Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 28 May 2018


Time uploaded in London – 18-59


Post No. 5055


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.





Sculptures of Vedic Gods Indra, Varuna, Yama and Kubera are found in many temples in Thailand. They are sculpted on the panels, gable and bas reliefs. Indra is more prominent than other gods. In some places he is portrayed with three headed Airavata, his elephant vehicle. In other places he is riding Airavata with one head. Varuna is sculpted with three Hamsas/swans. In India his vehicle was Makara (Crocodile or fish). Yam is riding his vehicle buffalo. It is very rare to see Kubera in India in temples. In Thailand we see him with goddess.


Along with the trinities Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva we see the Vedic Gods. But there is no temple for them. Kala, a strange figure is also found in Thai temples. Let us look at some beautiful sculptures of those Vedic Gods.



Indra with mysterious Kala with a big mouth



Indra with three headed Airavata


Varuna with three swans

Kubera with goddess of wealth


Varuna: Prasat Phimai, 12th Century

Kubera: Temple at Mo Ee Daeng

Yama:Prasat Phnom Rung

Indra: Prasat Narai Jaeng Waeng, Prasat muang khaek, Khao Phra Viharn and many more places

Source book for pictures: Palace of Gods




Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 21 June 2017
Time uploaded in London- 10-28 am
Post No. 4021
Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.



“Light giving Varuna! Your piercing glance does scan

In quick succession, all this stirring active world

And penetrates, too the broad ethereal space,

Measuring our days and nights and SPYING OUT all creatures”—Rig Vedic Hymn on Varuna


Brahmins who do Sandhyavandanam thrice a day worship Varuna; He is the God of the coastal area according to the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam; Sangam Tamil verses say that Tamil fishermen worshiped Varuna on sea coast of Tamil Nadu. Varuna is in almost all European and Iranian languages.


Max Muller says,

“Varuna is one of the most interesting creations of Hindu mind, because, though we can still perceive the physical background from which he rises, the vast, starry, brilliant expanse above, his features more than those of any other Vedic God have been completely transfigured, and he stands before us as a god who watches over the world, punishes the evil doer, and even forgives the sins of those who implore his pardon”


In the Rig Veda an exceedingly high position is ascribed to Varuna. He is Chief of the Adityas – sons of Aditi. They are inviolable, imperishable, eternal beings.


Aditi, the great Mother Goddess has twelve sons including Varuna, Mitra, Daksha, Indra and Surya. Varuna is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘var “to cover”. He is therefore god of the heavens covering all things. A mysterious presence, a mysterious power and a mysterious knowledge were all ascribed to him.

He is the one who makes the sun to shine in the heavens; the winds that blow is but his breath; he has hollowed out the channels of the rivers which flow at his command, and he has made the depths of the sea.


His ordinances are fixed and unassailable; through their operation the moon walks in brightness, and the stars which appear in the night sky vanish in the day light.


The birds flying in the air, the rivers in their sleepless flow, cannot attain a knowledge of his power and wrath. But he knows the flight of the birds in the sky, the course of the far travelling wind, paths of ships on the ocean, and beholds all the secret things that have been, or shall be, done.

He witnesses man’s truth and falsehood.


In truth, omniscience is his outstanding attribute. The sun and the thousand stars are his eyes searching out all the passes on earth, from which even darkness cannot hide. When two are in the company, he is the third. He is the god of the serene distant heaven, yet he is not far from any one of us.


“His spies descending from the skies glide all this world around;

Their thousand eyes, all scanning, sweep to earth’s remotest bound

Whatever exits in heaven and earth, whatever beyond the skies.,

Before the eyes of Varuna the thing unfolded lies.

The secret winkings all he counts of every mortal eyes

And wields this universal frame as gamester throws his dice!


Tamil God

Varuna is one of the Gods mentioned in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam. He is portrayed a s a god of the coastal Tamils. Tamil Sangam literature also has a reference to fishermen worshipping Varuna.


Mitra and Varuna are always paired in the Vedic hymns. Some people see it as positive and negative forces in the universe. Mitra represents light and Varuna represents night. It is like Shiva and Sakti; both are required for the survival of the universe.


Rig Veda (7-86-3/6) has the following prayer:

Be gracious, O mighty God, be gracious. I have sinned through want of power; be gracious.

Seeking to perceive that sin, O Varuna, I inquire: I resort to the wise to ask. The sages will tell me the same; it is Varuna who is angry with you.

What great sin  is it, Varuna, for which you seek to slay your worshipper and friend?

Tell me, O unassailable and self dependent God; and, freed from sin, I shall speedily come to you for adoration.

Release us from the sins of our fathers, and from those which we have committed in our own persons.

O King, loose, like a thief who feeds the cattle, as from the cord a calf, set free Vasistha.

It was not our own will, Varuna, but some seduction which lead us astray – wine anger, dice or thoughtlessness. The stronger perverts the weaker. Even sleep occasions sin.”


It is the prayer from the bottom of the heart of a true devotee!


Hundreds of hymns in the Vedas praise the mighty Varuna. They all make very interesting reading. The ancient Hindu society knew the general weakness of the human beings.

Perun (Varun) in Slavish Countries.



In the Yajur Veda, the following story is narrated of Varuna:_

Varuna is found instructing Bhrigu, one of the Seven Divine Rishis, as to the nature of Brahman, the Supreme Spirit.

Varuna tod the seer: Whence all beings are produced; by which they live when born, towards which they tend, and unto which they pass.

Bhrigu, after meditating in devout contemplation, recognised food to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from food; when born they live by food; towards food they tend, they pass into food.

Unsatisfied, however after further meditation, he discovered breath to be Brahman: for all things are indeed produced from breath; when born they live by breath; towards breath they tend; they pass into breath.

Again he sought Brahman in deep meditation, and discovered intellect to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from thought; when born they live by thought; towards thought they tend; they pass into thought.


Then he went to Varuna and requested him,

“Venerable Father, make known to me Brahman.

Varuna replied, “Inquire by devout contemplation, profound meditation”.

Bhrigu thought deeply and then he knew Ananda (bliss, joy, felicity) to be Brahman; for all things are indeed produced from desire; when born they live by joy; towards happiness they tend; they pass into happiness.

Such is the science taught by Varuna of the origin of things.


Hymns to Varuna reach a lofty poetic height because they are rather sombre and inspire reverence and awe in a manner few other Vedic Gods do. As an unwinking watcher of men’s conduct and as judge and punisher he inspires awe and fear- the god who evokes an ethical response.


These hymns show that the Vedic Hindus were highly intellectual and reached the pinnacle of civilization. They are not primitive as westerners described. Human psychology is fully reflected in these Vedic poems.

(Bhagavad Gita 3-14 to 3-17 also discuss it)


“He instructs the seer Vasistha in mysteries; but his secrets and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish”


(that is why Vedic seers speak in symbolic language; it has hidden meaning; only the enlightened people can read between the lines)


“he has a hundred thousand remedies, and is supplicated to show his wide and deep benevolence and drive away evil and sin, to unite sin like a rope and remove it. He is entreated not to steal away, but to prolong life, and to spare the life who daily transgresses his laws. In many places mention is made of the bonds or nooses with which he seizes and punishes transgressors.


Amazing Knowledge of the Seas!

“By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour out their waters into one ocean but never fill it”.

These lines are in the Vedas and Sangam Tamil Literature. Paranar, a Brahmin poet, quoted this in his Tamil Sangam verse.

This shows that the Vedic Hindus had amazing knowledge about the seas and oceans. They talk about thousands of rivers pouring into ocean and yet the seas never cross its shores. This is because of God’s order- Varuna’s orders.


All the Hindus use the simile every day at the end of their prayer “Akasat patitam toyam yathaa—– like the rain water that fall from the sky reaches the ocean , all my salutes/pranams go to Kesava”. They knew very well about the thousands of rivers and 7 oceans.


All the Tamil Sangam verses and earlier Sanskrit verses, whenever they mentioned earth, they say ‘sea clad earth’. Every second they remembered it. No literature in the world would mention it in all their verses that mentioned earth.


Vedic Hindus migrated from India to different parts of the world and spread Hindu values. All the famous rivers and seas around the world have Sanskrit names!

(I have dealt with this in my articles; so I am not going to repeat it)


If you get hold of the Vedas, just read the poems/hymns on Varuna! You will be wonderstruck!!!

In Mahabharata and Puranas, we see a different Varuna. ( I will deal with it separately)


Source Books:–  four different books on Vedas.

Vedic God Varuna in Oldest Tamil Book | Tamil and Vedas

8 Jul 2013 – Vedic God Varuna in Oldest Tamil Book. East European Slavs worshiped Varu as Perun. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappaiam dated to 1st century …




Vedic God Varuna in Oldest Tamil Book

East European Slavs worshiped Varu as Perun

Oldest Tamil book Tolkappaiam dated to 1st century BC mentions Varuna as one of the four Gods allocated four different land divisions of ancient Tamil country. This raised eye brows of many people because Varuna is not mentioned much in Tamil literature. Indra is mentioned from the oldest to the latest literature which I gave in my last post.


Agni, though not mentioned directly is mentioned in the Vedic rites of Brahmins in Tamil literature. 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature praised the Brahmins as ‘’worshippers of three fires’’ (Muth Thee). And like I mentioned in my post on Indra, Agni is worshipped by Tamils in the form of Subramanya, who the Tamils called Murugan. The very Tamil word given to him in the oldest Tamil book is Seyon=Reddish. Agnijathar and Agni Bhu are few of Lord Murugan’s popular names. Agnijathar means Fire Born. Lord Skanda was born from the fire of Lord Shiva’s Third Eye.


Now let us look at Varuna. Varuna in the Vedas is a powerful god. He is the guardian of cosmic order (rta=rhythm=ruth=truth). Varuna is in charge of the oceans, water sources and rains. During times of drought Varuna Japa (Prayers to Varuna) is done. His vahana (vehicle) is shark fish or crocodile. Tamils believed his control over rains and worshipped him for rains. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam says he is the god of littoral areas/Neithal. Seaward people and fisher men worshipped him.


At lower level Varunan is in charge of the direction West where as Indra controls East. In Persian literature Varuna is the most powerful God. Mitra and Varuna are paired in Vedic hymns. This led to the belief of interpreting them as Day and Night, Sun and Moon, Light and Dark and Positive and Negative energy. Tamil saint Agastya is considered son of Varuna and Urvasi. This brings Varuna closer to Tamils. Agastya was the one who made a grammar for Tamil language.

We have a few references to Varuna in Tamil:

Barathavars are the people of the sea. They would not go to sea for fishing on full moon days. This coincides with the Vedic link of Varuna with the moon and Mitra with the sun. Barathavars may be related to Bharats of Rig Veda. But this requires further research. Varuna is associated with sea in Rig Veda (RV I-25) in many places.

Tamils used to plant the Shark bone in the sand on the sea shore and do Puja with flower garlands. They drink toddy extracted from palm and paddy. This happened on the full moon day. This confirms its Vedic origin: 1.Association with shark/sea monster2.Association of moon/full moon day 3.Association with sea 4. Association of the clan name bharats  and 5.Confirmation of Varuna as Tamil God by Tolkappiam(Porul.1-5). He used the Sanskrit name Varuna.


The Sanskrit word for sea Vaaranam has its origin in Varunan.

Pattinappalai lines 86 to 93 gives us the above information.

Read my earlier post ‘’Indra in Oldest Tamil Literature’’.


Valluvar and Varuna

Tamil’s greatest contribution to the world of literature is a book called Tirukkural. Tirukkural means a book of sacred couplets. There are 1330 couplets divided in to three chapters Dharma/virtue, Artha/wealth and Kama/love (Aram, Porul, Inpam in Tamil). They deal with all aspects of human life. One who reads it today would be surprised at its freshness and relevance to our own problems today. It was written by Valluvar 1500 years ago. He also praised Varuna without naming him. He placed the chapter on RAIN as the second one, next to GOD/Prayer.


Valluvar says in couplet 18:

‘’If rains fail, festivals of the year and the daily worship of the gods will cease’’.

I interpret it as the Sea festival to honour Indra and Varuna. The worship he mentions is the worship of Varuna. It is to be noted that he used the Sanskrit word Puja ( Pusanai in Tamil) in this couplet and in the very next couplet he jumps to the Bhagawad Gita phrase Dhana and Tapas (Dhanam, Thavam in Tamil). He boldly used the Sanskrit words to start his couplet, which was not practised during Sangam period.

Couplet 19:

‘’Charity and devotional practices will not be observed in the world unless rain falls.’’

I have given umpteen examples in my previous 570 + posts that the Aryan Dravidian Race theory is a fraudulent one that was imposed by vested interests. This Varuna worship in the southern most part of India also debunks the race theory.; Pictures are taken from various sites. Those who use my articles are requested to give full credit to the blog or the author London Swaminathan.Thanks.

Read my earlier articles:

Indra in the Oldest Tamil Book

Date of Tolkappiam


Indus script deciphered

Many scholars and amateurs are trying to decipher the Indus script without any success so far.

If we look at it from a new angle, perhaps we may succeed. From the very beginning people who have excavated passed on their personal opinion without allowing  scholars to interpret it. Since no rosetta stone is available for Indus Valley civilization and so everyone’s decipherment remains a speculation. When one seal is interpreted with a set of rules, the same rules must be follwed for interpreting other seals as well. No one has succeeded in it.They get stuck up somewhere.

I am proposing a new approach.Why should we think that there is only one set of people following the same culture occupied the valley. The valley was very near some imporatnt ports and natural mountain  passes. So many different people might have come and occupied that area. If it is the case we have to look for different languages, different cultures and may be different languages too. Vedas speaks about five people (pancha Jana:) and Puranasa speak of 18 types of people (18 ganas).

Even if we accept that the invading Aryans destroyed  the Indus civilization, we must have something Aryan there-the Aryan Gods, Aryan culture etc. So I think that the Indus people were following different Gods and cultures. There may be two different systems even diametricall y opposite.

When I looked at the elephant seal with a man or woman fighting with two symmetrical tigers immediately I thougt of Indra on his mount Airavata. Since I have been doing research on Vahanas (mounts of Gods) in different cultures like Sumerian, Babylonian, Indian and Egyptian I saw the elephant seal as the first Vahana seal of Indian sub continent. A man or woma is standing on an elephant. And he/ she is fighting with two tigers. Most interesting thing is that on top of the elephant is a wheel symbol. The name of the Vedic God Indra in the Vedas is Chakra meaning wheel. His vehicle is the elephant Airavata. If the figure is a woman it may be Indrani, wife of Indra. One other Hindu God associated with the wheel is Lord Vishnu. But during age old days he was not that popular. So I will consider the seal is that of Indra with his name on top of it in the form of a symbol ( wheel).

In other seals a mortar and pestle symbol is always put together with three vertical lines. I read it as Mitra.

Reason being three lines are thra/three and the mortar and pestle is Maituna meaning intercourse in Sanskrit.

This ‘Mitra’ seal is always accompanied by some fish signs. Fishes are Devas, according to great Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. Both of them dont close their eyes even during sleep. So all the fish symbols are used to symbolise Gods and Devas. In HIndu and other ancient religions God appear as fish.  They may be interpreted as Agni,Varuna, Vayu, Yama and other devas depending upon the strokes, lines etc.

Anothr symbol-The two circle symbol may be Aswin devas. They are the Vedic twins. So circle within circle when it is followed by two vertical strokes may be aswins and in other places without strokes it may be aswa/horse.

My deciphermments are all only speculations. Once I apply the same principle for other seals and succeed it will be  a great step forward.