus (Gongura in Tel)

123.Navamallika = Jasminium arborescens

124.Nagakesara = Mesua ferrea = (Nagasampige in Kan)

125.Nicula = Vetasa = Calamus rotang = Betta in Kan.

126.Nimba = Azadirachta indica =Kahibevu in Kan. வேப்பமரம்

127.Niragundi = Vitex negundo = (Bile nekki or Karlaki in Kan)

128.Nispava = Dolichos lab lab = Avare in Kan. (Mochai in Tamil)

129.Nipa = Anthocephalus indicus

130.Nyagrodha = Ficus bengalensis ( Ala maram in Tam and Kan) ஆலமரம்

Continued in Part 2………………………………..

Mesua ferrea, nagakesara, Ironwood

Mesua ferrea= Ironwood = Nagakesara

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