Post No.7485

Date uploaded in London – 23 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


Four interesting anecdotes about Agigarta/Sunashepa, Vamadeva gautama, Bhardwwaja, and Viswamitra are referred to in this chapter.(The stories are in Aitareya Brahmna, Rig Veda, Sankhyayan Srauta Sutra, Mahabharata)

In Tamil there is a proverb that “Ten will fly away when hunger comes”. The meaning is that one loses ten virtues when one suffers from hunger. Those ten virtues or qualities are – honour, family’s good name, learning/education,generosity, intelligence, giving gifts, penance, taking new ventures, sexual feelings and perseverance.,

First Manu define the six jobs assigned to Brahmins. And then the work allocated to kings, business community and the farming community

In the time of famine, drought or distress etc the rules are relaxed. When a man is left to starve to death he can even kill animals and eat meat.

Since farming, ploughing may kill animals brahmins must avoid this at any cost is the dictum of Manu

First, let me give the interesting things in bullet points:–








श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुण: परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् |
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेय: परधर्मो भयावह: || 35||

śhreyān swa-dharmo vigua para-dharmāt sv-anuhhitāt
swa-dharme nidhana
śhreya para-dharmo bhayāvaha

Better is one’s own duty though imperfectly carried out than the the duty of another carried out perfectly. Better is death in the fulfilment of one’s own duty for to follow another’s duty is perilous.










10-120  TAX RATES



10-129  THEY SHOULD NOT AMASS WEALTH (Earlier Manu stipulates that Brahmins should never amass wealth as well),


Full translation

10-74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order.

75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana.

76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men.

77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.

78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes).

79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the performance of sacrifices.

80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya.


81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank.

82. If it be asked, ‘How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.

83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya’s mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.


84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.

85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions.

86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings),

87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs

88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass;

89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts.

90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long.

91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.

92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.

93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya.

94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities.

95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters.

96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.


97. It is better (to discharge) one’s own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own.

98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra’s mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so).

99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts.

100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice-born are (best) served.

101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following manner.

102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied.

103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water.

104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud.,


105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing.

106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life.

107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest.

108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Candala.

109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.

110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class.

111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.

112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable.

113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left.

114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of the following ones).,


115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men.

116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).


117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest.

118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability.

119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected;


120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him).

121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya.

122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends.

123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.,


124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support.

125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.

126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law  there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law.


127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts.

128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, without being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the next.

129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas.

130. The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared, and if they perform them well, they will reach the most blessed state.

131. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances.





Post No.7476

Date uploaded in London – 20 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

There is a saying in Tamil , “A IS KNOWN (SEEN) WHEN HE IS BORN” (Vilaiyum Payir Mulaiyile Theriyum). One can recognise a genius even at his early years. Picasso started his art work at the age of nine. And kept them all through his life and donated some of them to  Barcelona Museum in Spain. Now they may be worth millions of dollars or Euros. Two of them are just paper cutting figures of Dog and Dove.,

London Newspapers have featured them because they are going to be exhibited in Royal academy until April 2020. They are among 300 works gathered from around the world for the show. The exhibition is called ‘Picasso and Paper’. He had a life long fascination for paper and would buy very expensive high quality paper to work with but would equally  draw on the back of an envelope. He never threw anything away and would keep even bus tickets and cinema tickets.

The exhibition also features a section looking at the materials Picasso used throughout his career including the salad bowl he used as a block for making an early wood cut. This reminds another Tamil saying ‘Even a blade of grass is a weapon for a skilled person’ (Vallavanukku Pullum Ayutham).,

Picasso’s father was an artist and his parents recognised his exceptional talent even as a child. He was very much taught and encouraged to develop his art.

Picasso drew incessantly as well as using paper to make sculptures, prints and photographs.  The exhibition includes works more recognisable by the master including the huge 4-5 metre long collage Women at their Toilette and his 1962 work Le Dejeuner Sur L’herbe d’Apres Manet.


Longest hair – Indian Girl in Guinness Book of Records

Another interesting news item featured in Indian and foreign newspapers is about the Indian girl Nilanshi Patel of Gujarat. She was entered as the girl with longest hair. Every woman wanted to know what hair oil she used to grow suh a long hair. But she dodged the question by saying that was a hair oli prepared by her mother with secret ingredients. Whatever the secret, hair oil companies will be ready to pay her millions of rupees to get that secret formula. Here is what the newspapers said about her:-

Source – news papers published in London and India


At the age of 6, Nilanshi Patel had her beloved long hair cut for the first time. She absolutely hated it and instantly regretted it.

That one bad hair experience resulted in Nilanshi’s vow to never cut her hair again.,

Well, it’s been 10 years since she made her personal pact, and her gorgeous dark, wavy hair has been growing ever since. It’s currently 5 feet, 7 inches long — making the 16-year-old from India an official Guinness World Record holder.

According to the 2020 edition of the Guinness World Records, the “real-life Rapunzel” now has the longest hair of any teenager in the world!

Nilanshi’s hair requires constant maintenance, but she’s more than happy to put in the time and care. Her supportive mother helps by massaging mustard oil into her locks every day. Other than that, the teen doesn’t use any special products or shampoos.

Her mother hopes her daughter will let her amazing hair grow longer so that she will be even more famous.

Patel says she washes her hair once a week and amazingly, it takes only a half-hour to dry. However, it takes an hour just to comb it — something her mother happily assists with. “My mother helps me to braid and to comb my hair,” she says, explaining that she has always been supportive of her decision to keep growing it. “I style it as a long braid and also as a bun” — the latter is her go-to style for special occasions and table tennis.,

Amazingly, Patel’s hair isn’t even a third of the length of the that of the adult woman with the longest hair. That Guinness World Record has been held since 2004 by China’s Xie Qiuping, whose hair measures more than 18 feet long. She started growing her hair at age 13 — seven years older than Patel when Patel started — so the 16-year-old could conceivably surpass hers one day.

Although she says her friends call her a “real-life Rapunzel,” Patel also gets questions from people who assume her hair gets in the way of everyday activities. “I don’t face any problems with my hair. I do all the sports and all the things with me hair,” she says. “It’s a lucky charm for me, clearly.”

Who is Rapunzel?

 It is a German fairy tale. Other languages also had similar stories.

A lonely couple, who want a child, live next to a walled garden belonging to a sorceress.[11] The wife, experiencing the cravings associated with the arrival of her long-awaited pregnancy, notices some rapunzel (a salad green in most translated-to-English versions)[12] growing in the nearby garden and longs for it. She refuses to eat anything else and begins to waste away, and the husband begins to fear for her life– one night he decides to break into the garden to get some for her. When he returns, she makes a salad out of it and greedily eats it. It tastes so good that she longs for more. So her husband goes to get some more for her. As he scales the wall to return home, the sorceress catches him and accuses him of theft. He begs for mercy, and she agrees to be lenient, and allows him to take all the rapunzel he wants, on condition that the baby be given to her when it’s born.[13] Desperate, he agrees. When his wife has a baby girl, the sorceress takes her to raise as her own and names her “Rapunzel” after the plant her mother craved. She grows up to be the most beautiful child in the world, with long golden hair.[14] When she turns twelve, the sorceress locks her up inside a tower[15] in the middle of the woods, with neither stairs nor a door, and only one room and one window. In order to visit Rapunzel, the sorceress stands beneath the tower and calls out:,

Rapunzel!Rapunzel!Let down your hair

That I may climb thy golden stair!

One day, a prince rides through the forest and hears Rapunzel singing from the tower. Entranced by her ethereal voice, he searches for her and discovers the tower, but is naturally unable to enter it. He returns often, listening to her beautiful singing, and one day sees the sorceress visit, and thus learns how to gain access to Rapunzel. When the sorceress leaves, he bids Rapunzel let her hair down. When she does so, he climbs up and they fall in love. He eventually asks her to marry him, which she agrees to. But the sorceress prevented her escape. Prince also lost his eye sight

For years, he wanders through the wastelands of the country and eventually comes to the wilderness where Rapunzel now lives with the twins to whom she has given birth, a boy and a girl. One day, as she sings, he hears her voice again, and they are reunited. When they fall into each other’s arms, her tears immediately restore his sight. He leads her and their twins to his kingdom,[20] where they live happily ever after.

Tags – Picasso, paper art, London exhibition, Dog and Dove, Longest hair, Nilanshi Patel, Rapunzel

Xxx subham xxx



Post No.7474

Date uploaded in London – 20 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

First let us look at two basic facts:-

1.Greeks is relatively a modern term given to the people by Romans. Now it is called Hellas. Scholars could not give the meaning of both the names. Only conjectural theories are there.

2.Greek civilization did not begin in mainland but in an island known as Crete.

Now let me give some important words connected with earliest period of Greek History:

3.First civilization in Greece is MINOAN. In Tamil ‘’MIINAVAN meaning a King of ancient Tamil Kingdom of Pandyas. They had the title Miinavan (equivalent to Sanskrit Matsyas. Both Miin and Matsya mean Fish in English)

4.One of the earliest kings mentioned by Herodotus and others is PANDION . Oldest Tamil Kingdom is Pandiyan kingdom. Their Tamil academies are dated to a fabulous period of 10,000 years (In Iraiyaanar Akapporul  Urai)


Who was PANDION?

5.According to Herodotus, the Lycians originally came from Crete and were the followers of Sarpedon. They were expelled by Minos and ultimately settled in territories belonging to the Solymoi (or Milyans) of Milyas in Asia Minor. The Lycians were originally known as Termilae before being named after Lycus who was the son of Pandion.

–from Wikipedia under Lycians.

6.Note another important word in the above  passage:

They were called TERMILAI. Scholars have already identified that DRAVIDA became DRAMILA which became TAMIL or vice verse.

So we can easily see TERMILAI is nothing but Dramila i.e Tamils.

If a person concocts a theory on a single word , scholars will summarily reject it. But we see Three words here: Minoan, Pandion and Termilai. So one can not reject them just like that. And all these are said by the earliest historian Herodotus of sixth century BCE!

7.The comparisons do not stop there. More interesting things are “N” ending in Pandion, another king Sarpindon etc. This is a typical Tamil feature.

8.Early Historians added one more interesting information. They were a matriarchal society. They called themselves by their mothers names.

This is again a Tamil feature. In my article about Amazons of India (Stri Rajyas= Woman Kingdoms) of India I have given two Stri Rajyas, one in North West India and another in Tamil Nadu. Even Megasthanes referred to ‘Pandeya’ Queen of Madurai 2300 years ago. That was Goddess Meenkashi of Madurai. She may have lived several hundred years before Megathanes. Like we worship Kshatria kings Rama and Krishna as Gods, she would have become a Goddess in course of time. In fact, Tamil and Sanskrit literature use the one word for God and King!,

Arjuna- Alli Rani (Rani=Queen) is a famous dance theme in Tamil folklore. Allirani is named Chirangada in Mahabharata. So matriarchy existed in Tamil Stri Rajya at one time.

My Comments:

Based on the above facts, what I surmise is there was a fight between the Tamil migrants in Crete Island; Tamil Minoan (Miinavan) and Tamil Pandion (Pandyan) had fraternal fight like we see in the Mahabharata or later Tamil Sangam Period History. In fact, Tamils are the longest fighting race in the world. Three Tamil kings fought among themselves continuously for at least 1600 years till they invited Muslims to interfere. And Muslims devoured all the three Tamil kingdoms and finished Tamil Rule in Tamil land in 14th century CE. In short Tamil rulers committed suicide by inviting Muslim invaders.

Back to Greece

Greek is place where people of mixed races migrated and a lot of newer things emerged from 8th Century BCE when Homer wrote first Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey . They had a darker period of 400 years before Homer. No scholar is able to tell us what happened.

9.We see lot of similarities between the Greeks and Hindus.

I have already written about the following:

1.Rig Vedic Sarama dog story in Greek Hermes Dog story

2.Comprison between Penelope and Nappinnai in Tamil

3.Torjan Horse came from Turaga (horse in Sanskrit). When you say Trojan Horse actually you are saying Horse Horse Story. The word Turkey came from Turaga where from Hindus imported horses. The earliest Sanskrit inscription, writing, manual, letters – all came from Turkey-Syria region.

(Please read my articles or Wikipedia articles on Mitannian Civilization, Amarna/Dasaratha letters in Egypt, Kikkuli’s Horse manual with Sanskrit instructions—all dated 14th century BCE!!!),

10.More New information

Words Crete is from the Sanskrit word Krita/Crown.

If you look at the map of Greece, you can see Crete looks like a crown on the head of Greek Mother, like India has Kashmir crown on Bharat Matha (Mother India).

Some scholars believe Shresta (the best) became Crete.

11.More Tamil words!

Tamils called all their ports Thurai. It is in the most famous city of TROY.

So with Troy, Pandion, Minovan and Termilai we are dead sure about Tamil connection to ancient Greece.

My Pet Theory

From 2012 I have been writing in this blog that Sanskrit and Tamil were the two languages that gave birth to other ancient languages. Tamil and Sanskrit came from one source, Lord Shiva, according to Tamil poets. Because they had the same morphological structure Agastya Rishi from the Himalayas came and codified the first grammar book for Tamil. This is also not disputed by anyone. From Kalidasa’s Raguvamsa to the greatest modern Tamil poet Bharati we read about Tamil-Pandya-Agastya connection.

Even before Alexander’s invasion Tamil words are found in Greek. Common origin of Sanskrit and Greek are accepted by all world scholars. My theory is Tamil also belonged to same root and the case suffixes and the Sandhi Rules (Joining rules) are unique to Tamil and Sanskrit.

12.Tamil words in Greek

I have already listed in my earlier posts the following words:

Paleo (Pazaiaya in Tamil), Tele (Tholai), Nereids/water nymphs (Neer), Oryza (Arisi), Odometer (Odu), Syrinx (Suranga), Dolia (Thaazi), Penelope (Nappinnai, Pene=Pinnu),

Amphorae (ambanam, ambaaram), Alpha  (A, Aa), Pepper (Pippali), Tyrannos (Thiram), Pathos (Padu, Vathai), Anthropo (Aan, Andiran/Indra, Andrew), Cheir (Kai), Paidi (paiyan=page in English), Mega (Maha, Maa).,

Apart from these words, Sandal, Ginger, Malapathram (cinnamon), Ezini (yavanika/curtain), Hora (hour, Orai in Tamil), Gala (Halu in Kannada Paal in Tamil) and many more words are referred to by other scholars.

A Tamil-Sanskrit root word can branch out in only two ways and it is seen in ,

Pathos – Padu, Pattaaan in Tamil and Vathai in Sanskrit

Anthropo – Aan, Andiran in Tamil and Indra in Sanskrit

Sandal – Saanthu in Tamil, Chandan in Sanskrit.

Une – Eka – Eine – One in Tamil, Eka in Sanskrit

Mega – Maha- Maa in Tamil

If we follow this pattern, we can trace most of the ancient word to either Sanskrit or Tamil.

That means the world became civilized by Sanskrit and Tamil contacts. Hindus migrated to other parts of the world from India and spread the culture.

13.YAVANAS/GREEKS are HINDUS says Mahabharata.

Greeks, Egyptians, Sumerians, Mayans say that they came to the land from elsewhere. But the only people in the world who say they are the sons of the soil are Hindus. Vedic scriptures and later Sangam books never talked about outward origin or migration into India. Hindu scripture said that even Devas (heavenly angels) wanted to be born in India.,

About Tamil literary references to Yavana guards, Yavana Colonies, Yavana lamps, Yavana wine, Yavana architects, Yavana mystic Oracles etc I have posted several articles here.

Hindu scripture say that all races Yavanas, Sakas/scythyans, Kambojas, Dravidians, Pahrlavas/Iranians and many other people came from Divine Cow- Kama dhenu. They consider all the world comprise only Hindus. But the scripture say that they did not follow all the rules of Vedas or they were born to mixed caste/ race couples. This is very unique. They say all came from the same source. If we apply it to their speeches, naturally they should have spoken only one language!

14.Yet another proof of Vedic Hindus’ expansion is seen in the names of the first Kings: India- Manu, Egypt- Manu/Menes, Greece – Manu/Minos

15.Here is a sloka from Mahabharata first book Adi Parvam:-

Yados tu yaadavaa jaataas turvasor yavanaahaa sutaahaa

Druhyor api sutaa bhojaa anos tu mlecchajaatayaha


Van Buitenen translation –,

From Yadu sprang the Yadava;  Turvasu’s sons are known as the Yavanas; Druhyu’s sons became the Bhojas;  Anu’s, the tribes of the Barbarians.

Mlecchas are also Vedic people.

Vedas mention Pancha Janaahaa/ Five groups. They are

Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anu and Puru.

There are lot of references to Yavanas/Greeks. I will give the translation of a few more slokas/couplets  below:-

Visvamitra , while still a king, tries to take the sage Vasistha’s cow Kaamadhenu . 1-165-35

Then Vasistha became angry and cursed Visvamitra and the cow produced troops to drive away the enemies.

“From her/cow’s horse she created the Pahlavas; the Sabaras and Sakas from the dung; from her urine she created the  Yavanas, as she well high swooned with rage. From her foam she brought forth the Pundras, Kiratas, Dramidas, Simhalas,  Barbaras, Daradas and Mlecchas. And when she brought forth these manifold hosts of  Barbarians clad in their manifold armour and brandishing arms , she scattered with her furious troops that large enemy before Visvamitra’s eyes”.

Hindus always speak in symbolic language. Because of Kamadhenu there was a clash and as a result of which these people sided with Visvamitra, but defeated by Vasistha’s troops–  is the hidden message

16.What we have to see here is that the sloka mentioned all the Vedic tribes came from one source- the Divine Cow. And all parts of cow except the front are sacred to Hindus. No one came from the front part of the cow. Hindus even today touch the backside of the cows and worship them. They show the backside (arse) of the cow to the god in all the temples in the early morning .They use the cow dung and urine for purification. Cow’s urine and dung have anti-bacterial medical properties. All are our people is the simple message conveyed through this story.,

(Pahlavas- Iranians, Barbarians- Babylonians, Darads- Tartarians, Kiratas-Chinese, Yavanas- Greeks/Romans, Dravidas- South Indians etc).

Later when the Hindus spread about to different parts of the world, they slowly adopted other local customs.

tags – Greek , Tamil, Tamil Hindus, Yavana, Pandion, Termilai, Minavan, Minoan

Xxx subham xxx

HELPFUL HINTS உதவிக் குறிப்புகள்! – 4 (Post No.7470)


Post No.7470

Date uploaded in London – 19 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


எனது பழைய நோட்புக்கில் எழுதி வைத்துள்ள, நான் படித்து வந்த, பல நல்ல புத்தகங்களின் சில முக்கிய பகுதிகளின் தொடர்ச்சி இதோ:


குறிப்பு எண் 5 : How to leave house in time every day!

If you keep your papers and hand-bag ready the previous night, you can leave the house in time and without hustle.

குறிப்பு எண் 6 : Place everything in its proper place

Keep your table clear and it will never get into mess. Keep your papers,books and tools in their proper palces and you will always find them when you need them. Efficiency experts have calculated that it takes less time to return a book, a file, a pen, a tool or any equipment to its orginal place after use, than it takes to replace it haphazardly and then keep searching for it when it is needed again.

குறிப்பு எண் 7 : How to make friends

You can make friends by lending books and magazines to your neighbours, among your office colleagues in office by a cheery greeting as you enter the office and leave it every day, among your companions by a timely word of friendly encouragement or a prompt word of praise.

குறிப்பு எண் 8 : Go to God

psychologist henry C.Link writing in his Return to Religion, gives society the secret of happiness in three words : GO TO GOD. If you make God your co-partner in your quest for success, you can never divorce it form happiness.

குறிப்பு எண் 9 : Just for Today

As we rise each day let us pray on our kneel :

Lord, for Tomorrow and its needs

I do not Pray;

Let me be happy and content

Just for Today!

குறிப்பு எண் 10 : What have you done today?

Don’t be distracted by ambitious plans and the rosy dreams of future acheivements. Concentrate on TODAY.Read the words of the poet in What of Today?

We shall do much in the years to come,

But what have we done today?

We shall give gold in princely sums

But what have we given today?

We shall lift the heart and dry the tear

We shall plant a hope in the place of fear

We shall speak the words of love and cheer

But what did we speak today?

Let nothing stop you in your resolve!

குறிப்பு எண் 11 : Get down to the Work in Hand!

Cast aside vague plans for the future and get down to the work in hand. If you are inclined to pause and postpone, remember these words: “Yesterday is but a dream, Tomorrow is only a vision. But Today, well lived, makes every Yesterday a dream of happiness and every Tomorrow a vision of hope. Look well therefore to this day.

குறிப்பு எண் 12 : Budget your Time

The best way to control time is to budget it. Tomorrow, from the moment you wake up till bed time, jot down in a notebook how you spend every 15 minutes of the entire period. Do this for three normal working days. You will notice certain periods which are ‘do-nothing’ or waiting periods – waiting for someone to come or something to happen. Use these periods for relaxing the body, eye exercises or jotting down what has to be doen at the approching appointment or planning notes for the rest of the day.

குறிப்பு எண் 13 : Correct the mistakes of your friend

If a friend or companion makes a mistake, correct him or heer at once. As time goes on, it may become a habit.

குறிப்பு எண் 14 : Offer Suggestions immediately

If you have a suggestion to offer to your superior, convey it to him or her at the first chance. Every moment you delay will add to your hesitancy.




Post No.7469

Date uploaded in London – 19 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


It is the study of body parts and their connection to a person’s behaviour and character. It is one of the 64 arts listed in Vatsyayana’s Kama Sutra. He included it in the women’s school syllabus in ancient India. 2000 years ago, intelligent Hindu women were well versed in Shamudrika lakshan. Vatsyana included even Coded Language in the 64 arts!

I wrote 2 or three articles on shamudrika lakshan (please see the links below).

Two more news items of body parts’ link to one’s character have been published in London newspapers.


Face value

Think you can trust someone?

Just look into their eyes. People with brown eyes are regarded more trustworthy than those with blue, according to Czech scientists. Having a rounded place also rates highly which means a jowly man will fit our perception of trustworthiness even if he has blue eyes.

–Metro newspaper, Jan10, 2013

My comments :- I am throwing away my old paper cuttings. So I thought it is better to post them here. But I wanted to warn you about blue eyes. Max Muller, German Sanskrit ‘scholar’ popularised the Aryan Migration theory and proudly said that Germans also belonged to Aryan race in his comment about Vedic Dyaus (Greek God Zeus). Hitler got inspiration from Max muller, his compatriot, and said blue eyed German girls belonged to the pure Aryan race and so others must be thrown out etc. Please read Hitler’s autobiography Mein Kampf. So be careful about Blue Eye researches!!

My second comment about coloured eyes is that  99-9 % of Indians have only black eyes and yet we see among them sinners and saints! So be careful about coloured eye theories or conclusions or researches.

My last comment is that most of the foreigners who write on India have ‘coloured eyes’, I mean jaundiced eyes! That is why they give distorted pictures about India!! Can we call it optical illusion?


Second news item from Metro newspaper:–

Girls, beware of Ring Fingers!

Size him up!

Fed up with play away fellas, ladies? Then check the length of the ring finger of the next guy you meet. Primates with longer ring fingers than their second fingers (such as baboons) are more promiscuous than those where the difference is  ‘,such as gibbons. The digit difference is down to how much androgen hormones they are exposed to in the womb, said Liverpool University Researchers.

–Metro, November 5, 2009.

My comments:

In my mother tongue Tamil, there is a proverb : ‘Unemployed barber caught the cat and shaved it off the hair’ Look at the above research. Nothing wrong in doing research about monkeys and apes. But who asked them to measure the fingers and link them to sexual behaviour at the cost of tax payers’ money? Universities are funded by governments and NGOs . They can spend the money for better projects.

Last but not the least, 2000 year ago Vatsyayana listed the Shamudrika lakshan as one of the 64 subjects a woman should learn. I have featured a 100 year old Tamil book on Shamudrika lakshana in Facebook. I got it from the British Library in London. Why shouldn’t our universities do proper research on it? And I also advised NASA scientists to consult Nadi Astrologers in Tamil Nadu who can give your birth chart (Planetary positions on the day of your birth) just by looking at your palm. If your palm can show your birth time it would be definitely useful in Medical science and forensic science.(See the link below for my post on NASA)! › tag › samudrika-lakshan

samudrika lakshan | Tamil and Vedas


26 May 2012 – Posts about samudrika lakshan written by Tamil and Vedas. › 2014/09/09 › astrology-in-mahavamsa

Astrology in Mahavamsa! | Tamil and Vedas


9 Sep 2014 – We did not know how they worked it out. It may be intuitive power or mastery of Shamudrika Lakshan (body marks or shape). adilabad kili

What India could teach NASA Scientists? | Tamil and Vedas


5 May 2014 – If an astrologer who has specialised Nadi Jothidam, looks at your hand he can … But I must admit that other predictions about future did not come true. … If the astronomers learn this from the Hindus, they can understand the … › 2018/09/01 › hindus-new-methods-of-fortune-t…



1 Sep 2018 – I have already given details about rope trick astrology, lizard … that NASA scientists of USA must do some research about Hindu Nadi Jothidam.

blue eyed gentleman




Post No.7464

Date uploaded in London – 17 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


One of the famous mathematical works of Bhaskara is Liilaavati. There is a tradition that this work was actually composed by the widowed daughter of Bhaskara whose name was Lilavati. We have also a story how Bhaskara failed to determine the auspicious moment for the celebration of his daughter’s marriage owing to a defect in the ‘ghati-yantra’ — an instrument for measuring time -Caused by a small stone that had fallen into it from the ornament of LilavatI.

Though there is no written proof for this story we believe that Bhaskara  was the author of the Lilavati  and he has honoured her by naming it after her. All the mathematical problems in the book are addressed to a girl, often expressions by like  ‘aye bale Lilavati-

 — o young Lilavati , although Bhaskara may have actually written the book Lilavati for teaching the subject to his own daughter.



In Bengal there are a large number of popular sayings that are attributed to a female astronomer named Khanaa or probably Kshanaavatii . These sayings are in old Bengali and relate to astronomy and astrology, often with special reference to agriculture.

Tradition has it that Khana was the wife of an astronomer named

Mihira , who was the son of another famous astronomer named

Varaha . This tradition has been apparently fabricated on the basis of the celebrated ancient Indian astronomer Varahamihira, who flourished in the sixth century CE, but had hardly anything to do with Bengal. But Khana may have lived in Bengal and she may be renowned female astronomer.



In the traditions that have grown around the illustrious name of

Shankaracharya , there is a story about a great woman philosopher of Mithila – probably named Ubhayabharati. It is said that in the course of his ‘dig-vijaya’ – visiting various institutions for scholarly debates resulting in victory – Shankara reached Mithila . There he was engaged in a debate with another famous philosopher named Mandana Mishra.  According to tradition Shankara defeated Mishra and Mishra’s wife Ubhayabharati was the mediator in the debate. When her husband was defeated by Shnakara, she challenged shankara with some questions about family life. Being a Brahmachari (celibate) he didn’t have any experience in Kama shastra. He asked for some time to answer her questions and then entered another king’s body who had  just expired. He was able to with his supernatural powers. After gaining some knowledge in family matters Shankara defeated Ubhayabharati also and both Mishras had become followers of Shankara.

People who has faith in tradition believe in these stories though we have no written records from that period. Even three Semitic religions of Christianity, Islam and Judaism believe in Moses though there is no historical proof for Moses until today. So there is no wonder Hindus also believe in their tradition.

–Source book – Great Women of India , Advaita Asrama, mayavati, 1953

tags – Lilavati, Ubhayabharati, Khana, Kshanavati



Post No.7460

Date uploaded in London – 16 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

The whole world knows about the importance given to trees in Hinduism. In fact 150 years ago, Christian preachers projected India and Hinduism as primitive, unlettered , illiterates mass and tree and snake worshippers. Now after the concerns regarding pollution and climate change hitting the headlines, the whole world salutes Hindus for respecting nature and for appreciating the value of natural resources.

Because of Buddha the Asvattha Tree (Pipal, Peepul, Ficus religiosa) became a worshipful tree. Now the world Buddhists flock to see the original Bodhi tree in India. But not many people know about the sacred trees of Jain religion. All the 24 saints (Tirthankaras) have sacred trees associated with them.

Just before going into the details, let me give some interesting tit bits:-

Lord Krishna said in  the Bhagavad Gita that he is the Asvattha Tree (Ficus religiosa) among the trees. Having read this, Buddha also went to the sacred tree and attained enlightenment. In Vishnu Sahasranama hymn, the three trees belonging to the same genus and  same family are given as Vishnu’s names (Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis and Ficus glomerata or racemosa of Family Moraceae).

Tamils went one step ahead and called the Asvattha as the KING TREE (Arasa Maram). Even today the women who are without children go around it to get children. The oxygen that it produces is higher than that of many other trees.

Vedic Hindus even named themselves after this tree such as Pippaladan (Mr Asvattha). Brahmins use the sticks of this tree till this day.

Regarding the Banyan tree, a lot of things are in our religion and litrature. It is Vishnu’s name (Nyagrodha); it is worshipped by women during Vata Savitri Vrata. It is in the name of the world famous Anghor ‘Vat’ Temple (vata is banyan tree). Alexander amazed at the sight of it. Panchatantra and Tamil literature have beautiful verses on it.

With this in background we have to look at the trees associated with Jainism. Unlike other sages, Jains attained Mukti or Kevala Jnan under the trees. They did not go to the top of the mountains or into the caves. So we can even say that the Buddha followed them. Sanit Mahavir,last of the 24 Tirthankaras, was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha.

Here is the list of 24 saints of Jain religion and the tree under which they did the penance to attain liberation:-

(I have taken the list from the article written by Rachana Jain in ‘Essays in Honour of Caarusrii’, Bangalore, 2019; She has taken it from Suchitra Jain’s article in the internet.)


Many of the plants mentioned above are worshipped by the Hindus. Tamil Hindus have one Sthala Vrksha for every big temple in South India. Tamil Hindu Kings are associated with one particular tree. They have one Kaaval Maram (Guard Tree) as well.  If any one harms it, that led to big fight or war.

Hindus named their country as Jambudwip after the Jambu Tree. Tamils also used this word from ancient days (Naavalan Thivu). Hindus named big land mass after trees or plants such Kusa Dwip, Salmali Dwip. Tamil Hindus also followed this and named big land tracts after plants such as Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham etc. Several town names in India are named after trees such as Patalipuram, Thillai, Kanchi.

In short, Indians excelled others in living one with the Nature. If we return to those golden days, we can save our environment and avoid the evil effects of climate change.

For those interested in botanical terms I have given the botanical names of 24 plants according to Rachana Jain-

1.Bargad, Vata, Nyagrodha – Banyan tree, Ficus benghalensis – Moraceae

2.Semala, Salmali, Saptaparna, Bombax ceiba, Bombacaceae

3.Sala, Asakanni – Shorea robusta , Dipterocarpaceae

4.Chir pine, Sarala – Pinus roxbhurgii, Pinaceae

5.Priyangu- Callicarapa macraphylla, Verbenaceae

6.same as above

7.Sirisa – Albizzia lebbeck, Mimosaceae

8.Nagakesara – Mesua ferrea , Guttiferae

(Wikipedia gives the family name as Calophyllaceae)

9.baheda, bibheleya, aksa- Terminalia Bellerica, Conbretaceae

10.Bela, Plaksa, Ficus lacor, Moraceae

11.Tendu, tindu- Dispyros melanaxylon, Ebenaceae

12.Patala, Kadamba- bignonia spp., Bignonioceae

13.Jamuna, Jambu- Syzygium cumini, Myrtaceae

14. Pippala, dhamarukha, Asvattha- Ficus religiosa, Moraceae

15.Visnukaanta, girikandi- Clitoria biflora, Cleomaceae

16.Nandi, nandirukha- Cedrella toona, Meliaceae

17.Tendu, tilaka- Dispyros melanaxylon, Ebenaceae

18.Mango, amba- Magnifera indica, Anacadiaceae

19.Asoka, asoga, kankeli- Saraca indica, Caesalpiniaceae

20.Naga campa, campakgumma- Michelia campaca, Magnoliaceae

21.bakula, nimbakarya- mimusops elengi, sapotaceae

22.Kokama, Ambilasaya, mesashrnga- Garcinia indica, Guttifereae

23.Dhav, dhava, Devadaru- Anogeissus latifolia, Combretaceae

24.Sala- Shorea robusta , Dipterocarpaceae.

Following are my old articles on Trees–

Nyakrodha tree | Tamil and Vedas

 of trees | Tamil and Vedas

Trees in literature | Tamil and Vedas

Picture of Deodar: Tree of the Gods. We have heard about people adopting children. But the greatest of the Indian poets Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil poets give …

save trees | Tamil and Vedas

Trees of Wisdom | Tamil and Vedas

Picture shows Newton under Apple Tree. Hindu Saints composed Upanishads under the Himalayan Trees. Buddha attained wisdom under the Bodhi Tree.

water and trees | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about water and trees written by Tamil and Vedas.

Peepal tree | Tamil and Vedas

19 Feb 2017 – Trees are used as similes and metaphors in Tamil and Sanskrit literature from very ancient times. The upside down Peepal Tree(Ficus …

Bodhi Tree | Tamil and Vedas

Mahabodhi Tree in Bodha Gaya. Research paper by London Swaminathan Post No.1325; Dated 3rd October 2014. This article is part of my series on …

Nature | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about Nature written by Tamil and Vedas. … “Trees that have fruit but no flowers are traditionally known as the Lords of the Forest; those that bear both …

Hindus’ Respect for Trees and Forests | Tamil and Vedas…/hindus-respect-for-trees-and-forests/

18 Feb 2015 – In the Vedas, Lord Shiva is called the Lord of the Forests (Vanaspathi), Lord of the Trees (Vrkshanaam pathi) and Lord of the Animals …

Tamarind Tree | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about Tamarind Tree written by Tamil and Vedas.

Magic of Trees! | Tamil and Vedas

25 Nov 2012 – Buddha attained wisdom under the Bodhi Tree. Vaishnavite saint Nammalvar attained wisdom under a Tamarind tree. Sanatkumaras attained …

Tansen and Tamarind Tree! Ghosts in Tamarind … – Tamil and Vedas

26 Mar 2016 – Tansen and Tamarind Tree! Ghosts in Tamarind Trees! (Post No 2666). tansen tomb. Research Article by london swaminathan. Date: 26 March …

Indian Wonder: The Banyan Tree | Swami’s Indology Blog

26 May 2012 – There is a beautiful verse in the Panchatantra about Banyan Tree: “Deer recline in its shade; Birds in multitude gather to roost. Darkening its …

Swami’s Indology Blog

Nov 6th. வேதத்தில் மரங்களின் கதை (Post No.4372). Nov 6th. STRANGE STORIES ABOUT TREES IN VEDAS –Part 2 (Post No.4371).

Plants in Mahavamsa | Swami’s Indology Blog

3 Oct 2014 – In the same chapter we come across the story of Nigrodha (MrBanyan Tree). When Emperor Asoka killed his elder brother Sumana, his …

Significance of Neem Tree in Hinduism – Swami’s Indology Blog

11 Jun 2017 – 18 Mar 2013 – Reand and enjoy this article about “Banyan Tree” from Mr. Santhanam Swaminathan. Tamarind Tree | Tamil and Vedas.

tags – sacred trees, Jainism, Jain religion, Kevala Jnan, Tirthankaras

 Xxxx subham xxxxx


Sugarcane for Sankaranti
Pongal Greetings


Post No.7457

Date uploaded in London – 15 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

MAKARA SANKARAANTI is celebrated by the Hindus throughout India. Tamils call it PONGAL and celebrate it on a grander scale. Actually, it is a three day festival of Hindus. Sankranti/Pongal eve is celebrated as Bhogi. And the next day to Pongal is celebrated as Cattle Pongal , i.e. In Tamil Maattup Pongal.

First let me explain the way Tamil Hindus celebrate it.

On Bhogi Pandikai/festival day they burn all the old things in a bonfire in front of their houses. The old things include all old clothes, furniture, mats, carpets old pots etc.,

Just two weeks before the festival, they start cleaning the house and white wash the house. Then they apply red border along the floor near the wall with saffron coloured red mud. Saffron colour is called Kaavi in Tamil. Wherever the red border is seen it means  some auspicious things are happening. Hindus draw such things on all auspicious occasions such as wedding, puberty ceremony, Valaikappu/Seemantham, Punul/sacred thread ceremony etc.

All the Hindu festivals are associated with one special dish. On the Bhogi day they make Boli and Vadai.

Pongal Celebrartions


Pongal means rice pudding. They don’t use white sugar. They use jaggery and ghee to make sweet Pongal. ‘Pongu’ is a Tamil verb which means boil to the brim of the pot. When the rice is boiled in milk and water with jaggery and ghee, it boils and come to the brim of the new pot, usually a new mud pot. Then they make happy shouting/noise with the words ‘Pongal O Pongal’. The mud pot is decorated with turmeric plant and holy Kunkum and Vibhuti/holy ash.,

The mud pot is usually placed on a Kolam/rangoli and women do the cooking surrounded by children and men. Sugar cane and newly harvested turmeric plants are kept on both sides of the Pongal pot.

Orthodox Hindus draw a picture of Sun God and do Puja with flowers. All these things are done in an open place in the house, mostly backyard or in front of the house.

All the family members bathe in the morning and wear new clothes. Since Pongal follows the harvest season they will have new rice, new sugarcane etc.

Farmers get lot of money from the sale of harvested grains and hence there is a saying in Tamil, “ Thai Piranthaal Vazi Pirakkum” meaning if the month of Thai is born, a new way is born/found or seen. That is girls will get married sooner with the available money.

Cattle Pongal

Next day to Pongal is called Maatu Pongal (Maatu in Tamil means cattle). It is a thanks -giving day to Cows and Bulls. They decorate the cows and bulls with flower garlands and paint the horns with colour paints. They are taken in a procession and the chief of the cowherds Lord Krishna will follow the cows and bulls. If there is a temple of Vishnu, then the idol procession will follow the cows and bulls with big tom tom and music. Earlier in the day they give Sweet Pongal to the cattle.

Orthodox Hindus celebrate it on a wider scale. They wake up in the morning and use the left- over food to feed the birds. It is done ritually. They draw Kolams/Rangolis and on those Rangolis they spread turmeric leaf and make balls of food with different colours and spread it on the leaves. All women take part in this ritual. It is called Kanu Pongal.,

Meaning of Makara Sankraanthi

Pundit S M Natesa Sastri in his book Hindu Feasts (year 1903) had explained the word Bhogi-

Explaining the meaning of Bhogi festival he says the word ‘Bhoga’ comes from the Sanskrit root ‘BHUJ’, to enjoy ; so Bhogi Pandikai is a feast of enjoyment. It is celebrated to honour INDRA who helps us to get rains for the crops and good gravest.

Sankranti comes from the word Sankramana . Sun enters zodiac sign Makara/ Capricorn. And the Tamil month ‘Thai’ begins on that day. Thai is ‘Pausa’ in Sanskrit .,

This day is observed throughout India and South East Asia (see my research article about Thailand and Laos given below) for the worship of sun god. Rich men regard this day as a meritorious one for making charitable donations and every Hindu raja/king gives away large sums in charity. An assembly of pandits sits on this day in Baroda and gives rewards to Hindu scholars who have passed examinations in Vedas, Tarka, Vyakarana . Other Rajas also observe the same custom.

The Uttarayana Punyakala – northward journey of sun -begins on this day. The season for marriages in Hindu families commences on this day and lasts for six months up to the end of Uttarayana. Brothers send presents and gifts to their sisters. Newly wedded brides get special presents on the day.,

Bull fighting

There is a custom in the Yadava community- Lord Krishna’s caste—whoever tames a bull that is let loose will get a gift. This custom started with Lord Krishna who tamed seven bulls according to Bhagavata purana. Youngsters have to tame a bull to get a girl in the olden days.

Sangam  Tamil book Kalitokai describes in great detail the bull fighting or – taming the bull – by cowherd community/ Yadava caste. Now it is tamed by any strong man. In the olden days they used to tie some valuables or money to the horn of the bull and whoever tames the bull gets the money.,

Kite flying

In Gujarat state of India huge kite flying events take place.

Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sang (RSS) celebrates six traditional festivals and Sankranti is one of them. North Indians distribute sweet sesame balls to everyone on this day.

Thiruvalluvar day

Tamil Nadu government declared Cattle Pongal Day as Thirvalluvar day in honour of great Tamil poet Valluvar.

Orthodox Hindus pay homage to departed souls by doing Tarpana on the Sankranti day.,

Sankranti, being a solar festival it falls on the same day every year, either on 14th or 15th of January.


In his Madras discourse on 14th January 1958, Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) said,

“Plant life is necessary for the growth and sustenance of animal life. The entire vegetable kingdom derives its  nourishment through rain and dew which fall during the Dakshinayana and attain fruition during Uttarayana by the warmth that it obtains from the sun. it is the all merciful Narayana who is ‘antaryamin’ in the Sun and who is the source of all this nourishment and fruition. And so, we devoutly offer the plants and vegetables which sustain human life to the Giver of all Good on this day – Makara Sankranti day – or Thai Pongal day – and use them with His Grace.,

Giving up all luxuries, we must restrict ourselves to necessities and use them with gratitude as gifts of the All Merciful God. We worship the sun on Makara Sankranti day as the agency through whom Iswara (God) bestows on us he necessities of life.

Fresh turmeric, which is evident in puja, is symbol of auspiciousness. Sugarcane stands for whatever is sweet in life. Grain, plantain and coconut are symbolic of the plenty of the season, which along with sweetened rice are offered to the sun.

In the same manner, the cowherds offer these gifts of god to domestic animals such as cow on the next day.

The observance of this day, betokening plenty and auspiciousness, is a reminder to all of us, including the unlettered masses, that the overflowing and abundant good things that support our life are the gifts of All Merciful Providence, personified by the sun, who enters the northward course. This is equated in the Bhagavat Gita and the Upanishads with a path with which a devotee is destined to reach the ultimate divinity.,

May plenty and spirituality overflow by His Grace , especially in the world of today where they are most needed.

–From Acharya’s Call, Part 2, B G Paul &co, Madras-1

tags – Pongal, Sankranti, Kanu, Bhogi, Bull fighting, Kite flying

sankranti in Laos and Thailand



Sankaranti | Tamil and Vedas › tag › sankaranti


Tamils in South India celebrate it as Pongal– Harvest Festival. Other parts of India celebrate it as a solar festival. All over India worship Sun God on that day.

பொங்கல் பண்டிகை | Tamil and Vedas › tag › பொங்கல்-ப…


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9 May 2018 – பொங்கல் என்று சொல்லும் பண்டிகையின் உண்மைப் பெயர் சங்கராந்தி. ஒரு உணவுப் பண்டத்தின் பெயரில் பண்டிகை இராது என்பது …

பொங்கல் வாழ்த்து! (Post No.5937) | Tamil and … › 2019/01/15 › பொங்க…


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15 Jan 2019 – வந்தது இன்று பொங்கல் – நனி. தந்தது இன்று … வேணும் பொங்கல் மகிழ்ச்சி – நாம் … Tamil and Vedas posted: ” Pongal picture from Bank of Baroda calendar > Written …,


Pongal Kolam or Sankranti Rangoli



Post No.7454

Date uploaded in London – 14 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Hundreds of Sanskrit words found in the RIG VEDA , the oldest book in the world, are used by us today. They are found in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and later Indian languages. Nemi which means Wheel is found in the . Rig Veda and Sangam Tamil literature. But this word has extended meaning , mainly the God who holds Sudarsana Chakra, ie.Vishnu/Krishna. It  is also found in Sangam Tamil literature.

It has other meanings such as Chakra/Indra, Varuna, Sun, sea, wheel of a Chariot, Chakravarti/emperor, chariot etc.

Indus-Sarasvati Civilization has many symbols in the shape of a wheel. So it is interesting to study the symbol. It may mean any one of the above meanings or the sound, if we believe the Indus language is phonetic. Many scholars believe it is logo-syllabic and not phonetic.

I have already written one article many years ago saying that the elephant with a person standing on it with wheel symbol is Indra. Indra’s name is Wheel/chakra and his Vahana is Airvavatha elephant.

Let me give the Vedic and Tamil references of NEMI first:-

Rig Veda  1-32-15; 1-141-9; 2-5-3; 5-13-6; 7-32-20; 8-46-23; 8-75-5 and many other places in later Vedic literature.

Linking Chakra/wheel with the Chakravarti/emperor is a unique Hindu concept. The Vedic concept is found in later Tamil Sangam poems. There’ Aazi’ is used for chakra. Strange coincidence is  Tamil ‘Aazi ‘and Sanskrit ‘Chakra’ mean sea as well. If we continue our research we may find more meanings. In the oldest part of the Vedas, Nemi meant wheel, particularly of Ratha/ Chariot.,

Nemi is found in the following places in Sangam Tamil literature:–

Akananuru.14-19, 175-14, 251-13, 324-11, 400-21.

Kalitokai .104-9; Kuruntokai.189-3, 227-1, 36-4, . Narrinai .394-5.

Paripatal.1-55, 3-94, 13-6, 9, 15-3, 19-46;

Purananuru .3-4, 17-7.,

In Purananuru verse 58- Nemiyon refers to the holder of the wheel -Lord Krishna. In Kalitokai, Nemiyaan refers to Vishnu with the wheel.

In short NEMI is connected with Vishnu or Emperor. Thus it is interesting to connect  Indus- Sarasvati civilisation with Nemi. Among the ancient civilisations all foreign encyclopedias and history books written by the British, which is followed in Indian educational institutions until today, India is the only country that has no kings for 2000 years! They wrote that we had kings only from the period of Buddha. They ignored all the kings mentioned in Vedic literature and Hindu Puranas. It is an urgent task to rewrite our history.

Neminatha -Indus connection

Some years ago we read that the submarine archaeologists  have discovered the Dwaraka port that was devoured by the sea long ago. Historians dated it around Indus Sarasvati Riverbed civilization period. Hindu Puranas say that the city Dwaraka went under the sea after the demise of Lord Krishna around 3100 BCE. We had very well developed transport facilities then because Krishna shuttled between Dwaraka and Mathura. They were 700 miles apart. More over we read about Krishna’s Naval Expeditions in the Puranas. Along with this we read about Krishna’s cousin and the 22nd Tithankara Neminatha lived in the same city. His father’s name Samudravijaya shows that he was a sea merchant like the Ma Nayaka of Tamil epic Silappadikaram. Looking with this background we should study Jain literature, particularly the activities of Neminatha and his family in sea side port. Neminatha’s brother was called Rathanemi (Chariot wheel).


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Complied by London Swaminathan

Post No.7445

Date uploaded in London – 11 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Art and literature in South India attained fulness and freedom of expression in the Vijayanagara epoch.

Gangadevi was the queen of Kumara Kampanna who conquered Shambuvaraya and Sultan of Madurai in 1361 CE, and brought thereby the whole of Tamil country as far as Rameswaram under Vijayanagar Empire.

Gangadevi was well educated and a talented woman and she accompanied her husband Kumara Kampanna to the South during his expeditions. She wrote a fine Sanskrit epic called the Mathura Vijayam describing the heroic deeds of her husband. In the eulogy on poets at the beginning of the book, she gives considerable prominence to the Sanskrit poets of the Telugu country such as Agastya, Gangadhara and Viswanatha, and the last of whom was her Guru/preceptor. Special interest is attached to the poet Tikkaya “whose poetry resembles the moonlight, drunk with avidity by thirsty poets like chakora birds”.  This Tikkaya is none other than the famous Tikkana Somayaji, the author of fifteen out of the eighteen parvans/books of the Telugu Mahabharata . it is obvious that Gangadevi, the pupil of Viswanatha and an admirer of Tikkana Somayaji’s poetry is a Telugu princess.

The Mathura Vijayam is a historical epic , which describes Kampannas’s victories in the Tamil country. Its value as a source book of early history Vijayanagara history cannot easily be overestimated.  As a poetess Gangadevi takes a high rank; she is perhaps the greatest of women writers of South India who chose Sanskrit as the vehicle of expression. The appraisement of her work by editors may be quoted here with advantage –

“The work is in the form of a classical Kavya , conforming to the rules laid down in the treatises on poetics and containing the usual lengthy of the seasons , the twilight, the rising of the moon and other necessary topics. The authoress writes in the Vaidharbi style , and her thoughts which  flow with ease and simplicity , are clothed in diction at once beautiful and charming. Her similes are grand and drawn direct from nature, with none of the conventional pedantry of grammar or rhetoric which so largely spoils the productions of later-day poets. she has adopted certain scenes and descriptions which are favourite with Kalidasa, but they are transformed at the mint of her imagination and invested with new significance.



Unlike Gangadevi,  Molla (1440-1530 CE) was not a lady of royal rank. She was of humble origin, being the daughter of Keshava Shetti, a potter of Gopavaram , a few miles to the north of Nellore on the bank of river Pennai. Molla is the earliest and perhaps the greatest of the Telugu poetesses. Though her date is not definitely known, it is not at all unlikely she flourished in the palmy days of Emperor Krishnadevaraya  or a little earlier. In the eulogy on poets of her Ramayanam she refers to the famous poet Shrinatha , who lived in the closing years of fourteenth century or later. Nothing is known about her personal life except that she wrote Ramayanam.

Molla’s Ramayanam, though small in size , is a poem of considerable poetic excellence and literary merit. Until recently it used to be studied as a text book in village schools, where boys were taught to learn it by heart. Molla is a vigorous writer. Though simple, her style is dignified and her verse easy flowing and forcible. She is at her best in Sundara Kandam; the brief pen picture of Ravana , Hanuman ads Sita are unsurpassed in the whole range of Telugu literature. It is not known whether Molla wrote any other work; but her Ramayanam is enough to secure for her an abiding place in the galaxy of the immortals who enriched the Telugu language and literature.

(Note- Wikipedia has latest information from research scholars)

Source book

Great women of India, Advaita Ashrama,

Mayavati, Almora , Himalayas , 1953