Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 17 December 2019

Time in London – 13-44

Post No. 7354

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So far we have covered nine chapters with salient features highlighted; I have also added my comments wherever it was appropriate. To day let us look at the 74 slokas in the tenth chapter of Manu Smrti.

First I will give important slokas/ couplets in bullet points.

Sloka 63 – This is the most important sloka in the firsts 70 + slokas. Good qualities are common for all the Four Varnas/castes

Sloka 1 -People who belong to Three castes must learn Vedas. It will be interesting to find out till what time the three castes studied Vedas.

Sloka 8 on wards – Inter caste marriages and specific terms for them in permutation and combinations. We know that inter caste marriages were done during even Mahabharata days. But never heard these many different kinds. This chapter must be a later addition.

Sloka 20 – definition of Vratyas

Sloka 22 – Dravidas

Sloka 32  – Dasyus

Sloka 44 – Yavanas & Dravidas

These terms are used with different connotations. It is not Vedic Dasyu; Like Dravidas we have several people named after Countries/Desa So instead of Geographical connotation we have inter caste people.

Sloka 25 onwards – Sons of Inter Caste couples are dealt with.

We can infer two things from these :-

1.Inter Caste marriages took place

2.Yavanas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Vratyas, Sakar – are all Hindus.

Sloka 47 on wards – their professions

Sloka 56 – death sentence

Sloka 58 – Non Aryan qualities (Here Aryan stands for Cultured, Civilized).

Sloka 64/ 65 – A Sudra becomes a Brahmana in seventh generation

Sloka 69 to 73  Interesting Debate —

Which is important Seed (Husband) or Land (Wife)?


Now let us look at the original translation of Slokas?

1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study the Veda; but among them the Brahmana alone shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.

2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence prescribed by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to the law

3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).

4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth caste.

5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers)

6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.

7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.


8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.

9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.

10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).

11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.

12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).

14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana.

16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men;

17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).

18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.

19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.


20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.

21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.


22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.

23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.

24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.


25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.

26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava,

27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother’s caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones.

28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).

29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).

30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).

31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).


32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).

33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.

34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Caivarta.

35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.

36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.

37. From a Candala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.

38. But from a Candala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.

39. A Nishada woman bears to a Candala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).

40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.

41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.

42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.

43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;


44. (Viz.) the Paudrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.

45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.

46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born.


47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;

48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;

49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.

50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.

51. But the dwellings of Candalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth(shall be dogs and donkeys.

52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.

53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.

54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.


56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.

58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.

59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.

60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.

61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.

62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)

63. Abstention from injuring creatures, veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating the goods of others, purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation.


65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.

66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the pre eminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,

67. The decision is as follows: ‘He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.’

68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes.


69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.

70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:

71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.

72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.

73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ‘Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’

To be continued…………………………….

ஒரு திராவிட ஜோக் (Joke)! (Post No.6677)

WRITTEN  by London  Swaminathan

Date: 25 JULY 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 7-04 AM

Post No. 6677

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23 Oct 2017 – ஈர்ங்கை விதிரார் கயவர் கொடுறுடைக்கும். கூன்கைய ரல்லா தவர்க்கு (1077) ……/வள்ளுவனும்-வன்ம… – Translate this page.

பாரதியும் வன்முறையும் | Tamil and Vedas…/பாரதியும்-வன்முற…

ஈர்ங்கை விதிரார் கயவர் கொடுறுடைக்கும். கூன்கைய ரல்லா தவர்க்கு (1077). பொருள்: கன்னத்தில் அடித்து நொறுக்கினால்தான் கயவர்கள் …


Written by London swaminathan

Date: 26 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London –20-47
Post No. 5992
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

இரும்பு பற்றி அரிய தகவல்! ஆரிய- திராவிட வாதத்துக்கு மேலும் ஒரு ஆப்பு! (Post No.5989)

Written  by London swaminathan

Date: 26 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London – 8-16 am
Post No. 5989
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog


Written  by London Swaminathan

Date: 11 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-04
Post No. 5651

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

The king who protects his people rendering justice,

according to the laws of the land

Will be hailed as the Divine Lord, by his subjects.

–Tirukkuraal 388


In this section, MANU discusses the impure period that follows birth or death of near and dear. He also discusses ruler of the land.


The amazing thing about this section is Hindus follow the same beliefs from Kashmir to Kanyakumari.

1.Though Egypt and other cultures considered King as God, the amazing thing about Hindus is Sanskrit and Tamil have the same words for God and King. Same word for God and King. And the second amazing thing is he is compared with the Vedic gods in Sangam literature and Manu. Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda Tirukkura,l called King as God like Manu. The Tamil word Irai and Ko stand for God and King. Tamil word Koil stands for Hindu Temple and Hindu Palace.

2.This section explodes the Aryan Migration theory and Dravidian and Aryan division theory. From birth to death water and bathing are used to remove impurity. So the Hindus belong to tropical region. They did not come from temperate regions.

No other culture in the world uses water for such rituals. This shows that Hindus did not come from outside and they are the sons of the soil.

3.Only Hindus considered Teacher as God. Manu deals with impure period after teacher’s death. This is not found in any other culture. So Hindus are sons of the soil; never came from outside. When they migrated to other countries they took some of the customs.

4.No other culture in the world the rules for impure period. This shows they have evolved all such rules in this country. Since Manu’s name is in the Rig Veda and he talks about flowing Sarasvati river and he never spoken about Sati, he must have lived in the Vedic period.

5.Slokas 105 to 110 are beautiful quotations on Purity

6.His directions about the directions for dead bodies and suicide are interesting.

7.The concept of Seven Generations is repeated in Tamil and Sanskritliterature hundredsof times. The absence of this Seven Generations in other cultures show thatHindus are sons of the soil and Aryan immigration is concocted by vested interests. Since Tamils also repeat Seven Generations, they had the same belief.



  1. A king is an incarnation of the eight guardian deities of the world, the Moon, the Fire, the Sun, the Wind, Indra, the Lords of wealth and water (Kubera and Varuna), and Yama.
  2. Because the king is pervaded by those lords of the world, no impurity is ordained for him; for purity and impurity of mortals is caused and removed by (those) lords of the world.
  3. By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons according to the law of the Kshatriyas, a (Srauta) sacrifice is instantly completed, and so is the period of impurity (caused by his death); that is a settled rule.
  4. (At the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has performed the necessary rites, becomes pure by touching water, a Kshatriya by touching the animal on which he rides, and his weapons, a Vaisya by touching his goad or the nose-string (of his oxen), a Sudra by touching his staff.

  5. Thus the purification (required) on (the death of) Sapindas has been explained to you, O best of twice-born men; hear now the manner in which men are purified on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda.
  6. A Brahmana, having carried out a dead Brahmana who is not a Sapinda, as (if he were) a (near) relative, or a near relative of his mother, becomes pure after three days;
  7. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the deceased), he is purified in ten days, (but) in one day, if he does not eat their food nor dwells in their house.
  8. Having voluntarily followed a corpse, whether (that of) a paternal kinsman or (of) a stranger, he becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his clothes, by touching fire and eating clarified butter.
  9. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while men of the same caste are at hand; for that burnt-offering which is defiled by a Sudra’s touch is detrimental to (the deceased’s passage to) heaven.


  1. The knowledge of Brahman austerities, fire, holy food, earth, restraint of the internal organ, water, smearing with cow dung, the wind, sacred rites, the sun, and time are the purifiers of corporeal beings.

  2. Among all modes of purification, purity in the acquisition of wealth is declared to be the best; for he is pure who gains wealth with clean hands, not he who purifies himself with earth and water.

  3. The learned are purified by a forgiving disposition, those who have committed forbidden actions by liberality, secret sinners by muttering sacred texts, and those who best know the Veda by austerities.

  4. By earth and water is purified what ought to be made pure,

 a river by its current,

a woman whose thoughts have been impure by the menstrual secretion,

a Brahmana by abandoning the world (samnyasa).

  1. The body is cleansed by water,

the internal organ is purified by truthfulness,

the individual soul by sacred learning and austerities,

the intellect by (true) knowledge.

  1. Thus the precise rules for the purification of the body have been declared to you; hear now the decision (of the law) regarding the purification of the various (inanimate) things.


Impure Periods

  1. I will now in due order explain the purification for the dead and the purification of things as they are prescribed for the four castes (varna).
  2. When (a child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has received (the sacrament of) the tonsure (Kudakarana) or (of the initiation), all relatives (become) impure, and on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is prescribed.
  3. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity on account of a death (shall last) ten days, (or) until the bones have been collected, (or) three days or one day only.

Co feeding relatives are Sapindas.


  1. But the Sapinda-relationship ceases with the seventh person in the ascending and descending lines, the Samanodaka-relationship when the (common) origin and the (existence of a common family)-name are no (longer) known.
  2. As this impurity on account of a death is prescribed for (all) Sapindas, even so it shall be (held) on a birth by those who desire to be absolutely pure.
  3. Or while the impurity on account of a death is common to all (Sapindas), that caused by a birth falls on the parents alone; (or) it shall fall on the mother alone, and the father shall become pure by bathing;
  4. But a man, having spent his strength, is purified merely by bathing; after begetting a child (on a remarried female), he shall retain the impurity during three days.
  5. Those who have touched a corpse are purified after one day and night (added to) three periods of three days; those who give libations of water, after three days.

Ritual for Deceased Teacher

  1. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for his deceased teacher, becomes also pure after ten days, just like those who carry the corpse out (to the burial-ground).
  2. (A woman) is purified on a miscarriage in as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after conception), and a menstruating female becomes pure by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to flow).
  3. (On the death) of children whose tonsure (Kudakarman) has not been performed, the (Sapindas) are declared to become pure in one (day and) night; (on the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but not the initiation, the law) ordains (that) the purification (takes place) after three days.
  4. A child that has died before the completion of its second year, the relatives shall carry out (of the village), decked (with flowers, and bury it) in pure ground, without collecting the bones (afterwards).

Rules for Child

  1. Such a child shall not be burnt with fire, and no libations of water shall be offered to it; leaving it like a (log of) wood in the forest, (the relatives) shall remain impure during three days only.
  2. The relatives shall not offer libations to (a child) that has not reached the third year; but if it had teeth, or the ceremony of naming it (Namakarman) had been performed, (the offering of water is) optional.
  3. If a fellow-student has died, the Smriti prescribes an impurity of one day; on a birth the purification of the Samanodakas is declared (to take place) after three (days and) nights.
  4. (On the death) of females (betrothed but) not married (the bridegroom and his) relatives are purified after three days, and the paternal relatives become pure according to the same rule.
  5. Let mourners eat food without factitious salt, bathe during three days, abstain from meat, and sleep separate on the ground.
  6. The above rule regarding impurity on account of a death has been prescribed (for cases where the kinsmen live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda) kinsmen and (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to refer to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from them).
  7. He who may hear that (a relative) residing in a distant country has died, before ten (days after his death have elapsed), shall be impure for the remainder of the period of ten (days and) nights only.
  8. If the ten days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days and) nights; but if a year has elapsed (since the occurrence of the death), he becomes pure merely by bathing.
  9. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative’s death, or of the birth of a son after the ten days (of impurity have passed), becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his garments.
  10. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a (grownup relative who is) not a Sapinda, die in a distant country, one becomes at once pure after bathing in one’s clothes.
  11. If within the ten days (of impurity) another birth or death happens, a Brahmana shall remain impure only until the (first) period of ten days has expired.


  1. They declare that, when the teacher (acarya) has died, the impurity (lasts) three days; if the (teacher’s) son or wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and a night; that is a settled (rule).
  2. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of affection), a man shall be impure for three days; for a maternal uncle, a pupil, an officiating priest, or a maternal relative, for one night together with the preceding and following days.
  3. If the king in whose realm he resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as long as the light (of the sun or stars shines), but for (an intimate friend) who is not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole day, likewise for a Guru who knows the Veda and the Angas.
  4. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days, a Kshatriya after twelve, a Vaisya after fifteen, and a Sudra is purified after a month.
  5. Let him not (unnecessarily) lengthen the period of impurity, nor interrupt the rites to be performed with the sacred fires; for he who performs that (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure, though (he be) a (Sapinda) relative.
  6. When he has touched a Candala, a menstruating woman, an outcast, a woman in childbed, a corpse, or one who has touched a (corpse), he becomes pure by bathing.
  7. He who has purified himself by sipping water shall, on seeing any impure (thing or person), always mutter the sacred texts, addressed to Surya, and the Pavamani verses.
  8. A Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat adheres, becomes pure by bathing; if it be free from fat, by sipping water and by touching (afterwards) a cow or looking at the sun.
  9. He who has undertaken the performance of a vow shall not pour out libations (to the dead) until the vow has been completed; but when he has offered water after its completion, he becomes pure in three days only.


  1. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the prescribed rites and may be said to) have been born in vain, to those born in consequence of an illegal mixture of the castes, to those who are ascetics (of heretical sects), and to those who have committed suicide,
  2. To women who have joined a heretical sect, who through lust live (with many men), who have caused an abortion, have killed their husbands, or drink spirituous liquor.


  1. A student does not break his vow by carrying out (to the place of cremation) his own dead teacher (akarya), sub-teacher (upadhyaya), father, mother, or Guru.
  2. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but (the corpses of) twice-born men, as is proper, by the western, northern, or eastern (gates).
  3. The taint of impurity does not fall on kings, and those engaged in the performance of a vow, or of a Sattra; for the (first are) seated on the throne of Indra, and the (last two are) ever pure like Brahman.
  4. For a king, on the throne of magnanimity, immediate purification is prescribed, and the reason for that is that he is seated (there) for the protection of (his) subjects.


  1. (The same rule applies to the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a riot or a battle, (of those who have been killed) by lightning or by the king, and (of those who perished fighting) for cows and Brahmanas, and to those whom the king wishes (to be pure).

—to be continued……………………

tags- Impure Periods, Birth and death, King and God, Purity Quotes



Research Article Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 11 October 2018


Time uploaded in London –16-21 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5529



Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.



Those who read the history of Assyria, Babylonia and Sumeria will come across lot of surprises. My research in this field shows that the Asuras of the Rig Vedic time migrated to Iraq and Turkey region. After a certain period, Rig Veda stops talking about lineages of certain Rishis or Kings. It shows clearly that they were pushed out of India by the Vedic Hindus to Iran, Iraq and Turkey.


Iran’s link to Vedic civilization is well established and well known, A revolutionary from Krishna’s land in Saurashtra region of Gujarat migrated or thrown out to Iran (old Persia) and he was called Zoroaster.

(According Kanchi Paramacharya Swamiji, Saurashtrar became Zoroaster)

The reason the Parsees came back to Gujarat in eighth century after the Muslim invasion of Iran is that they knew it was their original home.


Those who through the kings list of Sumeria and Assyria will wonder how the Sanskrit names changed or mis spelt there. If one goes through the original list supplied by Manetho (Manu), and Berossus (VARA RUCHI=BEROSSUS,third century BCE) ,one will see Sanskrit names more clearly. Vedic names like Alarka, Aila, Alavaka,Alina are there in the list. Whether it is Egypt or Middle East first king was called Manu, Menes etc.

Rim stands for Ram and Sin stands for Chandra (moon);

in Sumerian language moon god was called Sin, Suen and Nannar.

In Puranic Chronology Pargiter and other scholars were struggling hard when they found two people with the same name. So they concocted new theories or they blamed one or the other Purana or Ithihasa for the ‘mistake’.


Unfortunately, those people never read Egyptian or Sumerian History. There were 14 kings in Egypt with the name Ramesses (Ramesh or Rama seshan). Now let me give the amazing list of Sumerian kings with Sanskrit equivalents: –






Modern Iraq and Turkey; areas around river Tigris.




Assyrians can be identified from about 2000 BCE onward through their dialect Akkadian. Assyrians were probably named after the location from where they came. The word Ashur stands for God in the middle east dictionary.


This proved two things–
Asuras of Rig Vedic times migrated to or pushed out to Middle east.

The area they occupied was called Assyria. Even in Ancient Indian history the 56 countries names came from the clans. If Matsyas occupy one area it was called Matsya Desa. If Kambojas occupied one area it was called Kamboja. As and when they spread out to new areas the geographical boundaries of their Desas/countries also changed.


The second thing we know is they came to this area around 2000 BCE. In the older parts of Rig Veda, Gods were called Asura (RV 8-25-4). Varuna, Mithra and Indra had the epithet ASURA. But when the name gets a bad or different connotation, one set of people never used it. For instance, words like Negroes, Pariah (Tamil) are not used any more. In those days Pariah was just the name of Drummers who proclaimed Royal orders.

When one migrates to a new area they always remember their original home and name it after it. Ganga is found throughout the world (see my earlier article about Congo and Nile). We see this in Canada, USA and Australia. The people gave the names of their forefather’s towns or lands and added New with the name. We must remember this when we see same names in the Middle East and Egypt.


The spellings change according to the pronunciation of the local people or under the influence of a local dialect. For instance, Tamil Names in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Mauritius are spelt differently. Same Sanskrit names are used by these people but with different spellings. Mitanni civilization of 1400 BCE in Turkey used beautiful Sanskrit names Dasaratha, Pratardana, Sathya vachan with local spellings.


If one remember these points and read the Middle East list it will be easier for them to see the truth.


Here are some interesting names:





Amarakosa, the Sanskrit thesaurus called Asuras Purva Deva (formerly God). So the ancient scholars knew that the connotation changed slowly. in our own times Panchamas,Pariahs, Dalits, Harijans, out castes, Sudras – all these changed the connotations in course of time.

Dravidian political parties dubbed all Non -Brahmins as Sudra in their political propaganda. Mahatma Gandhi coined a new word Hari Jan for the out castes or the low class people.


The great priest of the Asuras Usanas Sukra belonged to a branch of Bhargava or Atharvan family of Rishis. Puranas mentioned the descendants of all other Brahmin families except the descendants of Sukra Atharvan and his Asura followers. Even Lord Krishna praised Usanas Kavi in Bhagavad Gita. This means the Asura followers or the Atharvan priests left the country and migrated to Iraq/Assyria and Iran.


The word Asura was pronounced Ahura in Iran.Their priest Zarathustra bore the title SPITAMA or white Which is same with Sukra (white) of rig Veda. All these cannot be mere coincidence.

This is a clear proof for their migration to Iran.


in short the Devas and asuras quarreled in ancient times and one group migrated to Iraq and Iran. That is why we see Rig Vedic Gods in Bogazkoy (Turkey) inscription of 1400 BCE and Ahura Mazda in Iran/Persia and Ashur kings in Assyria/Iraq.


Kings List of Assyria


Puzur Ashur I 2000 BCE

Naram Sin (Nara simha or Nara Chandra or Nara Sena)

Sena titles are very common in Mahabharata; at least 24 kings with Sena names in Mahabharata.

Ashur Rabi – around 1500 BCE (Rabi- Ravi/Surya/Sun)

Ashur nadin ahhe

Ashur Nirari 1426 BCE (N and M are interchangeable; it may be Murari)

Ashur bel nishesu 1410 BCE

Ashur nadin ahhe II 1402 BCE

Ashur Ubalit I 1365 BCE


Then there are seven kings with ASHUR title  until 1000 BCE.

Some kings names were used up to four times with I, II, III, IV numbers.


We come across at least Four Dasarathas until Asoka’s grand son’s time in Indian History.


After 1000 BCE we come across at least 20 Asuras in Assyrian king names including the famous Ashur banipal of 668 BCE

Sanskrit name Sargon (Sat Guna or Satrugna) is found in Sumeria, Assyria and other geographical locations. First Sargon ruled Akkad in 2340 BCE.

Ram’s Name


Rim Sin (Rama Chandra or Rama Sena) – 1822 BCE (ruled from Larsa)

Rim sin II – 1741 BCE

Sin in Sumerian is Moon God; Sin= Chandra


There is another proof for using only Gods names in Sumeria:

ADAD and MARDUK- gods’ names were used by at least 20 kings.



Like today’s Hindus use  Chandra as prefix and suffix Sumerians also used Sin either before the name or after the name.


Chandra Sekara

Chandra Murthy

Chandra Hasan

Chandra (female)

Chandramati (Harischandra’s wife)

Chandravati etc



Rama Chandra

Purna Chandra

Vipina Chandran


Sin Iddinam 1849 BCE

Sin Eribam 1842 BCE

Sin Iquisham 1840 BCE




Rimush ruled Akkad in 2284 BCE

Naram Sin in 2260  BCE ( other areas also had this name)

Amar sin (Amara Sena or Amara Chandra)- 2046 BCE from Ur

Shu Sin 2037 BCE (ruled from Ur) Susena or Suchandra

Ibbi sin – 2026 BCE



Danava =Daitya = Asura = demon


The word DANAVA is in the Rig Veda a metronymic of the demon Vritra, who is regarded as an evil spirit in the form of a serpent preventing rain fall (RV 2-12- 11). Danava simply meant a demon. Indra killed him.


Stories of killing snake dragon are in Sumerian civilization as well. Probably,being of Hindu origin, they alo used the same symbolic language, where snake dragon stands for natural obstacles or catastrophes.


Madhu and Lavana, the Yadava kings were also called Danavas (Hari vamsa). Jarasandha, Kamsa were also called Danavas.






Foreigners wrote our history and gave the list of kings only from Buddha period. We must include all the 140+ generations before Buddha.

When we come across same names twice or more times

we must remember Egyptians used the same king’s names 14 times

Sumerians 4 or 5 times.


We must remember the names get corrupted the more you travel in time and space (best examples Tamil names in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Mauritius).

We must remember words like Ashur and Deva change connotation in course of time like our Panchama, Pariah, Dalit, Sudra, Hari Jan


We must also remember that in the beginning the areas or countries were called after the clans that lived in that area and when they moved the geography also changed. When we see the same Kambojas in different areas at different periods, the name of the country should not mislead us. Look at Kamboja in India and Kambojas in Cambodia.


We must teach our children a Dasaratha (tushratta) ruled Turkey in 1400 BCE and his letters are in Egypt now. This is in all history books in foreign countries but not in India- see Mitanni civilization, Amarna letters, Bogazkoi inscriptions in Wikipedia etc.


We must teach our children that the names of Vedic gods were used in the agreement in Turkey in 1400 BCE


We must include some ancient history in our syllabus from Sumeria, Babylonia and Assyria to show the possibilities of having same names used umpteen times, corruption of Sanskrit names etc (Tushratta=  Dasaratha in Turkey) and to show history begins in 3000 BCE in Egypt, Mayan and Sumerian. In India History begins from 600 BCE. This must be rectified with immediate effect.






Dravidian Theories- Tamil and Sanskrit came from same source! (Post No.5284)


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 3 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 8-16 AM   (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5284


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

The present book is a store house of information on everything Dravidian, and bears evidence on every page of it, to the immense learning of the author, his indefatigable research, his genius for analysis, and his familiarity with the grammars of almost all the languages of South India.

It is a pioneering contribution to a field of study in which there have been too few workers. Swaminatha Aiyar, a painstaking scholar, author of the book, has laboured long over it with single minded devotion in the cause of linguistic science. No doubt his labours will help in promoting national integration, by showing how , over two or three millennia ago, people living in different parts of India lived in linguistic amity taking freely from neighbouring languages and there by enriching their own .

Running in twelve chapters of immense importance this pioneering research material suffixed with appendices, bibliography and footnotes, shall be of great help to those who are interested in linguistics in general and Dravidian theories in particular. This is a must for every library and institution.

Author’s Profile

  1. Swaminatha Aiyar was one of the galaxy of brilliant men who are born and bred in Thanjavur district in the nineteenth century. He was a contemporary of P S Sivaswami Aiyar and continued as his close associate and friend, with mutual respect and admiration.

    Like so many great men of those days, R Swaminatha Aiyar also commenced his life as a school teacher in the district, serving as such from 1880 to 1884.

    1885- He was appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics in Presidency College, Madras
    1889- Head clerk, Revenue Department
    1893- Senior Assistant in Board of Revenue
    1895- Registrar of the Revenue Department
    1896- Professor of Mathematics Presidency College , Madras
    1897- Famine Assistant in Revenue Department , Tamil Translator to Government.

1910- Treasury Deputy Collector, Administrative Deputy Collector

He was a linguist, administrator, mathematician, grammarian, educator, scholar, orientalist, and polymath, a versatile genius. In short, he, by birth, early training and bent of mind, and the opportunities provided by his occupation, became eminently fitted for the work he dedicated himself to later on in life.



Mr P N Appuswami in his foreword to the book said in 1975:
The knowledge he had cultivated of Vedic Sanskrit and of classical Sanskrit, from his boyhood, at a time when such knowledge was more prevalent and valu d , was of great help in preparing his mind for linguistic study . So too his knowledge of the classic Tamil of the Sangam and later periods helped him in his study of the dialects of the Tamil country.

One must be familiar with Vedic and classical Sanskrit and proficient in South Indian languages to understand his theories. But even a cursory reading without deep knowledge in many of these languages, we can understand his line of thinking.

Lot of so called researchers and scholars take one matter from here and one matter from there and try to connect them. They don’t realise that the information belongs to various periods or various levels of development. They connect Vedic Sanskrit and classical Tamil which is widely different in ages. There is at least a 2000 year gap.

Swaminatha Aiyar has beautifully shown the intermediate Prakrit link between Sanskrit and Tamil. He has used the table prepared by Dr Caldwell and showed the possible Prakrit link.

If one followed his line of thinking one could find the common foundation of Tamil and Sanskrit. One can understand why Shiva sent his disciple Agastya from the Northern Himalayas to the Southern Pothiya Hillls to codify a grammar for Tamil. Tradition says that both these languages came from the kettle drum sound of Lord Shiva. Paranjothi Munivar confirms it in his Tiru Vilaiyatal Purana.

Following is the table given by Swaminatha Aiyar to show the link between Tamil and Sanskrit:







My previous articles on the same subject:

  1. Who are Dravidians? | Tamil and Vedas

Who are Dravidians? By London Swaminathan … Previous Post திராவிடர்கள் யார்?


  1. ‘Dravidians are Invaders’ – Tamil and Vedas…

‘Dravidians are Invaders’ Who are Dravidians ? Part- 2 Post No. 761 dated 26/12/13 ; compiled by London swaminathan Please read part 1 before reading this part …


  1. Dravidian | Tamil and Vedas

Foreigners used this “Dravidian” Brahui to show the Dravidians entered India through the north … (for old articles go to OR swamiindology …

  1. Very Important Date – Tamil and Vedas…

5.Who are Dravidians? (Posted July 17, 2013) and 700 more articles. Contact . Title: Microsoft Word – Very Important Date Author: Swaminathan

  1. Munda Tribe follows Brahmin customs! Mystery of Indian Hill ……

(for old articles go to OR … Foreigners classified them as Dravidians but there is no Dravidian or Aryan element in them.

  1. Indus Valley Case – Tamil and Vedas…

Indus Valley Case: Lord Indra Acquited Post No 764 dated 28th December 2013. … Dravidians and Aryans came to India from outside. But Hindu literature says



Brahui | Tamil and Vedas

Posted by Tamil and Vedas on September 12, 2017.

  1. Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas

Tagged Agastya statues, Panini, Tamil and Sanskrit, Tamil Grammar. Posted by Tamil and Vedas on July 26, 2016. … Tamil and Sanskrit came from the same source.

  1. Origin of Tamil and Sanskrit | Swami’s Indology Blog…

Tamil and Sanskrit came from the same source. One who knows these two languages can learn any language in the world without much difficulty.

  1. Origin of Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas…/origin-of-tamil-and-sanskrit

Origin of Tamil and Sanskrit. Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article No.1409; … Tamil and Sanskrit came from the same source.




Compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 4 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   6-39 am (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5179


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Latest research shows that Indian history begins in 250,000 BCE. Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh has 40,000 year old paintings. If human beings live in the heart of India amidst thick forest, deep inside India, far from the sea coast, they must have been there several thousand years before that date. it raises a question about the popular belief that human beings slowly migrated from Africa about 60,000 years ago. We have older evidence to prove that the theory is wrong.


The Yoga Tradition author Georg Feurstein gives the New Chronology of India. It shows that the India is the oldest country with human occupation. Famous archaeologist H D Sankalia in 1974 has shown the paleo lithic and neo lithic stone cultures with dates. But current discoveries take us to very early periods. Indian history must be rewritten immediately. All the history books written by British and Marxist historians must be dumped into Indian ocean.

I have given below the chronological tables from Georg and Sankalia:–









Brahui Theory Incorrect? (Post No.4205)

Research Paper written by London Swaminathan


Date: 12 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 12-09


Post No. 4205


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



(This is the fourth and the last part)



From 1844, there is some incorrect information circulated among scholars about Brahui language and Dravidian invasion/migration of India via Afghanistan. Foreigners used this “Dravidian” Brahui to show the Dravidians entered India through the north west route. But all this information is not correct. Until today no KEY Tamil words are found in Brahui.


A language must have body parts, numbers, personal pronouns etc to show some affinity with another language. No such things are found except two numbers.


Andropov tried very hard to show some relationship with Dravidian languages. He found an escape route to justify his findings by using PROTO DRAVIDIAN. He used ‘may and might’ in his article which shows all these are just guesses

(ref. Notes on Brahui, M Andropov, Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow; 6 page article appeared in Journal of Tamil Studies, Volume 1, October 1969)


I threw a challenge to a girl who studied lost languages to come with at leaest 10 Tamil words from Brahui speakers. No response until today. The fact of the matter is no one can even produce a few Tamil words!


Brahui speakers are not of Dravidian stock; they are of Indo-Aryan stock

no Dravidian word will have beginning ‘BRA’, which is Sanskrit.

Currently Brahui language is full of Indo Aryan words (Baluchi etc)

Even if we find two Tamil numbers, we can explain that Tamil businessmen were there at one time using these numbers. Tamils presence in North West and beyond is confirmed; but all those are just visits not from permanent settlements. Some fanatics tried to hide under the guise of Indus valley civilization.


What do others say?

The derivation of the word Brahui from personal name IBRAHIM frequently met with among Brahuis themselves, is nothing more than a popular etymology invented after the adoption of Islam. The Iranian etymology ‘borohi’ a mountaineer is dobted for many reasons- Andropov

So no one knows the origin of the word ‘Brahui’)!



Dictionary of languages by Andrew Dalby gives the following information:


1500,000 speakers


“Brahui, major language of western Pakistan, is an astonishing survival – utterly different from the Iranian languages that surround it. Most Brahui speakers are bilingual in Baluchi. There is no doubt that that Brahui belongs to the family of Dravidian languages of South India, though it is separated from the nearest of them by many hundreds of miles (see map at KURUKH).


The relationship was pointed out by German linguist Christian Lessen in 1844.





But it cannot be as simple as this; Brahui shares some innovations with northern Dravidian languages such as KURUKH so must have separated from other Dravidian languages before they them themselves began to differentiate. IN REALITY THE EARLY HISTORY OF BRAHUI IS QUITE UNKNOWN.

(My comments: building sand castles as big as possible to be washed away by every wave! No single Tamil word found yet!!!)


It is at least certain that the speakers of Brahui and Baluchi have long lived side by side. Tradition tells of Hindu rule in medieval Kalat, the centre of Brahui and Baluchi culture, followed by a Brahui dynasty, followed by Mughal rule as elsewhere in India, followed by renewed Brahui domination. This last period contains a date 1660—the accession of Mir Ahmed as Khan of Kalat, ruling both Brahui and Baluchi tribes.


The pastoralist Brahuis traditionally migrate in large numbers in winter, the people called Sarraavaan to Kachi, the people called Jhalawaan to Sind, where they have hereditary winter quarters.


(My comments: There is no Brahui language; it is nothing but Sindhi and Baluchi for ever!!!)



(My comments: There is no Brahui; it is just Indo-Aryan language; so far everything is guess; in reality everything is Baluchi and Sindhi—Indo-Aryan languages!!!!!!)

The first ten numerals in Brahui are











only 1 to 3 are Dravidian- the higher numbers are borrowed from Baluchi or Persian


(my comments: so all  these sand castles were built on Irat and musit!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! is ASIT, Tamil???????)


O hilaarki daun e ki gingishk tuutaki = he is as fond of dates as a sparrow is of mulberries



So cunning linguist frauds have developed this Dravidian Brahui theory.


In fact Tamil has more similarity with English than Brahui:

One= ondru

Two= randu

Eight= Ettu


Let us compare it with Turkey (1400 BCE)!

Following is not a guess work or reconstruction like Brahui; It is based on inscriptions!

The oldest horse training manual found in Turkey has Sanskrit words for numbers!
The MItannian (Syria/Turkey) rulers’ names were in Sanskrit:
Biridaswa=Brhat Asva= possessing great horses
Sattawaza = Sapta Asva= Prize Winner in Seven horse races.
Kikkuli (1400 BCE) trained people on horses in Turkey and Syria. His manual used Sanskrit words:

Wartanna Vartana a turn
Aika Eka One turn
Tera Tri Three turns
Panza Panca Five turns

Satta Sapta Seven turns
Na (artanna) Nava Nine turns

Those who studied Tamil grammar wouldn’t be surprised to see Satta becoming Sapta. In Tamil also we follow the same rules to change Sanskrit sounds in to Tamil sounds. Raja becomes Arasan in Tamil. Rajaraja becomes Iraasa rasan in Tamil. Damayanthy in Sanskrit is written as Tamayanti, YogaRaja becoming Yokarasa in Tamil, Shakespeare changing to Sekappiriyar or seksupiyar, Homer changing to Omar and Harrypotter changing to Karipaattar!! There is no S or H or J or Sh or Ksha in pure Tami!!

In the same way Kikuli changed Sanskrit words to suit his students in the Hittite empire (Syria/Turkey)!
Maryannu is a word for warrior used by Kiikuli. This comes from the Sanskrit word Marya. Egyptians borrowed this Sanskrit word and Egyptianized like Tamils and wrote M(a)-ar-ya-na in 1470 BCE in Papyrus Anastasi I. They used this for Chariot warrior.

P= V
Asva in Sanskrit is written as Aspa by the Persians.
By 1500 BCE Sanskrit words were used from the Plains of River Ganges to the Plains of the River Nile and in between Mesopotamia!!!

Zend Avesta of Zoroastrians had Old Sanskrit or Persian words
Dravaspa =Devi Asva = Goddess for horses
Vist aspa (a king of Bactri) Visva Asva? = All powerful Horse?
Pourus Aspa = father of Zarathustra = one who possess many horses
Arbataspa =Master of war like horses
Huaspa =Su Asva= having good horses
Bactria’s capital was known as Zariaspa= land of golden horses! This is because they used gold coloured bronze coat.

Even when we have such proper evidence we did not build sand castles!






Dravidian Magician in Kashmir: Kalhana’s Strange Story! (Post No.3869)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 1 May 2017

Time uploaded in London: -12-21

Post No. 3869

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



Kalhana, the 12th century historian and author of Rajatarangni mentioned DRAVIDIAN in three places. There is a very interesting story about a Dravidian magician in his book Rajatarangini (River of Kings).


It is a true story according to Kalhana and it happened during the reign of Jayapida (751 CE).


From Fourth Taranga (Chapter) of Rajatarangini:

On one occasion, to the king who had acquired glory in all directions a certain person of divine figure spoke in a dream with folded hands:

“O King! in your realm I have been residing in comfort with my relatives; I am the Lord of the Nagas called Mahapadma, I come to you for asylum.


‘A certain Dravidian spell-monger is trying to draw me away from here in order to sell me for money in the Territory of Maru (desert) which yearns for water.

If you save me from him, I shall show in your country, a hill which produces god ore. The king having heard it in the dream, despatched spies in all directions the very next day. King’s spies found him and brought him before the king (Jayapida).


Ulur Lake Near Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India (also known as Wular)

When he confessed his intention, the king pardoned him. The king asked the Dravidian spell-monger (magician):

“How is it possible for you to draw out this Naga, who excels in spiritual power,  from the interior of the lake which extends for several Yojanas?”

Dravidian magician said to the king, “O, King! Inconceivable are the powers of the spell (mantra). If you desire to see it, come and see the marvel.



The king followed the magician to the lake. The Dravidian muttered incantations and then shot some arrows. The lake became dry. Then the king could see a snake (Naga) about a span in size with a human face, which was wriggling in the mud surrounded by several small snakes.


O King! I am going to catch him now. But the king ordered him not to catch the snake. At once the Dravidian spell monger (magician) withdrew the power of his spell and the lake became full. (The Vulur/Wular lake was called the Mahapadma lake after this naga who was supposed to live in it).


King disposed the magician by paying him some money.


The king was expecting the Naga to show him the Hill of Gold ore. But it did not happen. When the king asked him about it Mahapadma Naga said, “I asked for asylum; you did not give me asylum; but you drove away the spell-monger. So I will show you the hill of copper. When the king got the directions to it, he excavated copper from Kramarajya Hill and struck a hundred crores of Dinnaras (coins)”.


Dravidian Brahmins

In another chapter Kalhana referred to Dravids (Dravidian Brahmins in Kashmir). Until Max Muller and Caldwell gave the wrong connotations for the words Dravidian and Aryan, the words meant only A South Indian (Dravida) , A cultured person or ascetics of Himalayas ( aryan) in Indian literature.

Following is the reference found in Eighth Taranga (chapter)

“The daughter’s son of the chief of Karapatha settled in this place (Simhapura). Brahmans born in Indus region as well as Dravid Brahmans who formerly lived in the centre of siddhacchatra.”


Translator R S Pandit adds a footnote: As late as the 12th century Dravid Brahmans are mentioned as students in Kashmir.


My old articles on Kalhana’s Rajatarangini and Kashmir


1.Who are Dravidians? | Tamil and Vedas

17 Jul 2013 – He says ‘Pancha Dravida‘ means the Brahmins of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Here again the word …



2.Ramayana cures Curses! Rajatarangini Episode! (Post No.3754); Date: 24 March 2017


3.Kaliyuga Calculation: Kalhana’s Blunder!

Post No: 1574: Dated 14th January 2015


4.Nehru on Rajatarangini; Article No.1465; Dated 7th December 2014.


5.Kashmiri King who attacked Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka; Article No.1468; Dated 8th December 2014.


(6). 106 Kings of Hindu Kashmir!; Post No: 1577: Dated 15th January 2015


7.Beautiful Names of Ancient Kashmiri Women!; Article No 1583; Dated 17th January 2015.


8.Sanskrit in Mahmud of Ghazni Coins!; Article No 1579; Dated 16th January 2015