Post No. 10,578

Date uploaded in London – –    19 JANUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


We have seen up to Mantra 28 out of 63 Mantras or stanzas in the hymn. Hindus spread the Five Elements concept (Pancha Bhutas) through out the world. They allocated separate qualities/Gunas and attributes to Water, Fire, Air, Earth, and Space/Ether. They also used them as similes. Earth has the Fragrance as its special Guna/quality. Fragrance is Gandha in Sanskrit. Tamils also use this. Another quality of earth is PATIENCE.

We dig it, excavate it, plough it, turn it upside down and yet it always helps like our own Mother. So, her virtue is Patience according to Tamil and Sanskrit scriptures. Here we see Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar repeat what the Atharva Veda seer said:-

The earth supports the men who dig at it. Similarly, bear with those who scorn you; that is the best virtue”- Kural 151

Another translation of the same couplet,

“Just like the earth which supports the men who dig it,

Men of virtue bear with those who heap scorn on them” – 151

Sangam Tamil literature book Paripatal also has this comparison (2-55 Paripatal)

This is an echo of AV mantra 29; Vedic seer praises ‘Patient Earth’.


Mantra 30 is about the usefulness of Water. It helps us to maintain our body clean.

There are two important points here.

Hindus take bath every day before worshipping God. Whether one lives in cold Himalayas or scorching Kanyakumari, they take a shower. This explodes the Aryan Migration Myth proposed by the Max Muller gang and Marxist Gang. Water is part and parcel of a Hindu’s life. From birth to death he must use water according to scriptures . that shows Vedic Hindus belong to tropical region and NOT Central Asia or Siberia.

Mantra 30 is also used by Tamil poet Valluvar in his Kural couplet,

If rains fail, festivals of the year and the daily worship of God will cease -Tiruk Kural couplet 18

In Mantra 29 , the Vedic seer warns the Anti God trespassers saying ‘we offer them an unpleasant welcome’.


Mantra 31

Here again the poet is apologetic for treading on earth and requests Mother Earth to be pleasant in all the four directions. This is a genre followed by Hindus until this day.  They ask for a shield or armour which will protect them from bad things coming from four or eight directions. In Sanskrit those mantras are called Kavasam/shield/Armour. Tamils also recite it every day.

Here the poet repeats ‘May I not stumble while I live in this world’. He said it already in a previous verse.

The poet is not talking about physical stumbling; he talks about moral stumbling. He prays to Mother Earth that he should not deviate from the moral path. He should not fall in bad habits.


Mantra 32

Again the Vedic poet talks about protection in all the four directions North, East, West, South (NEWS).

We also get another picture of ancient India; like today there were robbers who waylaid the people and took all their valuables. This is in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and earlier Vedic literature. Pusan was the God who protected them according to Vedas. Poet prays for protection from such attacks. Damayanti episode in the Mahabharata gives us a vivid description of such an attack ( I have already written about it).

But the important message in this Mantra or stanza is ‘Take Deadly Weapons Far Away from Us’. The poet prays for a peaceful world where there is no war. Rig Veda is full of wars and battles; so do Sangam Tamil literature. If we open a history book, we read more about wars than good things. The world has already suffered from two World Wars in our own time. The annual review of Economic Times says that at any time there are at least 50 battles or clashes happening in the world. In our own time we saw George Bush of America and Tony Blair of Britain used lame excuse to attack Libya and Iraq. Politicians are modern day robbers that is mentioned in the previous Vedic verse.

A Tamil poet by name Bharatidasan also prayed for Warless World. That became a popular song in two Tamil films (Puthiyator Ulakam Seyvom; ketta poridum Ulakaththai Verodu Saippom)

Kanchi Paramacharya Swami of Tamil Nadu wrote a beautiful Sanskrit verse, that was sung by the famous singer M S Subbalakshmi in the United Nations Organisation. He also emphasized that the world should Renounce War (Yuddham Tyajatha). He simply echoed the AV poet’s prayer. In one Rig Vedic hymn the poet/seer says in crystal clear term ‘We don’t want War’.

Here is Kanchi Shankaracharya’s message:-

English Translation

With Friendship please serve,

And conquer all the hearts,

Please think that others are like you,

Renounce war for ever,

forsake competition for ever,

forsake force to get,

Some one else’s property,

For Mother Earth is a wish giving cow,

And God our father is most compassionate,

Restrain, Donate and Be kind,

To all the people of this world.

May All People of this World be Happy and Prosperous

May All People of this World be Happy and Prosperous

May All People of this World be Happy and Prosperous

(I have underlined the words from Rig Veda and Upanishad)

Sanskrit Original

Maithreem Bhajatha , Akhila Hruth Jethreem,

Atmavat eva paraan api pashyatha

Yuddham thyajatha , Spardhaam Tyajata , thyajatha Pareshwa akrama aakramanam

Jananee Prthivee Kaamadughaastey

JanakO Deva: Sakala Dayaalu

Daamyata Datta Dayathvam Janathaa

Sreyo Bhooyaath Sakala Janaanaam

Sreyo Bhooyaath Sakala Janaanaam

Sreyo Bhooyaath Sakala Janaanaam.



Millions of Brahmin Hindus do thrice a day Sun Worship with water, known as Sandhyavandanam. They worship all important Vedic Gods, Goddess Gayatri and the Four Directions. The Sanskrit words found in the Mantra 31 for directions are used by Brahmins until today. Another wonder is that those Sanskrit words are used in Sangam Tamil Book Purananuru (verse 229 by Kudalur Kizar) in Tamilised form!

To be continued…………………………..

TAGS- earth, patience,  Kural 151, Atharva Veda, No war, Maithreem Bhajatha



Post No. 10,558

Date uploaded in London – –    13 JANUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com



We have already seen 20 out of 63 mantras or stanzas.  See the attachments for original Sanskrit and English translation of the mantras.


Mantra 21/ Stanza 21

Here the poet echoes the most famous Gayatri Mantra found in all the Four Vedas

“May Mother Earth sharpen me bright and make me aflame”

Compare it with the Gayatri Mantra.

 “We meditate on that most adored Supreme Lord, Sun/the creator, whose effulgence (divine light) illumines all realms (physical, mental and spiritual). May this divine light illumine our intellect. (May He stimulate our intellect)”

Earth is described as ‘clad in her fiery mantle’. It is a beautiful scientific description. Earth is alive and kicking . The space shuttle pictures and Hubble telescope pictures show it with all the illuminated areas. When the Vedic poets sang, there was no electric light. But the millions or billions of Yaga Fire illuminated the Earth. That is what made the poet to say ‘Agnivasa/Fiery Mantle.


Mantra 22/ Stanza 22

Here the poet describes the decorations and fire altars and the happy men and women wandering.  In another hymn a Vedic poet says ‘let us decorate like a mother decorating/beautifying her child’. All men and women do this to their children. Vedic poets describe also the bedecked, bejewelled brides. So we may get a good picture of decorated fire altar or the entire earth.

I am reminded of two anecdotes-

Sakuntala, the forest beauty, the heroine of world famous Sakunatala Drama of Kalidas decoratesthe  forest. Y/Jugal Prasad, the hero in Aranyak Novel of Bengali writer Vibhuti Bhushan Vandopadhyaya decorates the forest by planting newer species in newer areas in different parts of the forest. He waits for a whole year and feels very happy when they bloom in those areas. He decorated the forest without expecting anything.

Aranyak, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay

The Vedic poet prays also for healthy and long life. The word Jara for old age gives the word Gerontology in European languages.


Mantra 23/ Stanza 23

Those who live in villages are very familiar with the fragrance from the earth. For city dwellers it is a rare commodity; in fact, they did not know what it is. He talks about the fragrance in rivers, the plants. Here the word ‘Gandha’ for good smell and fragrance is very important. We find the heavenly singers Gandharvas and heavenly dancers Apsarasses through out Rig Veda (RV) the oldest book in the world. Gandharvas mean sweet smelling. Apsaras are their wives. According to one AV hymn, there are 6333 Gandharvas. We don’t know the significance of this number. Wherever the Number meaning is not known, Western translators reject or ridicule them as ‘fanciful’, ‘meaningless’ numbers!!!

“May no one hate me is added in many stanzas.”

When the poet says it, there is a hidden message. One should not hate another in this beautiful world- The Big Blue Marble. That is why after describing the beauty of earth, he adds it again and again.


Mantra 24/ Stanza 24

Traditional Hindu marriage is celebrated for 4 days. Now a days it is shortened to half a day because of the expenses and travels involved in it. No one celebrates marriage like a Hindu. The decorations and the jewellery involved in it beats all imaginations. The most popular Wedding Mantras in the RV 10-85 and AV 14 give full details where the bride is described ‘You are the Queen’. It elevates women to the highest place. The mantra projects Surya’s bride as an ideal bride. That Surya bride comes in many other Vedic hymns. The poet prays that he should also have the same fragrance as that girl. One who has seen a Tamil Brahmin Family Wedding would know the fragrance of flowers, sandal, Kumnkum, Turmeric and Kasturi. In addition to it, they make fragrance powder with various ingredients. They use it in the bath. (Known as Srivilliputur Andal Snana Powder).

Here the fragrance entering Lotus is also mentioned by the poet. Lotus is the National flower of India. In Tamil the word for Flower and Lotus is same- MALAR. So we may take it as the representative of all flowers. Like peacock, the lotus flower is praised as Satapatra (100 petalled) in Sangam Tamil literature and Sanskrit literature.

Sangam Tamil poems Aka Nanuru 86 and 136 also describe the beautiful Hindu Weddings.

In short, the poet looks at all that is ‘positive on earth’ and then gives the message ‘please don’t hate anyone’ in such a beautiful place called Mother Earth. Throughout the 63 stanzas feminine pronoun SHE is used for Mother Earth.

To be continued……………………………….

tags– earth, bride, fragrance, no hatred


Written by London Swaminathan


Date:15 October 2017


Time uploaded in London-16-26



Post No. 4304

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



Adi Shankara, one of the great philosophers, says that gods (Devas) left the earth after becoming fed up with the demands of the human beings. They lost their character and made too many demands and so the Devas vacated the earth, says Shankara.


In the Taiitiriya Brahmana we read that “ the gods obtained their divine rank by austerity” (12-3-1)

In the Satapata Brahmana (3-2-6-26) we read that Gods left human beings on earth and went away:

“Both gods and men and fathers drink together. This is their symposium. Formerly they drank together visibly; now they do so unseen”.

Gods and men, together, were both originally components of this world. Whatever men had not, they asked from the gods, saying,

We have not This; let us have it. From the dislike of this solicitation, the gods disappeared saying, each of them,

‘Let me not hurt them, let me not be hateful’- Satapata Br.2-3-4-4



“ The gods know the intentions of a man. They are aware that he contemplates the performance of this rite, and will make his offering in the morning; and consequently, they all come to his house and abide there. The gods know the mind of man”.

–Satapata Br. 2-1-1-7


“The gods are secreted from men and secret also is what is enclosed on every side; this is why they enclose it on every side. Not every one may enter it, but only a Brahmin, a Kshatria or a Vaisya, for these are able to sacrifice. Let him not commune with everyone; for he who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods, and becomes one of the deities. Now the gods do not commune with everyone, but only with a Brahmin, a Rajanya (kshatria) or a Vaisya (businessman), for these are able to sacrifice. An intermediary is necessary to talk with a Sudra—Sata. Br. 3-1-1-8/10


“He who sacrifices, doubtless sacrifices with a desire that he also may also obtain a place in the world of the gods. That sacrifice of his then goes forth towards the world of the gods”- 1-9-3-12


Half baked, jaundice eyed, biased and stupid foreigners tried to find fault with every Vedic mantra. Those idiots were so cunning that they wanted to create confusion and doubts in the minds of Hindus and destroy Hinduism. Every religious scripture has lot of controversial, absurd and idiotic sayings ( if you look at it with coloured glasses and biased mind) and these white skinned scholars and their  friends– Marxist stooges– never touched any religious book in the world except Hindu scriptures; they never criticised anything in those books; this shows their motives. This shows their true colours. They were paid coolies!


One must be careful when one reads the English translations of the Vedas or Brahmanas by those biased minds. Some key words are translated according to their whims and fancies. If you read the 41 interpretations of ASURA by 41 idiots you will understand how stupid they were. If you read the book Minor Vedic Deities by Joshi, you will know how they differ in their interpretation; he beautifully summarises in the very first paragraph who said what. It is like the 53  different interpretations of Indus Valley script!!!!


Above all these things Vedic seers say they love mystic language. If you take the literal meaning you will laugh at them. And they will have the last laugh!

“The gods love the mystic” is a phrase that occurs in several places in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world and most of the Brahmanas.


Here is one example:

Bhaga, Pushan are minor Vedic deities.

Pushan lost his teeth; Bhaga lost his eyes!


“They took it round to Bhaga, who sat on the south side. Bhaga (Savitri) looked at it. It burnt out his eyes. And thus it came to pass. Hence they say Bhaga is blind. They said—- take it to Pushan! They accordingly took it round to Pushan. Pushan tasted it. It knocked out his teeth. And thus it came to pass. Hence they say Pushan is toothless – Satapata Brahmana 1-7-4-6/7


Gods have cars; Asuras don’t have!

“The gods drove about on wheels (cars, carts)and the Asuras stayed at home”


“At first the gods were all alike, all good. Of them being all alike, all good, three desired,

May we be superior! Agni, Indra and Surya.

They went on praising and toiling… they became superior, even as they are now superior – Sata. Br. 5-4-1-2

Probably the Vedic seers tell us that whoever works hard, whoever pursues something will achieve it.

Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration—they say!




Marriage between Heaven and Earth (Post No.4301)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date:14 October 2017


Time uploaded in London- 18-59



Post No. 4301

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



The Heaven Father and the Earth Mother are two of the ancient deities in the Rig Veda. They are revered as primitive pair from whom the rest of the Vedic gods sprung. They are described in the Vedas as ‘wise, great and energetic’. They ‘promote happiness and lavish gifts upon their worshippers’. Their marriage is a most poetic conception. In the Aitareya Brahmana (4-27) the marriage of Heaven and Earth is mentioned:

“The gods then brought the two, Heaven and Earth together, and when they came together they performed a wedding of the gods.”

“The Vedas set before us a world of rich and vigorous life, full of joyous fighting men”, says Huxley.

“These two worlds were once joined (subsequently) they separated. (After their separation) There fell neither rain, nor was sunshine.

This marriage of heaven and earth were found in many cultures. They have borrowed it from the Vedic Hindus. The Greeks addressed the Earth, ‘as the Mother of the gods and starry heavens’.

In the 41st fragment of Aezchylus (from the Danaides), Aphrodite is introduced as saying, “The pure heaven loves to inflict upon earth an amorous blow; and desire seizes the Earth to obtain the nuptial union. Rain falling from the moist Heaven impregnates the Earth, who brings forth for mortals the food of sheep, the sustenance of Demeter (Deva Mata= demeter). The verdure of the woods also is perfected by the showers preceding from this marriage. Of all these things I (Aphrodite) am in part of the cause”

French author Albert Reville says, that “the marriage of Heaven and Earth form the foundation of hundred mythologies”.


Max Muller Bluff

Max Muller and Wilkins spread wrong information that Dyaus (Sky father) and Prithvi (Mother Earth) as ‘the most ancient deities of the Aryans and they were replaced by Indra and Agni later’. But there is no proof for it. All the references to marriage of Dyaus (sky) with Prthvi (earth) come from later part of the Vedas. Greeks borrowed it from us and pronounced it as Zeus.


Moreover, in the early Mandalas Agni and Indra are praised more than the Dyaus and Prithvi. The early Suktas divided it into three Sky, Atmosphere and Earth. Even the parents of Earth and Heaven (Pusan) are mentioned. So his concocted story that the Earth and the Heaven are ‘the most ancient deities’ has no basis.


If one idiot says something 1000 idiots repeat it without verifying the fact. With very great enthusiasm, he identified himself with those ‘’marching Aryans’’ who entered India .

Dyaus in Rig Veda :

“At the festivals ( I worship) with offerings, and celebrate the praises of Heaven and Earth, the promoters of righteousness, the great, the wise, the energetic, who, having gods for their offspring, thus lavish with the gods the choicest blessings in consequence of our hymn”

“With my invocations I adore the thought of beneficent Father, and that mighty inherent power of the mother. The prolific parents have made all creatures, and through their favours (have conferred) wide immortality on their offspring”—Rig Veda 1-159-1


One must be careful about English translation of the Vedas. No two foreign authors agree on the meanings of the Vedic mantras. And these people add ‘Sayana said’, ‘Sayana thinks’, ‘Sayana believed ‘and then add “Aryan” as a race. Sayana never used it in that sense. He used it like the ancient Tamils used Arya in Sangam literature and Greatest Tamil poet Bharati used Arya throughout his poems; in short, no racial connotation! They meant ‘cultured’, ‘who believed God’. Even Buddha used Arya (Ajja= ayya= ayyar in Tamil) in the right sense. Those who use English translations of the foreign authors must be very careful; there are over 40 interpretations on the word Asura and origin of Asuras!!!

Dyaus Pita | Tamil and Vedas


In the hymns there are various speculations about the origin of Dyaus and Prithvi. A Perplexed poet enquires, “Which of these was the first, and which the last?



Seven Pillars of the World (Post No.2885)





Article written by London swaminathan


Date: 10 June 2016


Post No. 2885


Time uploaded in London :– 15-16


( Thanks for the Pictures)




(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com

The earth is supported by seven types of people or virtues; without their support earth won’t be in its orbit!


The seven pillars are:


2.Brahmins (those who recite Vedas)


  1. Chaste women

5.Those who speak truth


7.Those who are not greedy


Gobiirvipraisca vedaisca satiibih satyavadibih

Alubdhaidaanasiilaisca saptabirdhaaryate mahii


Without cow’s milk it is difficult to survive. No other animal milk can replace cow’s milk. This is the closest to mother’s milk. Brahmins mean the learned people in modern interpreting. Vedas are eternal truths that floats in the air and it is heard by the saints. Other four don’t need any explanation. We knew how greedy people caused world wars. Dishonesty and characterlessness will result in utter chaos.


Tamil Purananuru


Ancient Sangam Tamil literature has also a similar verse:

A Pandya King by name Ilamperuvazuthi says: The world exists because of selfless people. They wont take it alone even if they get Amrita/ ambrosia from Lord Indra. They will do anything that brings fame; they would not do any bad things even if they will get the entire earth; they never sit idle. They fear to do what good people fear to do. They are great because they are not selfish; they always work for others welfare. The world is in its place because of them – Puram verse 182.


Why doesn’t the earth fall down?


Ancient lore

If we ask the question Why doesn’t the earth fall down to a science student, s/he will say that it is gravity that makes the earth to stand in its orbit.


Had we asked the ancient Greeks, they would have said that it was Atlas who bears the world. Atlas was the brother of Prometheus, a king of the island nation of Atlantis. When the army of Titans was defeated in a battle, Atlas was condemned to carry the heaven and Earth on his shoulder.


In ancient Chinese cosmology we find mention of the primordial Ao, a sea turtle of cosmic dimensions; it carries the world on its back. Mayans believed that there were four pillar trees on four corners of the earth and they were made up of Ceiba trees.


Hindus thought that the earth is on the head of a Big snake called Adi Sesha. They also believed that eight elephants known as Asta Dig Gajas in the eight directions support the earth.

ashta dik gaja

We may not believe all the above mythological explanations, but all of us will agree that virtues and virtuous people maintain order on earth. If we are led by the selfish, dishonest and greedy leaders we will face another world war.



Hindu Thoughts in Australian Aborigines’ Folklore! (Post No. 2518)


Research Article Written by london swaminathan

Date: 7 February 2016


Post No. 2518


Time uploaded in London :– 17-35


( Thanks for the Pictures  ) 




(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com; contact 





First part of this article under the title, “Are Australian aborigines Tamil Hindus?” was posted yesterday.


Adi Shanakara in his Baja Govindam sang ‘Punarapi Maranam, Punarapi Jananm’. And Krishna said it even before Shankara, in the Bhagavad Gita, Jatasya hi druvo mrtyur, dhruvam janma mrtasya ca’ meaning “For  the one that is born, death is certain and certain is birth for the one that has died”.


This is a fact known to everyone in the world. But putting it in literature or scripture shows how much one is concerned about it. Like Hindus, aborigines of Australia put it in their folklore or oral literature.



This is what they say about death:

All humans must die; When death came to the Tiwi islands we had to start the burial ceremonies………….. and make sure they entered the spirit world in the right way……………placing the burial poles around graves of our dead…………..


Placing burial poles around the grave has been practised by the Hindus for long. Even now bereaved Brahmin families bury the stone in their garden or in a public place in the crematorium. If ascetics die a Linga is erected or a basil plant (Holy Tulsi) is raised on the grave of the person. Hero stones (Nadu Kal) were common in ancient Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka they had Masti kal/stone.

In short, burial pole was erected for everyone in the ancient Hindu world, but slowly this custom disappeared. Australian aborigines were doing it like us. Their talk about the  dead entering the spirit world in the right way is also in the funeral mantras of the Vedas. Most of the mantras request the heavenly spirits to lead the dead in the right path. Those who read the translation of the funeral mantras will understand it.


Lot of Sanskrit words, but with different meanings, are found in aborigines. One group of people called themselves Dhurga people. The word Tunga is used for pole. In Sanskrit it means tall, elevated.

Bhu Suktam: Ode to Mother Earth

Vedas praise the earth as mother. Ancient Hindu seers praised the wind, water, fire etc. The Bhu Suktam of Atharva Veda is not only a great poem but also a valuable source of Vedic life. It refers to the earth’s flora and fauna, geographical features, climate, minerals and the diversity of people. In the same way aborigines say about their land

“It is my father land, grand father’s land, my grand mother’s land. I am related to it. It gives me my identity. If I don’t fight for it I will be moved out of this and I will lose my identity”.

Even the Tamil poet Bharati in his patriotic poem on India says the same thing (Enthaiyum Thayum kulavi irunthathu in naade……)


Another aborigine says, I feel with my body, with my blood. Feeling all these trees, all this country. When this wind blow, you can feel it. Same for the country. You feel it. You can look, but feeling that make you”


This is similar to the Vedic mantra

May the winds bring us happiness. May the rivers carry happiness to us. May the herbs give us happiness. May night and day yield us happiness. May the heavens give us happiness. May the trees give us happiness. May the sun pour down happiness. May the cows yield us happiness. (Madhu Vaata rdaayate………Taitriya Aranyaka)


Vedic seers and the aborigines wanted to strike harmony with nature. For them the earth and the trees are not just objects. They gave equal respect to everything.


Listen, Hear, Think (Ngara)

Vedic poets and Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar emphasized that one must listen to good things. Thiruvalluvar begs to the people ‘ listen to at least to something good’ (Enaithaanum Nallavai ketka). Rig Veda says “Let noble thoughts come to us from every side” (RV 1-89-1)

Australian aborigines said the same thing and called it ‘Ngara’.

“From the day we are born we are taught ngara. We listen to elders. Hear what country is saying. And think how our actions will impact on living things. Ngara is the path to knowledge, wisdom and survival. Elders carry the knowledge of science and technology, medicine and astronomy, ecology and creative arts”.


Astronomy of Aborigines

Indigenous people of Australia had very good knowledge of stars, planets and their movements. Vedas have innumerable references to stars and planets. Some are hidden in symbolic language. Just to teach astronomy we linked our stories to Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra), Canopus (Agastya star), Tri sanku (Southern Star), 27 Stars’ love affair with the Moon, particular favouritism to Rohini etc.


Aborigines also had some stories and like Stonehenge of England, they have stone circle Wurdi Youang in Victoria. Modern research reveal lot of new things about the aborigines. Their geographical knowledge was amazing and they knew the nook and corner of the vast continent. Without their help, the white people would not have moved into the interior lands.


There are more similarities in making fire, with the Vedic Hindus which we look at the third part of this series.