Dravidian Magician in Kashmir: Kalhana’s Strange Story! (Post No.3869)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 1 May 2017

Time uploaded in London: -12-21

Post No. 3869

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Kalhana, the 12th century historian and author of Rajatarangni mentioned DRAVIDIAN in three places. There is a very interesting story about a Dravidian magician in his book Rajatarangini (River of Kings).

 

It is a true story according to Kalhana and it happened during the reign of Jayapida (751 CE).

 

From Fourth Taranga (Chapter) of Rajatarangini:

On one occasion, to the king who had acquired glory in all directions a certain person of divine figure spoke in a dream with folded hands:

“O King! in your realm I have been residing in comfort with my relatives; I am the Lord of the Nagas called Mahapadma, I come to you for asylum.

 

‘A certain Dravidian spell-monger is trying to draw me away from here in order to sell me for money in the Territory of Maru (desert) which yearns for water.

If you save me from him, I shall show in your country, a hill which produces god ore. The king having heard it in the dream, despatched spies in all directions the very next day. King’s spies found him and brought him before the king (Jayapida).

 

Ulur Lake Near Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India (also known as Wular)

When he confessed his intention, the king pardoned him. The king asked the Dravidian spell-monger (magician):

“How is it possible for you to draw out this Naga, who excels in spiritual power,  from the interior of the lake which extends for several Yojanas?”

Dravidian magician said to the king, “O, King! Inconceivable are the powers of the spell (mantra). If you desire to see it, come and see the marvel.

 

 

The king followed the magician to the lake. The Dravidian muttered incantations and then shot some arrows. The lake became dry. Then the king could see a snake (Naga) about a span in size with a human face, which was wriggling in the mud surrounded by several small snakes.

 

O King! I am going to catch him now. But the king ordered him not to catch the snake. At once the Dravidian spell monger (magician) withdrew the power of his spell and the lake became full. (The Vulur/Wular lake was called the Mahapadma lake after this naga who was supposed to live in it).

 

King disposed the magician by paying him some money.

 

The king was expecting the Naga to show him the Hill of Gold ore. But it did not happen. When the king asked him about it Mahapadma Naga said, “I asked for asylum; you did not give me asylum; but you drove away the spell-monger. So I will show you the hill of copper. When the king got the directions to it, he excavated copper from Kramarajya Hill and struck a hundred crores of Dinnaras (coins)”.

 

Dravidian Brahmins

In another chapter Kalhana referred to Dravids (Dravidian Brahmins in Kashmir). Until Max Muller and Caldwell gave the wrong connotations for the words Dravidian and Aryan, the words meant only A South Indian (Dravida) , A cultured person or ascetics of Himalayas ( aryan) in Indian literature.

Following is the reference found in Eighth Taranga (chapter)

“The daughter’s son of the chief of Karapatha settled in this place (Simhapura). Brahmans born in Indus region as well as Dravid Brahmans who formerly lived in the centre of siddhacchatra.”

 

Translator R S Pandit adds a footnote: As late as the 12th century Dravid Brahmans are mentioned as students in Kashmir.

 

My old articles on Kalhana’s Rajatarangini and Kashmir

 

1.Who are Dravidians? | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/2013/07/17/who-are-dravidians/

17 Jul 2013 – He says ‘Pancha Dravida‘ means the Brahmins of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Here again the word …

 

 

2.Ramayana cures Curses! Rajatarangini Episode! (Post No.3754); Date: 24 March 2017

 

3.Kaliyuga Calculation: Kalhana’s Blunder!

Post No: 1574: Dated 14th January 2015

 

4.Nehru on Rajatarangini; Article No.1465; Dated 7th December 2014.

 

5.Kashmiri King who attacked Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka; Article No.1468; Dated 8th December 2014.

 

(6). 106 Kings of Hindu Kashmir!; Post No: 1577: Dated 15th January 2015

 

7.Beautiful Names of Ancient Kashmiri Women!; Article No 1583; Dated 17th January 2015.

 

8.Sanskrit in Mahmud of Ghazni Coins!; Article No 1579; Dated 16th January 2015

 

–SUBHAM–

 

Bhagavad Gita Simile used by Ancient Tamil Poets! (Post No.3514)

Research Article written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 4 January 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:-  20-56

 

Post No.3514

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

If one studies the similes used by ancient Sanskrit poets and Tamil poets one will find out that Indians had a unique culture spreading over a vast landmass, that was the largest country in the world 2000 years ago. The simile used by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita is found in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam and Sangam Tamil literature. Kalidasa and other Sanskrit poets also used the simile in umpteen places. This explodes the divisive Aryan- Dravidian Race Theory. Hundreds of similes are unique to Tamil and Sanskrit literature which are not found in any other literature or culture in the world.

 

Lord Krishna says (Sutra Manigana Iva) :

There is nothing whatsoever higher than Me, O Dhanjanjaya. All this strung in Me, as clusters of gems on a string 7-7

 

Commenting on this couplet Swami Chinmayananda says: “To show that the Self is one and the same in all forms, it has been said that the Lord is the common factor in all forms in the universe. He holds them all intact as the string holds all the pearls in a necklace. These words have deep significance. Not only is it beautiful in its poetic suggestion, but it has also a very exhaustive philosophical implication. The pearls in the necklace are necessarily uniform and homogenous, and its thread, which is generally unseen, passes through the central core of every pearl, and holds them all, the big and the small, into a harmonious ornament of beauty. Here is an instance wherein we see Shri Veda Vyasa typically expressing himself as the poet-philosopher of the world.

 

Tolkappaiam written by Tolkappiar, is considered the oldest book available in Tamil. It is dated around First Century BCE. Definitely later than Bhagavad Gita. We find the simile in Tolkappiam as well. Like Sanskrit, Sutra means a book and a thread in Tamil also; in Tamil the word used is Nuul= Thread or Book.

 

Tolkappiar used the word Sutra following Panini. He never hesitated to use a Sanskrit word. In the Sutra 1426:

Like orderly arranging the gems in a string, arranging the same types is called Othu.

 

Tamil Veda Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar also used the Bhagavad Gita simile:-

There is something that is implied in the beauty of this woman, like the thread that is visible in a garland of gems.

 

Thus Krishna’s “Sutra Manigana Iva” simile has become popular 2000 years ago. Avadhutopanishad also has this.

Kalidasa used this imagery in His Raghuvamsam and Vikrama Urvaseeyam:-

Though a dunce, I have a way in through the epic already rendered by Valmiki like the thread that easily goes through the diamonds already bored- (Raghuvamsa 1-4)

 

This King of Anga made the wives of his enemies to throw off their ornaments and weep for their husbands shedding tears larger than pearls on to their breasts which appeared like pearl necklaces. The king took the real necklace and gave them tear necklace- Raghu.6-28

 

A lady was halfway through her stringing of gems for her girdle. The thread was tied to her thumb. When she came to know about Aja’s visit she rushed to the window to see him. All the gems fell and scattered leaving only the thread still knotted to her thumb 7-10

 

These women engrossed at splashing water on each other are unable to give a thought to the severance and slithering of their pearl necklaces from their bosom, for the water drops as large as pearls are hopping on their bosoms which they think necklace of pearls – 16-62

These similes of Raghuvamsa were used by Tamil poets in Sangam literature.

Sangam Tamil poets used the similes in the following places:

 

Kudavayil Keerathanar has used this imagery twice in his poems in Akananuru (289 and 315)

 

Eyinanthai Ilankeeranar (Akam.225) used the broken pearl necklace image in his verse.

 

Kurunthokai Poets Kundriyanar and Kavan Mullai Poothanar and  Marudan Ilanagan of Marudakkali also followed his predecessors.   All of them used the unstringed or broken necklace images.

 

Thus, we see One Thought- One Culture from Kanyakumari to Kashmir. Before the foreigners came they didn’t know any divisions in the community such as Aryan or Dravidian races.

-Subham-

 

 

Rare Pictures of Dravidians, Tamils and Tamil Nadu from A French Book (Year 1887)

Compiled  by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 8 November 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 6-09 am

 

Post No.3332

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Please see the earlier two parts posted yesterday and day before yesterday.

 

Devadasi, Temple Dancer

Village women

 

Temple Dancers (Devadasis)

 

Dravidian warriors (Bhils)

 

 

Low Caste People (Palanquin bearers)

Irulas (Dravidians)

 

Irulas of Nilgris (according to foreigners, Irulas are Dravidians)

Dravidian Kotas of Tamil Nadu

Dravidian Todas of Nilagris,Tamil Nadu

Tamil Pilgrims

 

Minas of Rajasthan

to be continued……………………

 

DRAVIDIAN MARRIAGE CUSTOMS (Post No.3297)

kudalur-adivadi-women

Adivasi women from Dinamalar newspaper

Compiled  by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 28 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 12-56

 

Post No.3297

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks

 

According to foreign “scholars”, all dark-skinned people, particularly tribal people, are Dravidians. But I have been saying that they are neither Dravidians nor Aryans, because no such thing is found in Sangam Tamil literature and Vedic literature. According to foreign writers these were the people once occupied Indus valley cities; but I have been arguing these people have nothing to do with Indus valley Civilization. These were the people who have been living in tis country from Bhimbetka Cave (Madhya Pradesh) days along with the Vedic culture. There are hundreds of tribes in India with different customs. There is no uniform culture. The surprising thing about the tribes is that they tie MANGALA SUTRAM (Thaali in Tamil) around bride’s neck. So, following piece gives a severe blow to Aryan-Dravidian theories—swami

 

Following is an excerpt from ‘The Hindu at Home’ written by Rev J E Padfield written in 1908.

 

Hitherto I have been speaking of things as they are in the Telugu country. Farther south, in the Tamil speaking parts, there many varieties the marriage rites amongst the various aboriginal tribes.

 

Vellalar and Milk Bowl

The Karakat Vellalans, for instance, who live on and near the Palani Mountains in South India, have very peculiar marriage customs. The ceremony is performed in a booth (Pandal), erected for the purpose before the house door of the bride. The bride and bridegroom are seated on the floor with their faces towards the east. A lamp kept burning on a stool near where they sit, whilst a measure of grain and a rude image of Ganésha made of cow dung, is placed near them. After both have prostrated themselves before the symbol, the bride- groom receives the mangalasutram from some of the relatives present, which he proceeds to tie around the bride’s neck. At the same time a bowl of milk is brought, in which a few leaves of the peepul tree have been steeped. The relatives on both sides then sprinkle some of this milk upon the heads of the pair.

 

The newly-married couple then prostrate themselves before their several relatives, and the day’s ceremony is concluded with a feast and a formal distribution of betel. This concludes the marriage ceremony. On the following day the bridegroom gives a grand feast, when various marriage presents are distributed to the bride and her relatives.

 

Maravans and Conch Shells

Amongst the Maravans, a people dwelling mostly in the extreme south-east of the peninsula, the marriage ceremonies are very strange and unusual. After a marriage has been agreed upon by the principal members of two families, a few of the relatives of the intended bridegroom go to the house of the bride, and then, with or without her consent and, even perhaps without having sought the consent of the bridegroom they tie upon her neck the mangalasutram whilst conch shells are blown loudly outside They then escort the bride to the house of her husband. A feast is given which lasts for several days.

 

Processions are formed through the streets and a cocoanut broken before an image of Ganésha. These and a few other one ceremonies conclude the marriage rites. There is one curious custom which must be noted when these people have not the means to pay for the feast and other expenses. They simply tie on the mangalasutram, upon which the parties live together as man and wife. The other ceremonies, however, must be gone through at some time or other, when means admit of it. Should the husband happen to die before the defect has been supplied, the friends and relatives at once borrow money, if they have none by them, and proceed to complete the marriage ceremonies in the presence and on behalf of the corpse. The dead body supposed to be the bridegroom is placed on a seat with the woman by it. After this gruesome ceremony, the mangala- sutram is taken off the woman and she is free, as a widow, to remarry.

 

Kallans and Boomerangs

Amongst the Kallans, an important caste in the south, a marriage alliance depends upon consanguinity, and it is entirely irrespective of the wishes of either parties to the contract, or even of their parents. When a wedding has been fixed upon, the sister of the bridegroom, with a present in her hand, goes to the house of the parents of the bride and ties some horse-hair around the bride’s neck. She then takes her, accompanied by some of her relatives, to the house of the bridegroom where a feast is prepared. After the feast the pair are conducted to the house of the bridegroom where a solemn exchange is made of vallari thadis or boomerangs. Another feast is then given in the bride’s house, and the bride is presented by her parents with some rice and a hen. The bride and bridegroom, now husband and wife, then repair to his home and the marriage ceremony is complete.

 

Tottiyans and Bullock-sadle

 

There is a caste of cultivators in the south called Tottians, who perform their weddings as follows. Two booths are erected, outside the limits of the village, and in each of them is placed a bullock-saddle, and upon these are seated the bride and bridegroom, whilst the relatives and friends congregate around. The attendant priest addresses the assembly, after which the price of the bride, usually so much grain, is carried under a canopy of white cloth to the house of the bride’s father. This procession, which is heralded by music and dancing, is met by the friends of the bride who receive the grain, and they all go together into the house. Here betel is distributed and mutual congratulations exchanged, after which the whole party is led to the bride’s booth by the priest.

 

Arrived there, the priest receives at the hand of the bridegroom a small chain of black beads and a tiny circlet of gold. The priest then proceeds to tie the chain round the bride’s neck and attaches the circlet of gold to her forehead, with which ceremony the marriage is complete. This is succeeded by the usual feasting, without which it does not seem possible for a marriage to take place anywhere.

 

Poleiyans

 

There are people of a very low status like the Poleiyans, for instance, whose marriage ceremony merely consists of a declaration of consent made by both parties at a feast to which all the relatives are invited. I now proceed to describe the nuptial rites of the hill tribes of Southern India which are of the most simple and primitive character.

 

Todas: Foot on Bride’s Head!

 

Amongst the Todas early betrothals are common, and the agreement is ratified by an interchange of buffaloes. When the time comes for the marriage to be consummated there is another exchange of buffaloes.

The only ceremony is that the woman bows down before the man and he places his foot upon her head. This humiliating acknowledgment of submission on the part of woman is not what one would have expected in a tribe where polyandry is practised. The wife is installed in her position by proceeding to perform some household duties, such as cooking and drawing water.

Kotas

The Kotas, a tribe dwelling on the slopes of the Nilgiri Hills, perform their marriages in the following manner. It is usual for the couple to be betrothed when they are quite young and, when the girl becomes of a marriageable age, she is sent for to the house of her future father-in-law. The usual marriage feast is given, followed by music and dancing, and the ceremony is concluded by the bridegroom’s mother tying the mangalasutram round the bride’s neck.

 

Kurumbas: No Marriage rites!!

Amongst the Kurambas, who are also dwellers on the Nilgiri slopes, there seem to be no marriage rites whatever. When a couple decide to come together, or even after they may have been living together for some time, a feast is given to their friends and the marriage is complete.

Irulas

With the Irulas, another Nilgiri tribe, there is no marriage ceremony, neither is there any previous betrothal. When a youth comes of age to choose a wife, he finds one for himself and the matter is ended.

 

Badagas

The Badagas, who are dwellers on the Nilgiri plateau are said to be the descendants of Canarese colonists. Amongst this people marriages are contracted without any special rites and the marriage tie is held by them very loosely. After a couple have agreed to come together, a time of probation is allowed during which either of the parties may draw back and decline to go further with the connection. A man may make several of these temporary alliances before definitely decides upon a partner for life. There is some feasting when a definite alliance has been agreed to, and that is all there is by way of rites and ceremonies.

 

–Subham–

 

‘Blood Thirsty Dravidians’! (Post No.3265)

kutia_kondh_woman-jpgwiki

Pictures of Kondhs from Wikipedia

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 18 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 16-48

 

Post No.3265

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks. (Picture is used only for representational purpose; no connection with the current article.)

 

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

(People Like Bishop Caldwell, Arthur Miles and other foreigners have projected Dravidians as primitive, uncultured, uncivilized brutes in their Hindu castes articles. All those who have black skin are described as Dravidians and Shudras. This is wrong. Tribes existed along with the civilized people in the North as well as South. In every society we see people with good and bad customs. But generalizing them as Dravidians is absurd. Foreign writers dubbed them as speakers of Dravidian languages. That is also wrong. They use both Tamil and Sanskrit words. The tribes have been living in India for at least 30,000 years and the proof lies in the Bhimbetka Cave paintings in Madhya Pradesh, India).

 

Following is an excerpt from Arthur Miles’ book The Land of the Lingam:-

 

“The Kondhs, judged by their type, are Dravidians. They are found in Orissa, Ganjam, Bengal, and the Central Provinces. They call themselves differently, according to their district. In the Telugu country they are named Kotuvardlu in and near Vizagapatam Konda Dora, or Konda Kappu The word Kondh, deriving from Telugu, denotes a hill mountain. The Kondhs’ character varies according to their location; those of the plains are said to compare unfavourably with the mountain people. They cultivate grains and vegetables, and breed animals. Their most valuable crop is turmeric which requires two years to mature. This crop is responsible for many of the blood sacrifices; it being believed that blood gives its turmeric its colour and causes to flourish.

dongria-khondh

The bloodthirsty earth goddesses, Pari Pennu and Bera Pennu, are not happy to-day because the Government has forbidden the Kondhs to worship them with human sacrifices. Very reluctantly they accept the blood of buffalos, goats, and sheep. Round about the year 1860, however, the altars of these goddesses were drenched with human blood, and three human beings were sacrificed at a time upon them. One offering was to the sun, one to the east and the other to the west end of the village.

 

In the “meriah” rite a wooden post about six feet long, with a cross-bar near the top was sunk into the ground, and to it the sacrificial victim was tied by his long hair. A narrow grave was dug under the post, and four men held the arms and legs of the human offering, who was suspended horizon- tally over the grave. The officiating priest repeated a long invocation, while with his knife he hacked pieces out of his victim’s back. There is one of these meriah posts, very much eaten up by white ants, in the Madras museum.

 

The goddess was implored to eat the offering, and in return give the Kondhs swords, guns, gunpowder, and victory over other castes. There was always a special prayer for the preservation of the caste from the tyranny of kings and governments. The priest addressed the victim after the poor, unfortunate was almost cut to pieces, and consoled him something after the following manner: “ Do not be grieved, the parents, the goddess  will eat you at once. We purchased you from your parents, who knew we intended to sacrifice you, and therefore there is no on our heads, but on the heads of your parents.  After the priest had finished speaking, he decapitated the victim. The body slipped into the grave, and the head was left on the post until the wild beasts devoured it. The knife was then stuck into the post, until required for the two sacrifices that followed.

nara-bali

When their frenzy reached a certain pitch, the watching Kondhs did not wait for the priest to carry out the rite. They surrounded the victim, and beat him violently on the head with brass bangles made for the occasion. If this inhuman treatment did not kill the wretched man, they finished him off by strangulation with a piece of slit bamboo. The priest, with that, hacked the body to pieces and distributed the fragments, and the Kondhs dashed with their precious treasure to the stream which irrigated their fields, and suspended the piece of flesh on a pole over the water. The mangled remains of the corpse were finally buried, and funeral obsequies were performed.

 

The meriah agents say (see manual of  Vizagapatam district) that there was reason to believe that the Raja of Jeypore, when he was installed on the death of his father, sacrificed a girl of thirteen at the shrine of the goddess Durga in the town of Jeypore. While, officially, goats and buffaloes are now sacrificed by the Kondhs, the belief in the superior of the human sacrifice dies hard. During the Rampa rebellion of 1880 several cases of human sacrifice were discovered, while the same year two persons were convicted of attempting the meriah rite near Ambadala in Bissamkatak. In 1888 a man was found murdered in one of the temples of Jeypore, in circumstances pointing to the meriah. In 1886 a formal inquiry showed ample grounds for the belief that were being kidnapped for sacrifices in Bastar, and as recently as 1902 a petition was presented to the District Magistrate of Ganjam, asking him to sanction a human sacrifice.

 

Female infanticide was so common in Jeypore country as to be farmed out as a paying business. The Raja is said to have made money out of it in one of the caste’s larger divisions. The custom was to consult the priest concerning the fate of the child before it was born. If the priest decided it was to be killed, the parents had to pay the headman of the division a fee for the privilege of killing it, and the headman paid Raja three hundred rupees a year for renting the the privilege to murder.

kondh-implements

Sacrificial Post of the Kondhs

From Macpherson’s manuscripts we learn that the portion of the Kondh country where female infanticide was known to prevail, was estimated at 2000 square miles. The population numbered about 64,000 and, approximately, 1200 to 1500 infants were destroyed annually.

 

Infanticide has existed among the Kond from time immemorial. Their belief is that the sun god created everything good, and the earth goddess introduced evil into the world. These two powers are supposed to be always in conflict. Certain divisions of the caste worship the sun god, and make no sacrifices, but by far the greater number hold that the earth goddess must be propitiated with blood. The divisions which practised infanticide believed that the sun god deplored the birth of females because the feminine creation had caused all the trouble in the world. Men were charged to rear as few females as possible, and only to refrain from murdering them from the sheer necessity of keeping the race going.

 

The Kondhs believe that souls return over and over again in the same families, and if they are not welcome in female form, they will acquire sense enough to return as males. In many houses, even now, one finds no female children. The divisions however, addicted to infanticide did not practise adult sacrifice. One division, indeed, is said never to have performed it; the reason being that during the first attempt the knife was crooked and dull, and the sacrificers made such a bad business of it that it was abandoned.

 

Twenty-five descendants of persons reserved for sacrifice at a former meriah rite, but who were rescued by Government officers, returned themselves as meriah at the census of 1901.

gourd-mask-1

 

Picture of Kondh Mask

The Maliahs of Goomsur (Kondhs) sacrificed annually to Thada Pennoo, their earth goddess. Several settlements contributed to the purchase of a victim, no criminal or prisoner being acceptable to the goddess. Unless the victim was paid for, the goddess would ignore the sacrifice, and grown men were the most esteemed, because they were more expensive. When children were purchased, they were reared by the family who purchased them until they were old enough to be sacrificed. They were kindly treated, and kept under no restraint when young. When they were older, and could appreciate the fate that awaited them, were watched and guarded. Grown victims were often captured by the traders in human flesh, and sold to some family wishing to offer a sacrifice. The price was paid in money, cattle, or corn.

 

For a month before the sacrifice the celebrants feasted and danced round the meriah in an intoxicated condition. On the opening day of the gruesome rite, the victim was stupefied with toddy or opium, and made sit leaning against the post. The assembled multitude then danced round him chanting: oh, Thada Pennu, we offer you this sacrifice. Give us good crops and health. Afterwards the unhappy victim dragged home.

 

The second day, having been intoxicated, the victim was anointed with oil, and each individual present touched the part and wiped the oil on his own body. The crowd then formed a procession and walked round the village, carrying the victim, together with the post which had been dug up from the earth. To the top of the post was attached a tuft of peacock feathers. When the procession returned to the meriah ground, the priest cut a piece of flesh from the victim and buried it under the village idol. He then presented each of the villagers with a piece of flesh. Taking the bloody prize, they ran with all haste to their land, to bury it before sunset. The priests and his assistants there upon killed a pig and, after allowing the blood to first flow into the grave, they buried the victim.

 

On the morrow a buffalo calf was brought to the post. Its fore feet were cut off, and it was tied to the post until the following day. On this, the last day, drunken women, dressed in male attire and armed with sticks, danced and sang round the dying calf.

 

Mr. Arbuthnot, collector of Vizagapatam, not so long ago reported the following facts: “Of the hill tribe Codooloo there are said to be two distinct classes, the Cotia Codooloo and the Jethapoo Codooloo. The former class is that which is in the habit of offering human sacrifices to the god called Jenkery, with a view to secure good crops. This ceremony is generally performed on the Sunday preceding or following Pongal (Tamil word for cooked rice) feast. The victim is seldom carried by force, but procured by purchase, and there is fixed price for each person, which consists of forty articles such as a bullock, a male buffalo, a cow, a goat, a piece of cloth, a silk cloth, a brass pot, a large plate, a bunch of plantains etc.

 

dongria-kondh-tribe-membe-006

The man who is destined for sacrifice is carried before the god and a small quantity of rice coloured with turmeric is put upon his head. The influence of this is said to prevent his attempting to escape, even though set at liberty. It would appear, however, from the moment of his seizure till he is sacrificed, he is kept in a continued state of stupefaction or intoxication.

 

He is allowed to wander about the village, to eat and drink anything he may take a fancy to, and even to have connection with any of the women whom he may meet.

 

On the morning set apart for the sacrifice he is carried before the idol in a state of intoxication. one the villagers acts as priest, who cuts a small hoe in the stomach of the victim, and with the blood that flows from the wound the idol is smeared. Then the crowds from the neighbouring vllages rush forward,and he is literally cut into pieces.

 

Each who is so fortunate as to procure it carries away a morsel of the flesh and presents it to the idol of his own village.

 

 

Colonel Campbell, during his services among the hill tribes of Kondhistan, ordered his men to destroy the effigies of elephants on which human offerings had been made. The colonel in some of his writings, described the method of the sacrifice. Human beings were tied to the proboscis of the elephant effigies and whirled around until, at a given signal from the priest, the crowd rushed in. the crowd seized the victim, and with their knives chopped off every bit of flesh from the shrieking wretch, whose remains were then cut down, and as the colonel expresses it, “the horrid orgies were over”.

(This is how the foreign writers described the customs of the Dravidian Kondhs)

kondh-priestess

–SUBHAM–

 

 

Demolishing Dravidian Demon Theories! (Post No.3067)

dracula

Dracula from a film

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 16th August 2016

Time uploaded in London: 10-14 AM

Post No.3067

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks for the pictures.

 

Foreign invaders who wanted to make India their permanent colony and destroy Hinduism wrote that India was invaded by the Aryans at one time. Strangely the invaders identified themselves with the Aryans. At the same time they instigated the so called Dravidians to agitate against the north Indians. The whole world knew about their motto “Divide and Rule”.

 

Most of the Hindus have never read their scriptures in full and most of the Tamils have never read the ancient Sangam Tamil literature in full. But reading all the ancient Hindu scriptures  — I am using the word READING not studying—is an impossible task to anyone. Because before the Greeks started writing in Greek , before the Romans started writing in Latin, before Moses and Jesus started speaking in one or other Semitic languages, Hindus wrote hundreds of books. If anyone draws a line around 800 BCE as the cut-off date, these languages wont be there. Tamil literature came later around first century BCE

 

Since no one was able to master the scriptures, foreigners wrote all the fanciful rubbish things about Hinduism citing one or two verses from thousands of books, mostly out of context. In ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature ‘Aryan’ meant a cultured, civilized person or saints living in the Himalayas. But foreign invaders gave a racial tone to this word. Dravidian meant a southerner and the invaders gave a new bad connotation.

 

They dubbed all the black skinned, snub nosed, curly haired, egg shape eyed, short fellows as Dravidians. While identifying themselves with fair skinned north Indians, foreign invaders sympathised with the Dravidians saying that they were driven out of their homeland by the Aryans. In all their writings they showed Dravidians as uncivilized and uncultured people. They also said that the Dravidians were shown as demons in Hindu literature.

 

Since Hindus never read any book in full, most of them believed what the invaders said without any scrutiny. If anyone reads read the Hindu scriptures one would know what the that the scriptures say. The scriptures say who were the demons and how come they became demons. They also showed that demons and angels were cousins and their behaviour only made them demons. They also showed that they were liberated from the “demonship”.

I have given many examples in my previous articles (see the links below). I will add two more from the Ramayana where the demons turned Gandharvas, turned again into Gandharvas.

 

1.Demon Viradha says to Rama:-

“Thorugh a curse, I had to assume the monstrous shape of a titan, but in reality I am the Ganharva Tumburu, who incurred the wrath of Kuvera. He cursed me to become a demon because of my attachment to Ramba. That glorious God propitiated by me, said: When Rama overcomes you in fight, you will assume the natural form. By your grace I am delivered from this curse and shall now return to my abode”

Aranya Kanda, Chapter 4, Valmiki Ramayana

 

2.Demon Kabandha says:

“O Rama, on a certain occasion I incurred the wrath of a great Rishi named Sthulashira, whom I tormented in this loathsome shape, whilst he was gathering wild fruits. Fixing gaze on me , he pronounced a terrible curse on me to remain in this ugly shape till I am killed by you. This ugly form came to me by another curse of Indra in the battle field.”

 

In the end he regained his original shape of a Gandharva.

jaws_

Still from James Bond film

 

In stories like as Kalmasapada in the Mahabharata, we see even kings becoming Rakshasa (demon).

In short demons are not Dravidians or a separate race. Even a cultured, educated person like Ravana is depicted as a demon when he acquired more bad qualities.

If we go deeper into Hindu literature we come to know they also worshipped the same gods and received big boons from the same gods worshipped by the Devas (angles).

–Aranya Kanda, Chapter 71

 

Who is a Demon? Asuras,Rakshas, Danavas and Daityas
Research article No.1381; Dated 31 October 2014.

 

Dictionary of Demons

Research article No.1362; Dated 21st October 2014.

Eighteen groups of Indians!

Research article No.1390; Dated 4 November 2014.

 

–subham–

 

 

Black Antelope in Manu: Strange Facts- Part 3 (Post No.3047)

BlackBuckAntelope

black buck antelope deer 

Research Article Written by london swaminathan

Date: 9th    August 2016

Post No. 3047

Time uploaded in London :– 15-35

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Manu says,

God’s Country:

“The country that Gods made between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drsadvati is what they call the Land of Veda (Brahmavarta).

Manu 2-17

The conduct of the classes (four) and the intermediary classes in that country, handed down from one person to another, is called the conduct of good people.

Manu 2-18

The field of the Kurus, the Matsyas, the Pancalas and Surasenakas constitute the country of Priestly sages (Brahmarsi Desa), right next to the Land of the Veda

Manu 2-19

25d24-talageri-rivers

My comments

Since Manu refers to perennial river Sarasvati he must have lived long long ago.

The areas he mentioned falls under Indus Valley Civilisation. He says that is the Land of Veda. So Indus valley and Vedic Civilisation are one and the same.

 

He mentioned the above two rivers as divine, so he must have lived during Vedic times. We have to note that Ganges is not mentioned!

xxx

Antelope Land!

From the eastern sea to the western sea, the area in between the two mountains (Himalayas and Vindhyas) is what wise men call the Land of the Noble ones.

Manu 2-22

Where the black antelope ranges by nature, that should be known as the country fit for sacrifices; and beyond it is the country of the Mlechas.

Manu 2-23

 

No Ganges River!

The above passages raise lot of questions:-

1.Why did not Manu mention the holiest river Ganges when he mentioned Sarasvati and Drsadvati?

2.For whom Did Manu write his code?

3.Where did the Land of the Mlechas begin? And who were the Mlechas?

 

  1. If Manu has written only for the land between the Vindhyas and Himalayas, what happened to the South Indians? Did civilised people live at that time in the South or not?

 

My comments:

Ganges River is one of the rivers in the Rig Veda; not the holiest of the holy rivers. So can we take that Manu lived well before the Epic age?

Manu mentioned the land where black bucks roam is the holy place fit for sacrifices. We know that it roamed from Nepal to South India. So South is also a holy place?

 

If Manu had written only for the noble people between the two seas and two mountains why should others bother about it?

 

Is there any proof to show that someone was ill treated or harmed for violating Manu’s code? No, definitely not in ancient times. Even the Ramayana reference to a Shudra doing penance and Rama punishing him is considered a later addition or interpolation according to the scholars. They point out that it is in gross contradiction to the picture of Rama’s relationship with Sabari and Guha.

ganges-map-simple

Ganges Mystery!!

Ganga Mystery can be solved by dividing the period into two: Holy Saraswati period and Holy Ganga period; when Saraswati River completely dried up and disappeared without leaving a trace or imprint Ganga came into prominence. There is another way of looking at it. Bhagiratha , the king cum the greatest Hindu civil engineer planned and executed the diversion of River Ganga into the present Gangetic plains. Earlier kings failed in this. So Ganga became holy and prominent only after some period. We have to find out when. Manu did not give any prominence to River Ganges. So he must have lived in the Saraswati period. Ikshwaku came after Vaivaswata Manu. And Bhagiratha was the 54th ruler in the Ikshwaku dynasty. So there is a gap of 1500 to 2000 years (Western Kings ruled only for 20 years on an average. But Hindu kings ruled for 30 to 40 years on an average.)

(Please read my research article: “Great Engineers of Ancient India”, posted on 25 June 2011)

 

Bones in Indus Valley

It is very interesting that black antelope’s bones are discovered in Indus Valley civilisation. Can we take it that Rishis—ancient seers – raised them in their Ashramas in the Indus valley?

 

Half baked Westerners and their Indian pawns placed Manu in second century BCE. But Manu talks about perennial Sarasvati and sale of Soma herbs! Manu definitely wont fit into this period.

 

Mlechas in Tamil

Mlechas (barbarians) according to 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature are ‘Yavanas’ from Rome, Greece and Arabian land. So the mention of Mlechas by Manu is not about Dravidians of the South. Cunning and divisive foreigners attributed this word to the Dravidians. Non Tamil speakers were called Mlechas by the Tamils.

 

Holy Ganges is praised sky high by Tamil Sangam literature, where as Ganges is not found in Manu. So there must be a wide gap between the Sangam period and Period of Manu.

yavana-in-bharhut

Picture of a Mlecha in Barhut, 2nd Century BCE

The treatment of the Ganges and the Mlechas in two different ways in two different languages show the big time gap between the Manu Smrti and Sangam Literature of first three centuries of our period.

 

In short, the geography and the beliefs and customs of the people mentioned by Manu, place him well before the second century BCE that is attributed to it by the foreigners.

 

The biggest blunder is that the foreigners try to cramp Buddha, Mahavira and 1001 Smrti writers, litterateurs, writers of Ramayana , Mahabharata, Puranas, medical treatises – all into a period of 600 years or so. It is not reasonable and there is no evidence for such a thing in any other civilisation.

 

If we apply the same scale to other civilisations, this theory will fall flat. Max Muller’s theory that ‘a language changes every 200 years’ is not applied anywhere in the world except Sanskrit. Even if we apply it to Tamil, all the dates of Tamil literature will collapse and hang in balance!

 

In short, foreigners thought Hindus are simpletons and tried to foist  their rubbish theories on us like they do dump today all the unwanted, banned medicines and pesticides on us. They polluted the world with all tobacco smoking, firing arms, nuclear explosions, burning coal and petrol. And today they advise us that we should do this or shouldn’t do that. It is the same with their writings and theories as well!

 saraswati-map

Read my earlier article:

“Yavana(Mlechas) Mystery in Tamil Literature”, posted on 31 July 2014.

–subham–

 

 

 

Indian Grammar Wonder! (Post No.3008)

450px-agastyaprambananindonesia

Statues of Agastya in Indonesia

Research Article written by London Swaminathan

Date:26 July 2016

Post No. 3008

Time uploaded in London :–  21-30

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 agastyanepal-carole-r-bolon

Statue of Agastya in Nepal

There is a beautiful verse in Tamil:

 

If there is no literature, no grammar;

If there is no sesame seed, there is no oil;

Like we extract oil from the seeds

We get grammar from literature

–Peragathyam (Big+Agastyam)

 

All of us are familiar with the chicken and egg question which came first? Chicken or Egg?

We are familiar with the question whether man came first or woman came first?

We have an answer at least for this question.

Adam came first and he made Eve out of his left rib. This story was copied from the Hindu scriptures. Atma became Adam and Jiivatmaa became Eve (atma) in the Old Testament (I have already dealt with it in my post “Sanskrit in the Bible”).

 

Hindus say that Parvati was the left side of Shiva and that form is known as Ardha Naareeswar (Half Shiva and Half Parvati/Uma). This is also basis for the ‘left rib’ story of Adam. Left always denotes woman in Hindu literature.

 

There is another story about Brahma falling in love with his own daughter. Stupid foreigners dubbed this as “Incest” without understanding the symbolism. This is again the basis for the Adam and Eve story. Adam fell in love with his own daughter created out of his left rib. This is copied again from the Brahma’s ‘incest’ story.

 

Going back to the original topic, which came first, Grammar or Literature? Tamils are very clear about it: Literature came first and then Grammar was done on the basis of existing literature. Later writers followed that grammar. After 1000 years they dropped some rules and invented new rules as we see in Tamil and Sanskrit.

agastya-in-london

Statue of Agastya in London V and A Museum

Both the languages were created by Lord Shiva from the same root (Sounds from his kettle drum). Foreigners who wanted to divide India invented two families –Aryan family and Dravidian family of languages which is wrong. Both the languages belong to the same family. Thousands of Tamil words are in English which has a known relationship with Sanskrit. This is possible because Tamil and Sanskrit belonged to the same family ( I have dealt with it in my previous research paper)

 

Great Grammar Wonder!

Agastya, a saint who lived in the Himalayas was sent by Lord Shiva to the South to codify a grammar for the Tamil language. We have inscriptional, archaeological and literary proof in Tamil epigraphs, Agastya Statues in South East Asia and literary evidence in Kalidasa and Tamil literature in support of this belief.

 

If we go by the Tamil verse that literature came first, we accept that there was literature in Tamil even before Agastya was sent to the South. The scholars believe that this happened between 700 BCE and 1000 BCE. Unfortunately, Tamils lost their books and their literature and the existing ones start only from first century BCE. One grammarian known as Tolkappiar , believed to be a disciple of Agastya wrote the grammar for Tamil – Tolkappiam which is used until today. But original Agastya couldn’t have been his Guru. Tolkappiam betrays a later age. One thing is certain that Tamils had literature before Agastya came. Tolkappiar had 12 contemporary grammarians including Agastya.

agastya

Sanskrit wonder!

If we apply the Tamil verse that literature came before grammar, we can see a big wonder. Panini was the oddest grammarian in the world. But he himself referred to ten other great grammarians. We did not have those grammars. If we accept the date of Panini as seventh century BCE. We must accept lot of books existed at that time; unfortunately, we did not have any work except the Vedic literature. The oldest book in the world — the Rig Veda– is dated between 1400 BCE and 6000 BCE. Even if we accept 1400 BCE, then another wonder awaits us. There are grammatical terms in Vedic literature which shows that there was a grammar. It was referred to in a religious book! This again means another thing that literature existed even before the Vedas.

 

Remember: Before Grammar was literature!

 

Another coincidence is that some of the names mentioned by Panini are found in the Vedic literature too. But we don’t know whether they are just saints with the same names or saints cum grammarians.

 

Pre- Paninian grammarians include Apisali, Kasyapa, Gargya, Galava, Cakravarmana, Bharadvaja, Sakatayana, Sakalya, Senaka and Sphotayana.

 

Yaska of 8th century BCE refers to the works of Saakataayana, Kraustuki, Gragya and several others.

 

Another wonder is that it shows that Hindus were far more advanced than any other civilization in the world 3500 years ago. Language (Sanskrit), Literature (Vedas), Linguistics (Yaska’s Nirukta) and Grammar (Panini) are the yard sticks of a civilisation. In the above four fields no language of today or ancient days comes closer to Sanskrit. Moreover this is the status after losing hundreds of Shakas (branches ) of the Vedas and thousands of books.

 

Long Live Tamil and Sanskrit.

Tribes in the Rig Veda; Mystery of Hill Tribes of India – Part 9 (Post No.3005)

IMG_2696

Research Article Written by London swaminathan

Date:25 July 2016

Post No. 3005

Time uploaded in London :–  17-15

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Part 8 was published here on 25th of July. First part contains a detailed introduction.

 

The oldest religious book in the world is the Rig Veda which is in Sanskrit. It covers a huge geographical area—from Iran to Gangetic plains of India. It is dated 1400 BCE by some and 6000 BCE by German scholar Jacobi and Indian scholar and freedom fighter B G Tilak. Nobody could dispute that date which is based on astronomical data. Even if we accept the date 1400 BCE, there is no book that comes closer to the Rig Veda in geographical details or ethnographic information. It is amazing to see the rivers listed from the Holy Ganga in the East and remote rivers in Afghanistan. It is more amazing to see the number of ethnic groups in the Veda. These details explode the Arya – Dravidian myth.

1430101041-1083_india565ADmagadha

Tamils , Greeks and Latin speakers had no books when Vedas were composed. Hebrew had very little in the Old Testament of the Bible, just after the Vedas. Chinese wrote something. Though the Sumerian, Egyptian and a few other extinct languages had some records or inscriptions they did not have anything worth the name of literature or higher thoughts that are found in the Vedas.

 

Vedic Gods and Sanskrit names and Sanskrit numbers were recorded in inscriptions from 1400 BCE. So we have archaeological proofs as well (Please read my previous articles for precise information or go to Wikipedia and look for Mitanni civilization, Boghazkoy inscriptions, Dasaratha letters of Egypt and Kikkuli Horse Manual).

 

Amazing number of Tribes
The tribes found in the Vedas are listed by A A Macdonell and A B Keith in the “Vedic Index of Names and Subjects”. Shrikant G.Talageri has written about the migratory routes of Vedic Hindus from India to various parts of the world in his book “The Rig Veda – A Historical Analysis”.

Following are the names of the tribes found in the Vedic Literature:

Anga, Aja, Anu, Andhra, Aambashya

Udiichya, Usinaara, Kamboja, Kaaraskara

Kaasi, Kikata, Kuru, Krivi, Gandhaari, Cedi

Turvaasa, Trstu, Druhyu, Nisaada, Naisadha

Paktha, Panchajanaah, Paancaala, Parsu

Paaraavata, Pulinda, Pundra, Puru, Prthu

Praacya, Balhiika, Bahiikha, Bharata, Bhalaanas

Magada, Matsya, Madra, Mahavaavrsa

Muuciiba / muutiba/ muuvipa, Muujavant

Yaksu, Yadu, Rusama, Vanga, Varaikha

Vasa, Videha, Vidarbha, Visaanin, Vrcivant

Vaikarna, Saphaala, Sabara, Saalva, Sigru, Sibi

Simyu, Siva, Siesta, Suuraksenaka, Svikna, iva

Satvant, Salva, Srnjaya, Sparsu

IMG_3736

Over sixty tribes are listed. Later they became the names of kingdoms. We find many of them in the Mahabharata as well.

Ramayana has Kosala , Videha, Kishkinda, Sri Lanka etc. If Mahabharata and Ramayana taken together, it shows the vastness of this country.

The questions Rig Veda and other Vedic materials raise are:

How many centuries it would have taken to get these many number of tribes/groups?

How many centuries it would have taken to cover a vast area from Bengal in the East to Iran in the West and Andhra in the South?

How many centuries it would have taken to attain the maturity we see in the tenth Mandala of the Rig Veda?

They pray for peace for the entire mankind.

If we go by BG Tilak’s theory it covers even North Pole.

All these things coldn’t have happened overnight. So one is right in saying that they lived in this country for thousands of years before dividing themselves into various groups and establish kingdoms in their names (such as Vanga, Anga, Magada, Andhra etc).

They would have taken several thousand years to establish kingdoms from Iran to Ganga in Bengal and Bihar.

We have references to Rig Vedic Kings giving camels as gifts. Plants and animals of Tropical areas are mentioned more than the temperate areas in the oldest part of the Vedas. Over 400 poets (Rishi) names are in the Rig Veda alone. Over 1000 hymns are there in the Rig Veda alone. There is no book in the world to compare with the Rig Veda around 1400 BCE.

vedic route

This proves the oldest country in the world is India and the oldest race in the world is the Hindus. The greatest contribution of the Vedic Hindus is the decimal system and the domestication of cows. The bulls in the Indus seals prove that it is part of Vedic civilisation. When the world was drinking camel milk and donkey milk the Hindu genius found that the cow’s milk is the closest one to mother’s milk. They are proved right until today. Decimal system is found in the Rig Vedic hymns in innumerable places. Cow is the holiest of the holy animals in the Vedas. Milk and Honey were used as food by the Vedic saints. Without decimal numbers and the Hindu maths and cow’s milk, the world wouldn’t have progressed even an inch.

I wrote that the hill tribes and advanced city civilisation existed simultaneously and gave references from the Hindu epics. Now the tribal names in the Vedic literature also proved my theory.

–Subham–

Mystery of the Indian Hill Tribes – Part 8 (Post No.3002)

IMG_2169

Picture of a Lama Woman

Research Article Written by London swaminathan

Date:25 July 2016

Post No. 3002

Time uploaded in London :–  20-45

( Thanks for the Pictures)

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Part 7 was published here on 11th of July. First part contains a detailed introduction.

 

 

Following are taken from the People of India written by Sir Herbert Risley, Director of Ethnography for India, Year 1915 with my comments

 

IMG_2164

Kaamaars, Blacksmiths of Bihar (Plate 28)

 

Lohaars , the ordinary blacksmiths of Northern India  working in iron only, whereas Kaamaars work on iron and gold as well. I Eastern Bengal they make brass cooking vessels as well. Hence they hold a higher rank than the Lohaars, and Brahmans will take water from their hand. They pride themselves on not allowing their women to wear noserings. Like other artisan castes, they worship Visvakarma, the Divine architect of the Universe, who is often represented by the hammer, anvil, and other tools used in their handicraft.

 

My comments:-

First, note the caste names Kaamaars and lohaars are Sanskrit names (Karmaara, Loha kara)

If they are non Aryans, if they are Shudras, why there are so many differences between themselves? If they are Dravidians, how come they worship Visvakarma, the Vedic God? So the division of Aryan- Dravidian is a pure concoction of foreigners.

 

Lama Woman, Mongoloid Type, (Plate 30)

Laama is a Tibetan word meaning “Superior One”, and was formerly restricted to the head of a monastery. It is now strictly applicable only to abbots and to the higher class of Buddhist monks. In many places the first born son is often dedicated to the profession of religion.  As in the case of the lady in the illustration, to use the words of Lt.Col. Waddel , “Their inveterate craving for material  protection against malignant gods and demons has caused them to pin their faith on charms and amulets, which are to be seen everywhere dangling from the dress of every man, woman and child.

 

My comments:

Their beliefs, customs and jewels are completely different from other communities. They are classified as of  Mongoloid race. What makes them Mongoloid? Customs? Facial features? Amulets and Charms are even in the Atharva Veda. First son is dedicated to religion/ Is it Aryan or Dravidian? All the divisions are artificial and man-made. Differences are there in every big geographical area. Great Britain has four prominent ethnic groups: Scottish, Welsh, English and Irish. But they are united under British. The same people who merged ethnicities under the term ‘British’, divided Hindu races as Aryans, Dravidians and Mongolians etc.

 

Totemism in Bengal

One more instance of totemism in Bengal deserves special notice here, as it shows the usage maintaining its ground among people of far higher social standing than any of the castes already mentioned. The Kumhaars of Orissa take rank immediately below the Karan or writer caste, and thus have only two or three large castes above them. They are divided into two two endogamous sub castes – Jagannathi and Oriya Kumhars who work standing  and make large earthern pots, and Khattya Kumhars who turn the wheel sitting and make small earthern pots or cups.

For matrimonial purposes the Jagannathi Kumhars are subdivided into the following exogamous sections:–

 

Jagannathi Kumhaar

Name of Section – Totem

Kaundinya – Tiger

Sarpa – Snake

Neul – Weasel

Goru – Cow

Mudir – Frog

Bhadbhadria – Sparrow

Kurmaa – Tortoise

 

My comments:-

Even the potters’ castes have Sanskrit totem names and caste names. Foreigners could not digest this. They are considered lower in rank, “Dravidian” in appearance! But have Rishi’s name (Kaundinya) and Sanskrit caste names (Kumhaars = kumbakara). Foreigners struggled to find a reason and at last aid “ probably they borrowed” them. This is how they fooled all Indians and divided India into races and classes.

 

In the next article I will list all the Vedic Tribes.

To be continued……………..