Hindu Treasures in Moscow Museum (Post No.5207)

Compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 11 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 8-37 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5207


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



The following sculptures, paintings, wood carvings are from Moscow Museum; they depict Hitopadesa/ Panchatantra story (Crane and Crab), graceful women from Gujarat, Wayang puppet of Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, Mahabharata war, Sarasvati from Burma, Mandala from Buddhism, Rama-Hanuman carving in teakwood, Kubera and Urvasi-Pururuvas story of Rig Veda. There are many more treasures from South Asian and South East Asian countries. They are copied from the book.


















Written by London swaminathan


Date: 10 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 14-24   (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5204


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

Hospitality is a virtue praised in the Rig Veda (10-117) and the  Sangam Tamil Literature. A Tamil verse in Purananuru ( verse 182) says that even if it is the ambrosia from Indra Loka, Tamils wouldn’t eat it alone, without sharing. From the oldest book in the world Rig Veda to the latest film songs, Hindus praise this virtue as an act which gives one religious merit (Punya). Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda has lot of verses on it. There are thousands of Choultries (Chatras) which have been giving free food for guests from the Vedic Days.

In Bhagavad Gita (3-13), Lord Krishna says that one who cooks for himself alone is a sinner.

There is a story in Tamil Periya Purana to illustrate this point:

Periapuranam written by Sekkizar , is a great Tamil literary master piece which gives the life stories of 63 Siva Devotees of Tamil Nadu in verses. Like Shakespeare had portrayed human nature in all its diverse subtle aspects in his dramas, Sekkizar  has given us  unrivalled picture of the myriad sided character of the human mind in the world of religious and mystic life. The only difference is that Shakespeare used the medium of drama for unfolding his ideas, while poet Sekkizar has chosen the narrative form of literature. We have about 4000 verses in the Periya Puranam. Sekkizar lived 500 years before Shakespeare.

Here is the story highlighting the virtue of hospitality:-

Ilayankudi was a small village in Tamil Nadu. There lived a farmer by name Maran. He was so philanthropic that he donated all his wealth or life earnings to the devotees of Lord Siva.

According to Periya puranam, Lord Siva wanted to show the world that Mara Nayanar was imbued with true love and service towards his devotees.

One day ,during the rainy season, a Siva devotee knocked at the door of Mara Nayanar at the dead of night. Nayanar received him with a smile in his face and asked him to wait in the front room. When he asked his wife to cook something for him, she told him that there was no rice in the house.  She remembered however one thing; they sowed the paddy that day in their land, and if they could be collected, she could prepare some food.

As he heard his wife’s words, he felt glad as though he had recovered a lost treasure. He started at once to bring the paddy seeds. It was pouring down and there was pitch darkness. Impelled by love and spirit of hospitality, he took a basket, covered his head and collected as much paddy as he could from the muddy field. The seeds were floating the rain water. His wife prepared food after cleaning them. She asked him to collect the greens (spinach) from the backyard and prepared different dishes with the same greens.

When the food war ready, hot and steaming, Maran went to the front of the house to invite his guest for dinner. But the guest suddenly disappeared and in place rose a Brilliance and the couple saw the Divine Presence of Lod Siva and Parvati.


This story illustrates two things: the respect shown to Siva’s devotees and the hospitality.

We have a beautiful hymn Rig Veda (10-117) about this virtue:


Guests in the Rig Veda (10-117)


The Devas have not given hunger to be our death,

even to the well-fed man death comes in many shapes

The wealth of the liberal never wastes away,

he who gives no protection finds no consoler.(1)


He who, possessed of food, hardens his heart against

the weak man, craving nourishment, and suffering,

who comes to him for help, though of old he helped him

surely such a one finds no consoler.(2)


He is liberal who gives to one who asks for alms

to the distressed man who seeks food, wandering; success comes to him in the challenge of battle

and for future conflicts he makes a friend for him. (3)


He is no friend who does not give to a friend

to a comrade who comes imploring for food;

let him leave such a man – his is not a home—

and rather seek a stranger who brings him comfort. (4)


Let the rich man satisfy one who seeks help

and let him look upon a longer pathway;

wealth revolves like the wheels of a chariot,

coming now to one, now to another. (5)





Interesting Stories from Mithila, Sita’s Birth Place (Post No.5190)

Sita Mandir, Janakpur, Nepal.

COMPILED  by London swaminathan


Date: 7 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   7-17 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5190


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


There are many interesting stories about the City of Mithilaa.
The most famous story is from the Upanishad about the philosopher king Janaka discussing the meaning of the Veda when Mithila was on fire.
Janaka was not only a great king and a great sacrificer but also a great patron of culture and philosophy. His court was adorned with learned Brahmanas from Kosala and Kuru Panchala regions. Some of them are named , Asvala, Jaratkarva, Artabhaga Miss Garki Vacaknavi, Uddalaka Aruni, Vidagdha Sakalya and Kahoda Kausitakeya A Brahmin named Brahmayu who was well versed in history, grammar and worldly wisdom lived in Mithilaa.

In the Mahabharata,12-17, there is a saying attributed to Janaka of Mithilaa. Seeing his city burning in a fire the king of Mithilaa sang thus
“In this world, nothing of mine is burning
Mithilaayaam pradtaayaam na me dahyati kincana”


But there are other stories not that popular.
Mithilaa was the capital of the kingdom of Videha also called Tirabhkti, modern Tirhut.

Mithila has been identified with the modern Janakapura, a small town within the Nepal border.

During the reign of Janaka, it took Visvamitra together with Rama and Lakshmana four days to reach Mithilaa from Ayodhyaa to. On the way they rested for one night at Visala (Valmiki Ramayana)

(My comments: the road distance today is 450 kms. They must have travelled by a short cut route and they could have walked at least 50 miles a day or by horse ride it is quicker)
According to Satapata Brahmana, Videha was so named after Madhava, the Videha who colonised it. Videha was famous for handsome people and horses of noble breed


Narendra Modi in Janakpur, Nepal.
Mahabharata on Mithilaa
Bhima and Arjuna visited it with Krishna on his way from Indraprastha to Rajagriha.

Mahabharata points out that Karna conquered  Mithilaa during his digvijaya.


Jain literature on Mithilaa
Mahavira 24th Tirthankara of Jainism Mahavira was born in Videha and he lived there for thirty years. He was called Videha and his mother was called Videhadattaa.


Story of Nimi
Vasisthta having performed a fire sacrifice of Indra proceeded to Mithilaa to commence a sacrifice for King Nimi. On reaching there he came to know that the king had engaged Gautama to perform the sacrificial rites. Seeing the king asleep he cursed him thus king Nimi will be bodiless. (Videha =vigata Deha) because he rejected me. The king on awakening cursed Vasistha saying that he too would perish as he cursed a sleeping king.
The sages churned the body of Nimi and as a result of the churning a child was born, afterwards known as Mithi. After Mithi, Mithilaa was named and the kings were called Maithilas.
This is in Vishnu Purana

Jataka stories
MIthila had at each of it’s four gates a market town. They formed for suburban towns. Videha contained 16000 villages 16000 store houses and 16000 dancing girls.


A disciple of the Buddha who was an inhabitant of Sravasti took cart loads of articles and went to Videha for trade. There he sold his articles and filled the carts with articles got in exchange.

King Videha had four sages to instruct him in law. The son of this king was educated at Taxila. A young named Pinguttara living in Mithilaa went to  Taxasiila and studied under a famous teacher. He soon completed his education. Then after diligent study he proposed to take leave of his teacher and go back home. But in the teacher’s family there was a custom if there be any daughter ripe for marriage, she should be given to the eldest pupil. So the teacher said,
I shall give you my daughter and you shall take her with you. He went home as a married man.

Sumedha and Buddha

Sumedha, a childless widow of Suruchi, king of Mithilaa prayed for a son. She took the eight fold vow (Ashtasiilaani), and sat meditating upon the virtues. Sakka  in the guise of a sage came to fulfil her desire. He was entreated by her to grant her the boon of a son. She was asked by him to sing her own praises in fifteen stanzas, which she did to his satisfaction. Afterwards she was blessed with a child.

Videha was ruled by Cedaga, Mahavira’s maternal uncle. He was an influential leader of Lichchavi confederacy. His daughter Cellanaa or Vaidehi was married to Srenika Bimbisara of Magadha and became the father of Kunika Ajatasatru

XX x

Vedas mentioned a king named Namiisaapya
600000 pieces a day!
King Saadhina of Mithilaa lived in happiness for many years. He ruled this city righteously. Six alms halls were built by him. Daily sixth thousand pieces were spent in alms.
Bodhi sattvaavadana kala of Kshemendra refers to Mithilaa ruled by Pusphadeva who had two pious sons named Chandra and Surya. The munificent king Vijitavi of Mithilaa was banished from his kingdom. He took shelter in a leaf hut near the Himalayas. Mithilaa was governed by the descendants of a Nagadeva, Sagaradeva, and Mahadeva
3000 Kings of India!!!

Sita Stamp.

Some time back I started posting the names of 3000 Kings of India. After 1500 plus, kings I got one here and one there. So I stopped posting them Here in  Mithilaa, we come across following new names:

Mostly from Jataka stories


King Saadhina,
Namisaapya, Vedic index I, 436
Cedaga, jain sources
King Angati,
King Mahadeva (Madhva)
King Pabhata
King Suruci


(other kings are already covered in the Purana list of Kings)
Brahmadatta, king of Benares, had a daughter named Sumedha whom he declined to give in marriage to a Videha king who had large number of wives, fearing that her cowives wold make herself life miserable. Polygamy appears to have been in vogue among some Videha kings.


Source- India Antiqua, Leyden, 1947

Xxx SUBHAM xxx


COMPILED  by London swaminathan


Date: 6 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   13-58

 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5188


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


















RESEARCH ARTICLE by London swaminathan


Date: 5 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   2-09 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5183


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




Sangam Tamil Literature is at least 2000 years old; Rig Veda came several thousand years before that. Vyasa divided them into four Vedas 5100 years before our time according to tradition.


Rig Veda has used Yupa in two meanings

Sacrificial post-5-2-7

A pillar or a post-1-51-14

2000-year-old Tamil Literature used the same Sanskrit word in several places in two meanings; sacrificial pot or just a post.

Let me explain the places where it is used in the meaning of a sacrificial post; in addition to the Sanskrit word Yupa, it has beautiful translated it as Velvi Thun in a few other verses. Velvi = Yaga and Thun= post or pillar.


Tamil kings are well versed in Yagas and Yajnas. Under the guidance of able Brahmins, they did Rajasuyam and Asvamedham.


Sangam Literature consists of 18 books. Of them Purananuru is the encyclopedia of Tamil community.

Following are the very important references of YUPA:-

Purananuru  verse 224- line 1

Purananuru  15-21

Velvi Thun (Yaga Post)- Purananuru verse 400

Perumpanatruppadai- Lines 315-318

Akananuru – Velvi Nedunthun -220

Purananuru- 400

In addition to the above verses, we come across a reference to Rajasuyam in Purananuru verse 367. The Rajasuyam was performed by the Choza king Perunarkilli and attended by Ukkra Peruvazuth and Chera king Mari Venko. Avvaiyar, the mst famou Tamil poetess was over the moon to see all the three kings in unity. Tamils were notorious fighters who fought with one another for 1500 years continuously. That was the reason for Avvaiyar’s great jubilation.

From the above Yupa or Velvi Thun references we come to know that the kings who did Yaga and ereced Yupa post were:

1.Greatest of the Choza kings Karikalan

2.Greatest of the Pandya Kings Mudu Kudumi Peruvazuthi

3.Choza Nalamkilli

4.Sellur Kosar Community

5.Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan

6.perhaps Rajasuyam performer PerunaR Killi


Some interesting details about them are:

Kadiyalur uruttiran Kannan (Rudraksha of Kadiyalur) sings about King Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan—

“A king fisher coloured like a  sapphire seeking for prey took the jewel of  in its bill, and instead of going to the leaf of the Palmyra tree filled with birds, sat on the YUPA at which learned finished their sacrifice; it looked like a swan lamp on the mast of the boat of the Yavanas and twinkled like Venus which heralds dawn” (Perum Panatruppatai)


In the Puram verse 15, poet Nettimaiyar is wondering about the powerful Pandya Mudukudumi , whether his enemies are more in number or the Yupa post more in number. The emperor as performed so many yagas.

Kalidasa also confirms it in his Raguvamsa Kaya. When the Panady king was introduced to Indumati, her maid says this king always appear in wet cloth worn during Asvamedha Yajna (actual verse mentioned only Avabruda Snana done during Asvameda). Recent discoveries include the kings name in Tamil on a coin with Ava/horse image.


Before going into the details available in Hindu scriptures about the appearance and significance of Yupa, let me list the famous 19 Yupa posts discovered so far:-

1.Isapur, Mathura in Uttarpraesh, dated 102 CE

2.Kosam, Prayag, U.P. – 125 CE

  1. and 4.Naandsaa, Udaipur, Rajas. – 225 CE

5.Barnaala, Jaipur, Rajs.- 227 CE

6-9.- Badvaa- Kotah, Rajas.- 238 CE

10.Nagar, Jaipur, Rajas.- 264 CE

11.Barnaala, Jaipur- 278 CE

  1. Bijayagarh, Bharatpur, Rajas.- 71 CE

13-19- Kotei, Borneo, Indonesia- Seven Sanskrit Inscriptions on Yupa Stone Pillars- King Mulavarman 400 CE.

( This is not a comprehensive list)

Yupa inscriptions in Sanskrit


In Borneo scattered undated materias are found near Kapuas, Rata and the Mahkam rivers or in isolated pockets, the earliest epigraphic data from the island refer to Kotei at Muarakaman, on the Mahakam river in Borneo dated 400 CE.

The Kutei inscriptions are seven in number, of which four were found in 1879 and the rest in 1940. The inscriptions belong to Mulavarman, son of Asvavarman and grandson of Kundungga.

The inscriptions engraved on stone Yupas or sacrificial posts, refer to the performance of certain rituals and offerings of various kinds.

Mulavarman Sanskrit Inscription in Bangkok Museum.

In the second part let us look at the appearance of Yupa.


–to be continued…………………….



Compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 4 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   6-39 am (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5179


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Latest research shows that Indian history begins in 250,000 BCE. Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh has 40,000 year old paintings. If human beings live in the heart of India amidst thick forest, deep inside India, far from the sea coast, they must have been there several thousand years before that date. it raises a question about the popular belief that human beings slowly migrated from Africa about 60,000 years ago. We have older evidence to prove that the theory is wrong.


The Yoga Tradition author Georg Feurstein gives the New Chronology of India. It shows that the India is the oldest country with human occupation. Famous archaeologist H D Sankalia in 1974 has shown the paleo lithic and neo lithic stone cultures with dates. But current discoveries take us to very early periods. Indian history must be rewritten immediately. All the history books written by British and Marxist historians must be dumped into Indian ocean.

I have given below the chronological tables from Georg and Sankalia:–












Date: 29 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-24 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5163


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


Hero stones are found throughout India. They are erected to honour those who lost their lives in protecting the community or saving the country. Even a dog has a hero stone in Tamil Nadu because it heroically fought with a tiger and save the people.

Sangam Tamil literature refers to hero stones and so we know that it has been the practice for at least 2000 years; but unfortunately we have not discovered very ancient ones. The ones we know now are from sixth or seventh century.

Hero(ine) stones are erected for women who lost their lives by climbing their husband’s funeral pyre. Rajasthan and Karnataka have such stones with had symbols. In short Super Men were celebrated in Bharat from very early days.

Though we don’t come across much in Sanskrit literature about Hero Stones, we know that Brahmin families even today bury a stone after the ten day ceremony in a garden or the backyard of the house. Perhaps in ancient days it was a big one. Now they just bury it in the crematorium or the place where the ceremonies are done.

One feature about the hero stones is that they are revered as gods or goddesses. Sangam Tamil literature is very clear about the Pujas done to you with flowers etc.


Several Tamil Hero Stones became Village Gods. We are fortunate to have two sets of Hero stones describing in pictures and words the ancient sea battles. One set of Stones is in Goa Museum and another set of six stones is in Eksar in Mumbai. It is one mile from Borivili station. But latest press reports say that some of the stones are missing. People in the village worship it as Goddess Boradevi. They are between four and eight feet high and intricately carved with ships and warriors.


After some historical awareness, people have discovered over 100 hero stones in Maharashtra. They are already well known in Tamil Nadu, Andhra and Karnataka.


The old Goa hero stones are from the Kadamba rulers who ruled for 400 years from CE 950.

Great Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar says in Tamil Veda Tirukkural that human beings who lead a virtuous life are considered Gods.

“A man who leads an ideal life in this world,

will be ranked amongst the Gods in the heaven”- Kural 50


Sea Battle

Moti Chandra in his book Ancient Trade Routes has given full details about the six stones found in Eksar. But there are different opinions about the identity of the king in the stones. One researcher says it was the battle between Yadava king Mahadevan and Silhara King Someswara as described by Hemadri Pandit in his work Chaturvarga Chintamani. Others think it wass a battle between the Kadambas and Silahara kings. Since the inscriptions on the stones are unreadable we don’t know the names for sure.


Another strange thing about these Eksar stones is they are called Veera Gal ( a mixture of Sanskrit and Tamil words Veera+ Kal)

Now it becomes essential to collect all the details and publish them in an Encyclopaedia of Hero Stones.


I am giving below the descriptions of six stones as found in Moti Chnadra’s book:-









Date: 28 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  14-20 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5158


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.\



RAMAYANA sculptures in Cambodia are well known; but sculptures describing the scenes of Ramayana in Thailand are not known to many. Some of the sculptures were even interpreted earlier as scenes from Buddha Jataka stories. Now we know they are from Ramayana.

Mostly sculptures of Hindu gods are found in the temples of Prasat Phnom Rung and Prasat Phimai. Other sculptures of Hindu Gods are kept in Bangkok Museum.

Following book (Palace of the Gods by Smithi Siribhadra and Elizabeth Moore)  give some pictures with explanation:












காந்திஜி : ஹரிலால், மணிலால்! (Post No.5148)

Written by S NAGARAJAN


Date: 26 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –   7-00 AM (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5148


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



காந்திஜி : ஹரிலால், மணிலால்!




மஹாத்மா காந்திஜியின் வாழ்க்கை ஒரு திறந்த புத்தகம். உபசார வார்த்தைகளுக்காக சொல்லப்படும் கூற்று அல்ல இது. உண்மையிலேயே உலகமே கண்டிராத அளவு அவர் வாழ்க்கை ஒரு திறந்த புத்தகம். அதில் அவரது சத்தியத் தேடல்கள், இறைவனுடன் பேசியது, உள்ளிருந்து எழுந்த குரலின் வாயிலாக தேச மக்களை உரிய வழியில் நடத்தியது, அந்தரங்கம், தவறுகள், ஒப்புதல்கள், முதலிய அனைத்தும் அடங்கும்.


அற்புதமான ஒரு சரித்திரம் மஹாத்மாவின் சரித்திரம்.

அவரின் வாழ்க்கையில் இணைந்து பிணைந்த அவரது மகன்களின் வாழ்க்கையும் கூட இதனால் திறந்த புத்தகம் ஆனது.


இது அவர்களை சற்று சங்கடப்படுத்தியது என்னவோ உண்மை!


அனைவருமே மஹாத்மா ஆக முடியாது, அல்லவா!

ஹரிலால் ஒரு சமயம் காந்திஜியிடம் கூறினார் இப்படி: “எல்லோருக்கும் தெரியும்படி இப்படிக் கண்டிப்பதை விட எங்களைத் தனியே கூப்பிட்டு பிரம்பால் அடிக்கலாம்

(Harilal remarked to Gandhi later in life that instead of “reprimanding us publicly–we would have preferred if you caned us privately” (p. 109 of the book – Gandhi’s Prisoner?: The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal).



ஹிந்து காந்தியாக இருந்த சனாதனி காந்தி ஹிந்து மதத்தின் பால் ஆழ்ந்த பற்று கொண்டவர். சிறந்த ஹிந்துவாக அவர் விளங்கியதாலேயே அவர் இதர அனைத்து மதங்களையும் சமமாக ஒப்புக் கொண்டார்.


     அவரது மகனான ஹரிலால் (1888 -1948) திடீரென்று இஸ்லாமிற்கு மாறி அப்துல்லா ஆனார்.

இதை அவரால் ஜீரணிக்க முடியவில்லை; ஒப்புக் கொள்ளவும் இல்லை.


இப்படி மதம் மாறுவது அவரது பிரச்சினைகளுக்குச் சரியான தீர்வு ஆகாது என்று அவர் நம்பினார். அவர் சென்றதால் ஹிந்து மதத்திற்கு ஒரு நஷ்டமும் இல்லை; அவரை இஸ்லாமில் சேர்த்தது உண்மையில் பலஹீனமான ஒன்று என்று அவர் எழுதினார். சுத்தமில்லாத ஹ்ருதயம் உள்ள ஒருவன் மதம் மாறினால், அது கடவுளையும் அவனது மதத்தையும் மறுத்தது போல ஆகும் என்றார் அவர். எனது முஸ்லீம் நண்பர்களை நான் கேட்டுக் கொள்வது, அவர்கள் அவரது கடந்த காலத்தை


சோதித்துப் பார்க்கட்டும், அப்போது இந்த மதமாற்றம் ஆன்மா இல்லாத ஒன்று என்று அவர்களுக்குத் தெரிய வந்தால் அதை அப்படியே அவரிடம் சொல்லி அவரைத் துறந்து விட வேண்டும் என்பது தான் என்றார் அவர்.


அவரது எழுத்தை அப்படியே கீழே பார்க்கலாம்:

The statement issued to the Press on 2-6-1936, under the title “To My Numerous

Muslim Friends”, regarding Harilal’s conversion to Islam, was published in Harijan.


“Harilal’s apostasy is no loss to Hinduism and his admission to Islam is a source of

weakness to it if, as I apprehend, he remains the same wreck that he was before.

“Surely conversion is a matter between man and his Maker who alone knows His

creatures’ hearts. And conversion without a clean heart is, in my opinion, a denial of

God and religion. Conversion without cleanness of heart can only be a matter for

sorrow, not joy, to a godly person.


“My object in addressing these lines to my numerous Muslim friends is to ask them to

examine Harilal in the light of his immediate past and, if they find that his conversion is

a soulless matter, to tell him so plainly and disown him and if they discover sincerity in

him to see that he is protected against temptations so that his sincerity results in his

becoming a godfearing member of society. Let them know that excessive indulgence has

softened his brain and undermind his sense of right and wrong, truth and falsehood. I

do not mind whether he is known as Abdulla or Harilal if, by adopting one name for the

other, he becomes a true devotee of God which both the names mean.”



From :- ‘The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi’, published by Publication Division, Govt, of India.

Volume 63- Page no 7

பின்னால் கஸ்தூரிபாவின் வேண்டுகோளுக்கிணங்க மணிலால் தாய்மதம் திரும்பினார்.


காந்திஜியின் இன்னொரு புதல்வர் மணிலால். (1891 – 1956). அவரது வாழ்க்கை வரலாற்றை அவரது பேத்தி துபேலியா மெஸ்திரி எழுதியுள்ளார். (Uma Dhupelia-Mesthrie. Gandhi’s Prisoner?: The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal. Cape Town: Kwela Books, 2005. 419 pp. $27.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-7957-0176-4.). அவர் தென் ஆப்பிரிக்காவில் உள்ள வெஸ்டர்ன் கேப் பல்கலைக் கழகத்தில் வரலாற்றுத் துறையில் இணைப் பேராசிரியையாகப் பணியாற்றுகிறார்.

அவர் எழுதியுள்ள நூலில் தனது தாத்தாவைப் பற்றி மிக விரிவாக எழுதியுள்ளார்.

மணிலால் ஃபாத்திமா கூல் என்ற பெண்ணை மணக்க விரும்பினார். ஆனால் காந்திஜியோ ஒரு முஸ்லீம் பெண்ணை மணிலால் மணப்பதை விரும்பவில்லை.

ஒரு உறையில் இரு கத்திகள் இருப்பது போல ஆகும் என்று அவர் கூறினார்.

இளம் வயது பாலினக் கவர்ச்சியிலிருந்து விடுபடு என்று அவர் மணிலாலுக்கு புத்திமதி கூறினார். மணிலால் பிரம்மசாரியாகவே இருக்கலாம் என்றார் காந்திஜி. ஆனாலும் மணிலால் தனது 34ஆம் வயதில் மணம் புரிந்து கொண்டார். ஆனால் மணப்பெண் வீட்டார் பார்த்த பெண் தான். 19 வயதான சுசீலா மஸ்ருவாலாவை அவர் மணந்தார். அவரும் பனியா தான். மணப்பெண்ணின் தந்தை காந்திஜியைப் பின்பற்றுவர்; பெரிய செல்வந்தர்.

மணிலாலின் பேத்தி புத்தகத்தில் தரும் செய்திகள் இவை: புத்தகத்தைப் பற்றி ஆங்கிலத்தில் அப்படியே பார்க்கலாம்.

Gandhi’s influential hand was also evident in Manilal’s decision to marry. He had wanted to marry Fatima Gool, a Muslim from the Cape, but Gandhi objected because she was not Hindu: “it will be like putting two swords in one sheath” (p. 175). This seems anomalous considering that Gandhi had brought up his children to believe all religions equal. However, the boys were “shaped primarily by Hinduism” even though Gandhi respected all religions (p. 40). Gandhi was concerned about the impact the marriage would have on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. He warned Manilal that if he proceeded with the marriage he would have to stop editing Indian Opinion and would not be able to return to India. Gandhi advised Manilal to get over the “infatuation” and “delusions” of love: “our love is between brother and sister. Whereas here the main urge is carnal pleasure” (p. 176). Whatever Manilal might have felt, “in the end, though, he could not forget whose son he was. He did not have the courage to face the consequences of defiance; there really was no future without his father’s blessing” (p. 176). Gandhi implored Manilal to remain celibate, but on this issue Manilal disagreed with his father and married in 1927, at the age of thirty-four. However, his wife was chosen by Gandhi. She was nineteen-year-old Sushila Mashruwala, also of the bania caste and daughter of a wealthy property-owner and fervent Gandhi supporter (p. 183).


காந்திஜி தனது வாழ்க்கையில் ஒரு அற்புதமான ஹிந்துவாகவே வாழ்ந்தார். ஆதர்ச ஹிந்துவாக இருந்தார்.

தனது மகன்கள் இஸ்லாமிற்கு மதம் மாறவும் அவர் விரும்பவில்லை; அங்கிருந்து ‘பெண் எடுக்கவும் அவர் அனுமதிக்கவில்லை.

‘எல்லா மதமும் சம்மதம்; அதற்காக எனது மதத்தை இழிவு படுத்தி மற்ற மதங்களின் பால் எனக்குள்ள மரியாதையைக் காண்பிக்க முடியாது என்பதை அவர் வாழ்க்கை தெரிவிக்கிறது.

இன்றைய போலி செகுலரிஸவாதிகள் நம்மை நோக்கிக் கூறுவது, ‘மைனாரிடி என்ன செய்தாலும் அது சரி என்று கூறு; உனது சொந்த மதத்தை அடிக்கடி இழிவு படுத்தி நீ மைனாரிடிகளுக்கு நல்லவன் என்பதை நிரூபி என்பதைத் தான்.

காந்திஜியின் கொள்கைகளுக்கு நேர் விரோதிகள் இவர்கள் என்பதை அனைவரும் உணர்ந்தால் போதும், அது பாரத தேசத்திற்கு நல்ல நாளாக அமையும்!










Date: 15 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  18-13  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5114


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Sri Lokesh Chandra in his book CULTURAL INTEFLOW BETWEEN INDIA AND JAPAN gives some interesting information about Sanskrit words in Japanese language.

It is very interesting to see how they are spelt and pronounced in Japan.

Sanskrit is BONGO in Japanese.

Bon means Brahman

Go means language

Prince Shotoku consecrated the First Constitution of Japan with the Sanskrit hymn Usniisavijayaa- dhaaranii written in the Gupta script in palm leaf.

Monk Gyoogi welcomed the Indian Bodhisena in 736 in mixed language of Sanskrit and Japanese.

Bodhisena and Buddhasthira taught Sanskrit to Japanese monks at the Daianji Temple. Abbot Ono showed me the room where Sanskrit was taught 1300 years ago.

Kobo Daishi (806) laid emphasis on a knowledge of Sanskrit to understand the texts correctly.

Sanskrit mantras sanctify the Homa (Goma in Japanese) ceremonies in Shingon temples every day.

Japanese scholars studied Sanskrit in England and Germany as part of modernisation after Meiji restoration (1868)


Prof. JunjiroTakakusu wrote a series of seven articles What Japan owes to India in the Young East in 1925. Seven articles covered 1,2 Ascetics; 3 Hindu Pantheon; 4 Music and Dance; 5 Cotton and Chess; 6 Names and Words; and 7 More names and words.


Takakusu lists the following Sanskrit words in daily use in Japanese:–