Big Guns of India- Longest and the Largest! (Post No.7182)

Largest Wheeled Cannon, Jaivana Cannon, Jaigarh Fort, Rajsthan, 20 feet long of Sawai Raja of Jaipur

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 5 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-42

Post No. 7182

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Kalauragi Cannon in Karnataka 29 feet long. (Longest in the World)

India is famous for its very big guns made up of iron, bronze and brass. India has the longest gun in Karnataka. The largest bronze gun is in Bijapur. Jaipur has the biggest gun with two wheels. We see big guns from 14h century. Who taught them to make such big guns? It is in ancient Sanskrit book called Sukra Niti. White people don’t want to give credit to India. So they said it was written after the guns came. As usual they placed cart before the horse!

Moghul emperor Aurangzeb had seventy guns mostly made up of brass. Some of these are so heavy and large and so they had to be drawn and moved about with the help of 20 yoke of oxen.

Bijapur cannon with dragon head

GREAT GUN OF AGRA

The story of the great gun of Agra is a sad story. Sitaram’s water colour painting shows that the unmounted huge gun lying in mud on the banks of river Jamuna. British Governor General Lord William Bentinck ordered to destroy it and sold it as scrap metal in 1833. It was a brass gun of 14 feet long and 22 inch in bore. A man could easily enter into it in a crouching position. Its weight was 1469 maunds.

Many of the Moghul brass guns were captured by the British and destroyed. It is written that 76 brass and 86 iron guns were seized at Agra by Lord Lake. 68 guns and mortars of brass, cast in India were also captured by him in Delhi. The British plundered India and used them for themselves or sent them to Britain.

MOST IMPORTANT GUN

According to Ferguson the largest piece of ordnance was the MALIK – I – MAIDAN GUN made up of bronze. It means Monarch of the Plain.Its composition was

80% copper and 20 % tin. Its length 14 feet 3 inches.

Diameter at mouth – 4 feet 10 inches. The muzzle is in the shape of a dragon. The manipulation and skill, involved in casting such a gigantic piece of bronze armament proves the skill of the workers in Ahmednagar in 1548.

Neogi in his book Copper in Ancient India lists other smaller guns as well.

P k Gode in his article ‘Use of Guns and Gun powder in India  from 1400 onwards gives evidence for use of guns in that period. Mahun, a Chinese traveller , visiting Bengal in 1406 mentions that guns were used in Bengal.

In memoirs of Babar also we find that he used guns and gun powder near Kanauj in 1528

SUKRA NITI

Description of iron guns and cannons are found in the Sanskrit work SUKRA NITI written by  Sukracharya. If guns are foreign inventions, he would not have written it in Sanskrit. Moreover his book was written before Muslim rule. Sukraniti describes two varieties of fire arms -Kshudra nalika , small guns and

Brihad nalikas, large guns. He gives detailed description of these guns.

In Yuktikalpataru , another Sanskrit work of the 11th century, we find a list of places where swords are manufactured. Benares, Magadha, Ceylon, Nepal, Anga, Mysore, Surat and Kalinga are mentioned by the author.

Sarangadhara Paddhati , another Sanskrit work of 14th century, also gives the manufacturing towns-

Khatikattara,Rishi, Banga, Shurporaka,Videha,Anga

Madhyama grama, Bedidesha, Sahagram,Kalinjar.

LONGEST CANNON

The longest cannon is in Kalaburagi Fort in Karnataka. It is 29 feet long and was made during the Bahamani rule in the 14th century.(New Indian Express reported it in 2016)

IN TAMIL NADU

2000 year old Tamil Sangam literature also mentioned shiny swords. Poetess Avvaiyar warned one king in a satirical poem, that your palace armoury has shiny swords and your enemy’s armoury has swords that are second hand, unpolished, used swords. She hinted to the king that you are inexperienced in war with newly manufactured  arms where as the other one has great experience in warfare.

Famous Guns of India

Following are the famous guns of Moghul Emperors scattered all over India:-

Their weights range between 30 and 47 tons;

The maximum length found was 31 feet;

Longest bore reaches about 1 feet 7 inches in diameter;

They are made up of iron;

Dacca , now in Bangladesh, had a gigantic gun weighing 30 tons. The weight of the iron ball used in it was 465 pounds. It has fallen into the river and disappeared. Venetian traveller Manucci mentioned it under the name ‘Kaley khan’.

There is a gun at Murshidabad, named

‘Jahan kosha’, meaning conqueror of the world, it has a length of 17-6 feet. Circumference 5-3 feet.

‘Landa kesab’ gun in Bijapur  was 21 feet 7 inch long; the weight of the gun is estimated to be 47 tons. In the same town another gun called ‘Farflier’ was 30 feet long.

Finally mention made here of the long gun of Gulbarga . It has got a double row of iron rings , ten on each side, by means of which the gun was possibly conveyed from one place to another.

–source book (with my inputs)

History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India

P Ry, 1956

Gun in Bengaluru

–subham–

My favourite film Guns of Navarone

List of 121 Upanishads

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Compiled by London Swaminathan
Post No 1471 Dated 9th December 2014

What is the meaning of Upanishad?
Upanishads were written in Sanskrit at least 3000 years ago. There are 13 principal Upanishads. They are the Hindu philosophical treatises. Literal translation of the word UPANISHAD is “sitting down near” (the Guru). Seekers of enlightenment approach a teacher (guru), sit down at his feet and listens to him.

How many Upansihads are there?
There are more than 250 Upansihads. Some of the Upanishads were written 200 years ago.
Which one is the longest Upanishad?
Brihad Aranyaka (Big Forest ) Upanishad
Which is the shortest of the major Upanishads?
Isavasya Upanishad, just 18 verses.

Which is the oldest Upanishad?
Brihad Aranyaka (Big Forest ) Upanishad (before 800 BCE)
Are they all important books? What are the major books?
Adi Shakara, one of the greatest philosophers of the world, wrote commentaries on the important Upanishads. The 13 principal Upanishads are given in CAPITAL letters below.

What is the favourite Upanishad of Mahatma Gandhi?
Isavasya Upanishad, just 18 verses

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Upansihads in alphabetical order:–

1.Advayatarakopanishad
2.Adhyatmopanishad
3.AITAREYOPANISHAD
4.Akshamalikopanishad
5.Akshyupanishad
6.Amritanadopanishad
7.Amritabindu Upanishad
8.Annapurna Upanishad
9.Arunyopanishad
10.Asramopanishad
11.Atmapujopanishad
12.Atmabodhopanishad
13.Atharvashikopanishad
14.Atharvasirsopanishad
15.Atmopanishad
16.Avadhutopanishad
17.Avyakta Upanishad

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18Bahbricopanishad
19.Bhasmajabalopanishad
20.Bhavanopanishad
21.Bhikshukopanishad
22.Brahmopanishad
23.Brahmavidyopanishad
24.BRIHADARANYAKOPANISHAD
25.Brihadjjabalopanishad
26.Brahmabindupanishad

27.Caturvedopanishad
28Cakshusopanishad
29.CHANDOGYOPANISHAD

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30.Dhyanabindupanishad
31.Dakshinamurtyupanishad
32.Dattatreyopanishad
33.Devyupanishad
34.Dvayopanishad

35.Ekaksharopanishad

36.Ganapathy Upanishad
37.Gopalapurvatapinyupanishad
38.Gopalatapani Upanishad
39.Garudopanishad
40.Garbhopanishad
41.Gayatrirahasyopanishad
42.Gayatri Upanishad

43.Hamsopanishad
44.Hayagrivopanishad

45.ISAVASYOPANISHAD

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46.Jabaladarsanopanishad
47.Jabalyupanishad
48.Jabalopanishad

49.Kalagnirudropanishad
50.Kalisamtaranopanishad
51.KAIVALYOPANISHAD
52.Katharudropanishad
53.KATHOPANISHAD
54.Kausitakibrahmanopanishad
55.KENOPANISHAD
56.Krishnopanishad
57.Ksuburikopanishad
58.Kundikopanishad

59.Langulopanishad

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60.Mahopanishad
61.MANDUKYOPANISHAD
62.Mahavakyopanishad
63.Mahanarayanopanishad
64.MAITRAYANI UPANISHAD
65.Maitreyi Upanishad
66.Mantrikopanishad
67.Mandalabrahmanopanishad
68.MUNDAKOPANISHAD
69.Mudgalopanishad
70.Muktikopanishad

71.Nadabindupanishad
72.Narayanopanishad
73.Niralambopanishad
74.Nilarudropanishad
75.Nirvana Upanishad
76.Nrisimhapurvatapinyupanishad
77.Naradaparivrajakopanishad

twelve_essential_upanishads_

78.Pasupatabrahmopanishad
79.Paingala Upanishad
80.Parabrahmopanishad
81.Panca brahmopanishad
82.Paramahamsa Upanishad
83.Paramahamsa parivraja Upanishad
84.Pranagnihotropanishad
85.PRASNOPANISHAD
86.Pranavopanishad

87.Ramarahasya Upanishad
88.Ramapurvatapinyu panishad
89.Radho Upanishad
90.Rudropanishad
91.R udrahridayo Upanishad
92.Rudrakshaja valopanishad

93.Sarabhopanishad
94.Savitryu Upanishad
95.Sandilya Upanishad
96.Sanyasa Upanishad
97.Sarasvatirasyopanishad
98.Saubhagyalakshmiopanishad
99.Sita Upanishad
100.Skandopanishad
101.Sarirakopanishad
102.Sarvasariropanishad
103.Suryopanishad
104.Sabala Upanishad
105.Sukrarahasyopanishad
106.SVETASVATAROPANISHAD

Upanishads-and-Vedas2

107.Tarasara Upanishad
108.Tejabindu Upanishad
109.Trisikharabrahmanopanishad
110.TAITTIRIYOPANISHAD
111.Tripuropanishad
112.Tulasyupanishad
113.Turiyatitopanishad

114.VAJRASUCIKOPANISHAD
115.Varaha Upanishad
116.Vasudevai Upanishad
117.Yogacudamanyupanishad
118.Yajnavalkyopanishad
119.Yogakundalyupanishad

120.Yogatattva Upanishad
121.Yogarajopanishad

Oldest and Longest Patriotic Song!

 

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Bhumi Sukta (Ode to Earth) in the Atharva Veda is a beautiful poem with 63 verses; it is a priceless contribution of Atharva Veda to the Vedic literature; this poetry is universal and not local. The earth on which the poet lives opted for Indra and not Vritra, the powers of light and darkness. It shows the crystal clear thinking of Vedic seers. The very first verse in the sukta glorifies the Vedic values of Sathya and Rita, truth and order.

Though the earth is called Pruthvi in Sanskrit throughout  the hymn, we may consider the poet is singing about his own land—the mother land. Some of the modern translations use the word motherland instead of earth. It makes more sense.

 

One would be wonderstruck to read the world’s oldest and longest patriotic song in the Atharva Veda. Atharva Veda’s date is only conjectural and it was compiled earlier than 1000 BC. It is amazing to find a very long patriotic song in praise of motherland (earth) in the Veda. Greeks have not even started writing their first book then. Tamil’s oldest book came 1000 years after Atharva Veda. Moses started issuing Ten Commandments around that date. In such a remote period Hindu thinking has reached its pinnacle!

 

Each Vedic hymn is equal to 1000 self improvement books. The Vedic hymns are full of positive thoughts. Through auto suggestion, it makes anyone great. Each hymn gives positive energy to those who chant, to those who hear and those who believe in them. You don’t need to read any book written by Dale Carnegie or Anthony Robbins. If you sit in a group of Vedic pundits and repeat the hymns every day for hours the whole atmosphere will be surcharged with tremendous energy and positive thoughts. That is why ancient Hindu kings appointed Vedic priests in every town, temple and palace who repeated the positive words million times and prayed for the welfare of not only human beings but also animals. This is the highest stage of human thought.

 

Vedic priests were not primitive nomads. They were highly civilized. No Gilgamesh, Atra Hasis or Ziusudra had such sublime thoughts.

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Atharva Veda seers sing about the beauty of earth in general. It will beat all the national anthems of the world. If I give the full version, it will run to several pages. This verse inspired great poets like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and Bharati. I will give below some of the verses from the hymn on earth/motherland. It is from Kanda 12 of Atharva Veda:

“ Sacred is the earth (motherland). It not only nurtures that which is past and all the objects of the present, it bears the seed of the future as well. Such is our great motherland.

“ Our earth (motherland) is populated with learned men. It is populated by those who are inferior, those who are average and those who are superior. But all such people forget their differences and live together in unity and friendship. This is the land where we will perform deeds and attain fame. This is the land where our intelligence prospers.

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“ In our motherland can be found enterprising and hard working farmers and artisans. In every direction that one glances, one finds fields of rice, wheat and other grains. Our motherland nourishes different forms of life. It provides us with cows, food grains and other forms of sustenance.

“The famous warriors of yore performed valorous deeds here. In this land the learned and the brave ones conquered the violent demons.

 

“Our earth/motherland is the nurturer. In it can be found gold, silver, diamonds, emeralds and other gems. Nuggets of gold and all sorts of objects, all forms of vegetation, and all forms of living beings can be found in our motherland. Our motherland is the best country of all.

“ In the beginning, this land was immersed in the water of the ocean. Vast is the expanse of this land. Its heights reach up to heaven.

“ In this land to be found learned mendicants who roam in every direction.  Just as the water attains same level everywhere, these hermits look upon all with equal favour.

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“ The Ashvinis look after this land of ours. Brave warriors have measured the length and breadth of our motherland

“O my earth/ Motheland! May the mountains and the snow clad peaks that can be found here NOT bring you unhappiness.

“You are my mother. I am the son of the earth.  The water which rains down and nourishes is my father. My I be preserved.

“ In this land the Vedas are revered in every direction. The righteous ones are worshiped here and the land is uplifted through the performances of sacrifices. Wonderful are the words of wisdom that have been uttered in this land.

“ O my Motherland! All of us are your subjects. May all of us be gifted with sweet speech. May we live together in harmony. May trees and plants grow on you in abundance.

 

“This land is the mother of all trees, shrubs, plants and creepers. It is here that truth, learning, bravery and righteousness flourish. This land will bring us welfare and happiness. May we always serve our motherland.

“O, Motherland! This is the place where we all live in harmony. May you be great and firm. May brave warriors protest you with their valour and intelligence from enemies. May we be enriched. May we prosper.

bharatmata on lion

 

May we not cause unhappiness to others when we are travelling on this land.

This is the land where the search for the god is made. This is the land that the god has blessed.

May my motherland grant us the riches that we desire. The inhabitants of this land sing and dance. The cities in my motherland have been built by the gods.

“ O  earth (my Motherland)! Grant us wisdom so that we can ensure our welfare. May we be learned all the time. May we prosper in your midst.

 

Atharva Veda Kanda 7 also got a hymn on the motherland.

“Heaven is in the motherland. The motherland is our mother. it is our father and son”.

(I have given only half of the verses. It goes on and on about the glory of our holy land. It is full of positive thoughts. It praises nature at length. We must replace our National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana” with the abridged version of this Vedic hymn!!)

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