Complied  London Swaminathan

Post No.7574

Date uploaded in London – 14 February 2020

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The Samhita of the Rig Veda has fortunately preserved one particular hymn 10-85 which proves that not only the institution of marriage but also the ideals which characterised it in India in later days were deeply rooted in the minds of men. Its interest, however, transcends the narrow bounds of India, as it is perhaps the oldest written document in the world which gives an ideal picture of the marriage system with all that it involves in a civilized society.

The subject matter of the hymn is ‘suuryaa’, the daughter of the sun and a form of the dawn, who is regarded as the typical bride. We learn from it that the friends of the bridegroom came to the  bride’s father with the proposal of the marriage, and evidently it is settled by him. The ceremony took place at the bride’s house, and the decorated bride, with her companions came to the marriage pandal. Then the bridegroom took the hand of the bride in his own hand, probably in front of fire, with the words, I take thy hand in my hand for happy fortune that you may reach old age with me your husband. Gods ….. have given you to be my household’s mistress.

Later he offers another prayer-

O Pushan, send her on as most auspicious , her who shall be he sharer of my pleasures; her who shall twine her loving arms about me ad welcome all my love and mine embraces.

After the rituals were over, the bride left her father’s home for that of her husband. This change is emphasized in the prayers addressed to Vishwavasu, one of the Gandharvas, and supposed to be the protector of virgins. Rise up from hence, Vishwavasu… you seek another willing maid in her father’s house. This maiden hath a husband; with her husband leave the bride

I free the bride from your father’s family but not from your husband’s. I make you softly fettered there. O Indra may she live blest in her fortune and her sons.

Lastly, she is urged to go to the husband’s house to the household’s mistress, and payers were offered to the gods for their safe journey. On her arrival at the new home she was welcomed by the friends and relatives of her husband with the verse,

Happy be you and prosper with your children here, here, be vigilant to rule your household in this home. Closely unite your body with this man your husband. So shall you, full of years, address your company.

To the guests assembled to welcome newly married pair it is said,

Signs of good fortune mark the bride; come all of you and look at her. Wish her prosperity, and then return unto your homes.

After the guests had departed, the bride was addressed as follows, probably when offering sacrifice,

Be you not parted, dwell you here; reach the full time of human life. With sons and grandsons sport and play, rejoicing in your own abode.

Then the husband addresses his wife,

So may Prajapati bring children forth to us, may Aryaman adorn us till old age come nigh. Not inauspicious enter thou your husband’s house; bring blessings to our bipeds and quarepeds… over your husband’s father and your husband’s mother bear full sway; over the sister of your husband, over his brothers rule supreme.

The husband then prays,

O bounteous Indra , make this bride blest in her sons and fortunate. Vouchsafe to her ten sons, and make her husband the eleventh man.

Then there is the concluding payer offered jointly by the bridegroom and the bride,

So may the universal gods , so may the waters join our hearts. May Matarishwan, Dhatar, and Deshtri together bind us close.

Thus ends this remarkable hymn which may be regarded as the earliest expression of human thoughts concerning marriage viewed as a sacrament and a willing union of two hears.

Xxx subham xxxx



Post No.7555

Date uploaded in London – 9 February 2020

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Great philosopher and former President of India Dr S Radhakrishnan gives very interesting information about the attitude towards women in ancient India. Then in the same volume R C Majumdhar, former Vice Chancellor of Dacca University adds that anti women attitude was common among the Hindu Smrti writers, Greek philosophers, Gautama Buddha and the Christian poets and monks . Christians maintained anti women attitude until very recent times.

“Indian tradition has generally respected womanhood, as the essays in this book indicate, though occasionally we find derogatory references to women ( in his introduction to Great Women of India book). Even god is regarded as half man and half woman, ‘ardha-naariiswara’. Manu declares that where women are honoured, there gods are pleased; where they are not honoured, all works become fruitless (Manu 3-56).

Women cannot do some things that men can. Their physiology prevents this. That does not prove any inferiority on their part. We must do the things for which we are made and do them well.

In early times education of women was engaged. The Goddess of Learning is Saraswati.

The Mahanirvana Tantra says

‘A girl also should be brought up and educated with great care and effort’ -8-47

The Devi Mahatmya declares,

‘All forms of knowledge are aspects of Thee; and all women throughout the world are Thy forms- 11-6. We hear of great women like Maitreyi, Gargi, Arundhati, Lilavati etc.

In the Vedic age women enjoyed equal opportunities for education and work. They were eligible for ‘upanayana’ (Sacred thread)  or initiation and Study of Brahma Knowledge.

There is an interesting passage in the Durga Saptasati, where Durga who is Kumari/ virgin tells the Asuras who  aspired to marry her- ‘He who conquers me in battle , he who humbles my pride ,he who is my equal in this world, he shall be my husband’. Women were not the bond slaves of pleasure. The end of marriage is spiritual comradeship. The Mahabharata says ‘ let this heart of yours be mine , and let this heart of mine be yours’- 1-3-9. Yet sex life was not despised. Its importance for human development was recognised.

Matri Devp Bhava – Treat your Mother as a Goddess – is the advice given to the young. Again Manu says,

‘One acharya excels ten Upadhyayas in glory; a father excels a hundred Acharyas in glory; but a mother excels even a thousand fathers in glory’- 2-145

Marriage without motherhood is incomplete.


R c majumdhar says after quoting anti women references from the Smrtis (HINDU LAW BOOKS), and the following about other religions-

Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita of sixth century CE gives all out support for women-

“Tell me truly, what faults attributed to women have not   been also practised by men? Men in their audacity treat women with contempt, but they really possess more virtues than men….. men owe their birth to women: O ungrateful wretches, how can happiness be your lot when you condemn them?”

The ascetic and puritanical ideas which came into prominence about the sixth century BCE laid stress on the temptations offered by women and regarded them as the chief obstacles to salvation. Women came to be looked upon as the source of all evils and as potent instruments of destroying the souls of men. Hence the denunciation of women as a class reached a degree which is not unknown in other countries. It is well known how Christian monks gathered at the Synod of Macon in 585 CE seriously discussed whether women were human beings at all.

Even Gautama Buddha was not wholly above this spirit. For a long time, he refused to admit women to his religious order, and when he did so, he prophesied that that the purity of his religion would not endure for more than half the period that it would have otherwise done. He also imposed a far more rigorous test and placed the nuns as a class in a position of inferiority to the monks. It was laid down, for example, that a nun though hundred years old, must stand in reverence even before a young monk just initiated into the church.  Such a sentiment was shared by other religious sects, and naturally reacted on the people at large, thereby creating an unfavourable view against women.  These and other reasons must have produced the feeling that women were wicked  and sensuous by nature and must be constantly  held in check by women.

It should be remembered, however, that such a feeling was almost universally held  throughout the world down to down to very recent times. Confucius, Aristotle, Milton, and even Rousseau preached that women, being inherently inferior to men, should always be in a subordinate position to men”.

Source book – Great Women of India, Advaita Ashrama, 1953.

My Comments

Tamil devotional literature and Kamba Ramayana also have lot of anti women remarks. They looked at women from three angles:

As mothers they were worshipped as Goddess.

As wives they were appreciated for the work they did;

As courtesans they were criticised. The writers who criticised women knew that every woman was a mother to someone. So only when the women acted against the norms of the day they were condemned.

The strange thing is that the Hindus were the only one race who gave them full rights in the Vedic days.

But Britain and other countries paid less wages to women than men who did the same job. While I am typing this, several women sued the BBC against lesser pay they are getting right now and winning their cases slowly.

Britain gave voting rights to British women only after India gave voting rights.

In almost all Western countries women are paid less than men while I am finishing typing this article.

Victorian novels have lot of anti -women remarks. Women were treated as dumb, arrogant, gossip mongers. They were projected as jealous anti women (one woman wont help another woman of same age or status).

Long Live Women!

Long live Bharati, Tamil poet, who fought for women’s’ rights as early as in 1900s.


Vasantasena , Noble Courtesan’s love affair with ‘Brahmana Merchant’! (Post No.7540)

Written  by London Swaminathan               

Post No.7540

Date uploaded in London – – 5 February 2020

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That magnanimity is no close preserve of birth and lineage, and that a debasing environment is no impediment to what is intrinsically noble, is patent in the character of Vasantasena , presented by Bhaasa  in

‘Daridra –Charudatta’ and by Shudraka  in

‘Mrichhakatika’ . It has got to be recognised  also that the lure of conventional romance and the profusion of seductive love accessories on the lines of the Kamasutra , as presented in the Mrichhakatika, serve not to demoralize the real woman in her, and in spite of her  ignoble birth she gets united at last to her lover

Charudatta, who is by birth a Brahmana , but by profession a merchant now reduced to poverty.

The high position of the courtesan is recognised not merely in the Kamasutra but also in the Artha-shastra ; and in classical Sanskrit convention  these are not mean forces to reckon with.

In spite of the mean and vulgar machinations of  brutal

Shakara , Vasantasena has the satisfaction to see  that her love for the brahmana  merchant, which is based on intrinsic merit , is appreciated and validated.   The depositing of her ornament casket with her lover almost at the first introduction, her sincere and heart felt inclination to religious performances , her liberality, which is evinced by her granting ransom to her chief attendant maid, her pleasure in giving full play to  the motherly instinct , her reverential reference to Charudatta’s wife  and the cheerful way of meeting her privations to the point of  being almost beaten to death are but clear evidences of  her totally uncourtesan like leanings.

To her maid’s query whether she was after a prince or a potentate, she gives an emphatic reply:

“My girl, it is a question of loving , not applying the trade of a courtesan”. Charudatta’s boy, who plays with a Little Earthern Toy Cart (this is the title of the play)  and seems to be depressed because his playmates of the  merchant  square play with the golden carts , she consoles him by saying : “Don’t worry, my child, you shall have a golden cart to play with”.

When the boy’s attendant maid introduces Vasantasena as his mother, he is not reconciled, but utters  knowingly,

“You are not telling me the truth. If she were my mother, she would not have such beautiful jewels”.

To this  Vasantasena says ,

“Child, your naïve lips utter cruel words …. There now I am your mother . Take these ornaments and make a golden cart for you.”  She has seen many sordid things in life, but her mind is not debased. In spite of her vile associations, her mind was not defiled; but rather, as the hero puts it, ‘she is worthy of the homage that one accords to a goddess’. In her, discrimination and passion are well balanced, discrimination leading to modesty and passion to steadfastness in affection.

My comments

We have beautiful dramas written in Sanskrit by Bhasa, Kalidasa, Visakadatta and Shudraka which were staged at least 1600 years before Shakespeare. Each one has many beautiful characters who will beat Shakespeare’s characters.

The society described in those drams is entirely different from what we read in Manu Smriti and other Smritis (Hindu Law books. Even Mahabharata has characters like Dharma vyadha and Ramayana, a Valmiki. If these dramas are from 3rd century BCE (Bhasa’s 13 plays), then we can’t place Manu nearer to that period. Either the anti- Shudra remarks are interpolations or later additions .

Another thing is a Brahmin merchant it is like hot ice cream. And that Brahmin merchant was loved by a courtesan of ignoble birth. This is a picture from Shudraka of second century CE (Mrchhakatika- Little clay Cart).

Though I have not read the drama in its Sanskrit original, I have read its Tamil translation by Pandithamani Kathiresan Chettiyar. It was prescribed for Tamil language paper in Undergraduate Studies in Madurai University. It is a drama touching various facets of society. I place Kalidasa’s three dramas on the basis of his 200 out of 1500 similes found in Sangam Tamil literature (See my 20 plus research articles in this blog). Even if scholars don’t agree with me, Bhasa’s 13 plays are definitely before Kalidasa.

If we put all these plays together and study the society, it will show a liberal society with catholic outlook. If we add the society as wee see in Sangam Tamil literature and Buddhist Jataka Tales we will have more support for the liberal views. Kabila, the Brahmin poet who contributed over 200 poems to the 2500 poem Sangam corpus, goes to a chieftain and introduces himself “I, the brahmin, have brought these daughters; marry them”. But those two are not his own daughters, but the daughters of his beloved friend and the great philanthropist Pari, who was a kshatriya ruler. So we see a society with catholic outlook from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

 The above write up about Vasantasena is taken from ‘Great women of India’ published in 1953 by the Advaita Ashrama; those who have read the dramas on Vasanta sena only can appreciate this critical review. It must be made compulsory to study the ancient dramas at school level and college level. If we do it before we study Shakespeare it will make us proud. An ocean of drama literature is in Sanskrit up to 18th century. Almost a continuous production of dramas for 2000 plus years. Unfortunately, we lost all ancient Tamil dramas.

tags – Vasantasena, Charudatta, Love, Courtesan ,


My old articles › 2014/05/19 › 133-beautiful-quotations-of-bhasa…

133 Beautiful Quotations of Bhasa – Part 2 | Tamil and Vedas


19 May 2014 – Vasantasena in Charudatta drama. GOOD & BAD PEOPLE 115.Don’t grind what is already ground. 116.Discharge your duties as if death … › 2020/01/07 › a-courtesan-became-the-queen-of-…



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Goldsmiths | Tamil and Vedas


15 Apr 2017 – Silappadikaram, the Tamil epic, is the story about Kannaki and … He advised the mighty king Cheran Senguttuvan about the good things in life (Dharma). … and courtesan Matavi, the mighty lord of the Cheras, asked Matalan:. › 2018/06/07 › sea-is-a-channel…



7 Jun 2018 – Mricakatika of Sudraka (second century CE) describes the eight courtyard building of courtesan Vasantasena. There is a beautiful description …

Neem Tree Wonders (Post No.7536)

Written  by London Swaminathan               

Post No.7536

Date uploaded in London – – 4 February 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

There is an interesting anecdote about neem trees. A newly married wife was worried as her husband had to proceed on a long journey on some assignment. His wife consulted the local doctor who advised her to ask her husband to sleep under a tamarind tree during his onward journey and under a neem tree on his return journey. Tamarind will make any one sick if one sleeps under it. Sleeping under the tamarind tree made her husband sick. So without continuing his journey he returned home quickly. But he remembered to sleep under neem tree while returning. This gave him quick recovery. He was alright when he came back home. His wife was very happy. This folk tale highlights the medicinal property of the Neem trees.

But it is not just a folk tale. Two major tragedies attracted the world attention towards neem. In 1958 there was a devastating locust attack in Nigeria that wiped out every tree in the area, leaving only the neem trees untouched. And the second was the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 which killed over 3000 people. But the neem trees were not affected.

In Ayurveda books neem has been mentioned by Charaka and others.

India fought with USA for nearly fifteen years for the patent rights for neem tree and won at last.

Neem’s botanical name is Azadirachta indica. Also known as Veppa or nimba in vernacular languages. It is called margosa tree.


Gudi Padwa Festival

A gudi is a long pole. People of Ayodhya were very happy when Lord Rama returned to the city after 14 years in exile . They celebrated the occasion by displaying ‘gudi’ at the entrance of their houses. At the top end of the pole, a coloured silk cloth is pleated and fixed with a silver or brass pot. It is decorated with a small garland of flowers and twigs of the neem tree. Gudi padwa day is the new year day according to Shalivahana Shaka. Marathi and Konkani Hindus celebrate it. It falls on the first day of the month of Chitra. Nearer this time comes the Telugu New Year called Ugadi. First day of Chitrai month is new year day for Tamils and many other communities in India as well.

Tamils use the flowers of neem in the Payasam for the Tamil New Year Day, which is a sweet liquid made with jaggery.

Neem tree occurs in various amulets found in ancient India.

In the Buddhist Jataka Tales, it is praised as nature’s bitter boon.

In India there is a common belief that chewing fresh leaves of neem daily purifies the blood and strengthens the defence mechanism of human body. They even say that one gets immunity from even snake poison and scorpion poison.

Neem has been mentioned in Charak Samhita. All parts of the tree are used to treat internal and external ailments. It is a medicine for skin diseases. The pharmacological properties of the Neem tree are so popular in India that virtually it is playing the role of a village dispensary. They use almost every part of the tree in one way or other. The twigs are used as truth brushes. It has germicidal and anti -septic properties. The decoction of bark and leaves is used as febrifuge to relieve fever. The dry flowers are used in certain dishes. The leaves and bark are used to heal wounds, ulcers, jaundice and skin diseases. The fruits are used as purgative.


The oil of the seeds is used as a medicinal hair oil and also for curing rheumatism and leprosy.

Prayer meetings by Gandhiji at Sabarmati Ashram and Sevagram were conducted under neem tree.

Cutting of these trees is a taboo as it is considered akin to killing a young girl.

In India deaths due to pesticides are very high. Neem’s pesticidal property will save many.

Source. Organiser article dated 12-6-2005 with my inputs.

My old articles on the same subject: › 2017/06/11 › significance-of-neem-tree-in-hind…

Significance of Neem Tree in Hinduism – Tamil and Vedas


11 Jun 2017 – Some interesting stories about Neem trees (Margosa tree, Veppa Maram in Tamil) were compiled by Rev Osborn Martin in his book the ‘Gods …

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Tamils have been using Neem (Veppa Maram in Tamil வேப்ப மரம்) for ages to stop the virus of small pox. If one takes it from young age in the prescribed …

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Tamils have been using Neem (Veppa Maram in Tamil வேப்ப மரம்) for ages to stop the virus of small pox. If one takes it from young age in the prescribed …

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Tamils have been using Neem (Veppa Maram in Tamil வேப்ப மரம்) for ages to stop the virus of small pox. If one takes it from young age in the prescribed …

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25 Nov 2012 – Magic of Trees! Picture shows Newton under Apple Tree. Hindu Saints composed Upanishads under the Himalayan Trees. Buddha attained …

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Compiled by London Swaminathan               

Post No.7530

Date uploaded in London – – 3 February 2020

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Tarigonda  Vengamamba  was a poetess from Chittoor area in Andhra region. She has dedicated all her work to deity Narasimha in Tarigonda village. She was perhaps a native of that village. She was the daughter of a Brahmana named Krishnayya;  widowed early in life , she found solace in religion and philosophy  — especially yoga — , which furnished themes for her literary compositions. She was probably born in the last quarter of the eighteenth century.

Vengamaambaa was a more prolific authoress than most of the women writers who had preceded her.  Three of her metrical works in Telugu   — the Bhagavata, the Rajayoga sara and the Venkatachala Mahatmya  – have come down to us. Though not equal in literary craftmanship to Molla or Muddupalani, her poetry is not without charm.  Her language is sweet, and her descriptions, especially of erotic subjects , are free from the excesses  which mar the compositions of others.  The popularity of Vengamamba rests more upon Rajayoga sara  than on her other works.  It serves as an introduction to the study of the Yoga philosophy, and is read with avidity by many who devote their lives  to the cultivation of the spirit.

The Nayaka queens of Thanjavur were cultured women, and some of them have made distinct contributions to Sanskrit  and Telugu literatures. The poems and dramas composed during this period mark the growth of a vigorous Southern school of Telugu literature. It certainly speaks highly of these ladies that were able to distinguish themselves in a  region which has for centuries  been the hub of the South Indian culture, and during this particular period  when it produced men of eminence .


Two consorts of Ragunatha Nayaka  (1600-30 )

Madhuravani and Ramabhadramba , both pupils of Kalayya , and one queen of Vijayaraghava (1633-73) – Ranjamma deserve mention .


Her attainments are enumerated in the introduction to Ramayana.  She was proficient in grammar and prosody  and in adept in completing ‘Samayas’ – incomplete cryptic verses –  and in Ashtaavadaana  – attending to eight things at a time –  and Shataavadaana – attending to 100 things at a time.  She was also a gifted musician, and for her skill in playing on the Vina, her loyal lover called her Madhuravaani (of sweet tone).

Vijayaraghava , the next ruler introduced her as a character in his y

Yaksha Gana – the Rahunadabhyudhayam, where she is spoken of as an ‘ashu kavitaa vaani ‘– one who can compose verses spontaneously and instantaneously.

Her Ramayana in 14 cantos purports to be a Sanskrit  rendering of Raghunatha Nayaka’s poem in Telugu, Which is now probably lost. The translation is no mean work of art; the style is simple, graceful and dignified, reminiscent of Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa , which she  appears to have imitated successfully in many placeS.

Source book – great women of India, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati.



WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan               

Post No.7526

Date uploaded in London – – 2 February 2020

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Sun is a star according to modern science. There are billions and billions of suns. Most of them are bigger than our sun. Our sun is a yellow colour star, i.e. mediocre one. Blue and red colour stars are more powerful and hotter. The world thought that these are modern discoveries. But it is already in our Vedas!

Before I give my comments read what A A Macdonell and A B Keith said in 1912.

‘Surya – Nakshatra’

“Surya – Nakshatra is found in Satapata Brahmana (2-1-2-19) in a passage where Sayana takes it denoting a nakshatra/star which gives out rays of light like sun. But the real sense (as the Kanva  text helps to show)  is that the sacrificer may take the sun for his nakshatra – i.e. he may neglect the nakshatras altogether and rely on the sun”.

Page 468, volume 2, Vedic Index

My Comments

All the world literature compared stars with fire flies or little lamps at a distance or candle light till the modern science informed the world that our Sun is also a star. But Vedic rishis always associated Sun with Star or Stars with sun. It is amazing to see that the Vedic seers spoke about sun and star at one breadth.

Look at the first sentence ‘star which gives light like Sun’. 200 years ago, if anyone read it, the person would have thought that it is just an exaggeration.

Sayana wrote the commentary in the 14th century. Satapata Bramana was written around 850 BCE according to the Westerners. But Hindus believe it is older than that.

I don’t jump to conclusion based on a single passage.

 In fact, it is even in Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world.

Macdonell and Keith again,


Nakshatra is a word of obscure origin and derivation.  The Indian interpreters already show a divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The Satapata Brahmana resolves into ‘na- ksatra = no power’ explaining it by a legend. The Niruka refers it to the root ‘nak’s ‘obtain’ following the Taittriya Brahmana

Aufrecht and Weber derived it from ‘nakta-tra’ ‘guardian of night’, and more recently the derivation from ‘nak- ksatra’ ‘having rule over night’, seems  to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be star. (English word Night came from Sanskrit ‘Nakt’

English word star is derived from Sanskrit ‘tara’ for star.


The Nakshatras as stars in the Rig Veda and later-

The sense of star appears to be adequate for all or  nearly all the passages  in which Naksatras occur in the Rig Veda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitas also; the sun and the Naksatras mentioned together;  or the sun, moon, the Naksatras  or the moon and the Naksatras or  the Naksatras alone .

–Page 409, volume 1, Vedic Index

For al the above, both of them, have given references from the Vedic literature.


I am going to comment on only one thing in the above passage.

There is nothing interesting if some poet sings about ‘twinkle, twinkle little star up above the world so high’.

There is nothing significant if a poet sings about star’ like a diamond in the sky ‘ with moon. A child even can sing about it. Throughout Tamil and Sanskrit literature we read star girls are after moon man, in Hindu mythology moon is masculine and stars are feminine. Moon is always loved by 27 wives/ 27 stars

But when one sings about ‘sun and star together’ one raises one’s eyebrow. One wonders what! stars tiny specs of light in the night and sun is million times brighter in the day!

But  Vedic poets sing them together in

Atharva Veda – 6-10-3; Vajasaneyi Samhita 23-43 and in a few other places.

More important is the Rig Vedic mantra 6-67-6

ता हि कषत्रं धारयेथे अनु दयून दरंहेथे सानुमुपमादिव दयोः |
दर्ळ्हो नक्षत्र उत विश्वदेवो भूमिमातान दयां धासिनायोः ||

tā hi kṣatraṃ dhārayethe anu dyūn dṛṃhethe sānumupamādiva dyoḥ |
dṛḷho nakṣatra uta viśvadevo bhūmimātān dyāṃ dhāsināyoḥ ||6-67-6

Here is Griffith’s translation 100 years ago-

“So, through the days, maintaining princely power, ye  prop the height as it were from loftiest heavens.

The star of al the gods, established filleth the heaven and earth with food of man who liveth”.

Star of All Gods

In the foot note Griffith says,

The Star of all Gods- SUN

In RV 7-86-1, the poet says

धीरा तवस्य महिना जनूंषि वि यस्तस्तम्भ रोदसी चिदुर्वी |
पर नाकं रष्वं नुनुदे बर्हन्तं दविता नक्षत्रम्पप्रथच्च भूम ||RV 7-86-1

dhīrā tvasya mahinā janūṃṣi vi yastastambha rodasī cidurvī |
para nākaṃ ṛṣvaṃ nunude bṛhantaṃ dvitā nakṣatrampaprathacca bhūma |

“Wise, verily, are creatures through his greatness who  stayed ever , spacious heaven and earth asunder;

Who urged the mighty sky to motion, the Star of Old, and spread the earth before him”

Here also Griffith’s foot note says the star = the SUN

Nowadays we praise someone who has achieved something with the words YOU ARE A STAR. Sometimes we comment she is a star or he is a star. This expression is found for the first time in the Rig Veda

It is interesting to see that one compares star with sun another praises sun as star. So, we can boldly conclude that the Vedic rishis knew sun is a star.

Xxx subham xxx



Post No.7520

Date uploaded in London – 31 January 2020

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UDAYANA was a prince of lunar race/ Chandra kula. He was the son of Sahasraanika. He was the king of Vatsa and called Vatsaraja. He was the hero of a popular love story, probably the earliest love story in India, a real life story. Though we have Nala- Damayanti, Sathyavan- Savithri , Krishna – Rukmini, Arjuna – Chitrangada and other such love stories they all become part of religious literature. Udayana – Vasavadatta love affair is from the secular side and more historical.

One more interesting thing is that it has reached the Southern most of part of India and became a hero  in Tamil   kavyas.

Udayana’s capital was Kausambi. He was a great Veena player. Vaasavadataa , princess of Ujjaiyini , saw him in a dream and fell in love with him. She was the heroine of Subhandhu’s ‘Vasavadatta’.

Here is piece about her in the Great Women of India.

 Vasavadatta  the far famed queen of Udayana is the character where the recognised romantic ideal  (sachiva, sakhii, shishya) is brough to a highest level of execution. The features of sensitive pride and surrender to the cause of the husband are not clouded, but shine in her pre-eminently. There have been poets and dramatists who have brought her  character  into fine relief by presenting her  in comparison and contrast with other queens Padmaavatii,Saagarikaa and Priyadarshikaa .

In two the Bhasa plays,  we have Vasavadatta  as the figure round  which the whole course of events turns. Yaugandharayana’s policy succeeds  because of the force of the circumstances and of the self -effacement  of Vasavadatta , who offered him her ungrudging  aid.  She reconciles herself to her new position as the trusted and respected attendant maid , in which occupation, she has to weave the marriage garland of  Padmavati and do other unwonted and difficult things.  She accuses none for her ordeal of separation but relentless fate. The Samudragriha episode affords solace to her, proving, if any proof was necessary , that she was, as before, the king’s beloved par excellence.

Her recognition or appreciation of Padmavati as  her valued co-wife is a thing not uncommon in literature  and in history for Hindu  wives of high birth  and position.  The mutual respect and affection of the two queens, born of Vasavadatta’s majestic demeanour and Padmavati’s stately courtesy.

Classical Sanskrit literature is replete with examples of this type of adaptability, which is in keeping with the inner promptings of constancy that had their inspiration at least from the Epic Age. Episodes like those developed round  Manorama, Vinayavati, Sagariika are apt illustrations , in some of which the amiable  and accomplished rival claimant to the king’s affection is no less a favourite  with the reader than the main heroine.

Here is a piece from Wikipedia:-

Svapnavasavadattam (Sanskrit: स्वप्नवासवदत्तम्, Svapnavāsavadattam) (EnglishThe dream of Vasavadatta) is a Sanskrit play in six acts written by the ancient Indian poet Bhasa. It is probably the best known of Bhāsa‘s works.

(Bhasa lived in 3rd or 4th century BCE).

The plot of the drama is drawn from the romantic narratives about the Vatsa king Udayana and Vasavadatta, the daughter of Pradyota, the ruler of Avanti, which were current in the poet’s time and which seem to have captivated popular imagination. The main theme of the drama is the sorrow of Udayana for his queen Vasavadatta, believed by him to have perished in a fire, which was actually a rumour spread by Yaugandharayana, a minister of Udayana to compel his king to marry Padmavati, the daughter of the king of Magadha. It forms, in context, a continuation of his another drama, Pratijnayaugandharayana.

The complete text of the Svapnavasavadattam was long lost until it was discovered in Kerala in 1912.A tradition is recorded that when the critics subjected the plays of Bhasa to a severe test by throwing them into fire, only Svapnavasavadattam rose out unaffected, while other plays were all consummated by the flames. This play contains some of Bhasa’s greatest characters.

 MY OLD POSTS:- › tag › udayanas-encounter-with-elephants 
Udayana’s encounter with elephants | Tamil and Vedas

29 Sep 2012 – Posts about Udayana’s encounter with elephants written by Tamil and … Interesting stories about elephants are found in Indian literature. › tag › svapnavasavadatta 
Svapnavasavadatta | Tamil and Vedas

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18 Apr 2014 – Here are some quotes from ‘Svapnavasavadatta’, his masterpiece and one of the best dramas available today:—. Ignorance 1.Even deities … › 2014/04/20 › beautiful-and-tranquil-hermitages-… 
Beautiful and Tranquil Hermitages of Ancient India | Tamil and …

20 Apr 2014 – The following passages from Svapnavasavadatta illustrate these points more clearly: Act 1. Yaugnadharayana: Self possessed dwellers of the …




Post No.7505

Date uploaded in London – 28 January 2020

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Cultural Denigration

It is reported from New Delhi under the caption, “Conspiracy to show Hindus as inferior and glorify minorities in CBSE’s textbook” as follows :

A lesson on degrading Hindus as inferior and  glorifying Muslims and Christians is included in the KG textbook of CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). A conspiracy of brainwashing Hindu children has been hatched, thus, creating misunderstanding in them about Hindu Dharma and Hindus. 

In this textbook, a denigrating image of Hindu Brahman has been printed, and the children have been asked to paint it. This Hindu Brahman is shown falling on the ground after slipping on a banana peel. This textbook

not contain any objectionable image of Christian clergy or Muslim moulvi. 

The textbook contains quizzes on a subject such as identifying good and bad habits. It includes examples such as ‘Raja does not bathe every day’. ‘Karan does not brush his teeth every day’, ‘Gita dresses in unhygienic clothes’, ‘Hanif plays in open-air’, ‘Paul sits straight in the classroom’, etc. In these examples, attempts have been made to convince children that Hindu boys and girls have bad habits; whereas, Muslims or Christians have good habits. 

Some devout Hindus said that such a book is creating hatred in the mind of Hindu culture, sanskars and traditions from childhood in a 

systematic manner. (Sanatan Prabhat 1-15 July 2019) 

  1. Such knave tactics to display Hindus in culturally poor show was pursued by the British before independence. Unfortunately the same trend to denigrate Hindus continues to be followed by the secular anti-Hindu institutions and bodies. Non Hindus must be pampered and Hindus humiliated and insulted. This is the so-called secular spirit, a Hindu is supposed to appreciate and inculcate amongst children. The Articles 28,29 and 30 of our constitution also permit teaching of scripture of minority segment in India in educational institutions, but prohibit study of Bhagavad Gita and other books on Hindu Dharma. Unless Bharat is established as a Dharma Rashtra such nefarious tactics to denigrate Hindu culture will continue to prevail.

Thanks : Truth

Truth 25-10-2019 Volume 87 No 26 –




Post No.7503

Date uploaded in London – 27 January 2020

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PADMINI, queen of Rana Rattan Sing of Mewar , and a  lady of exquisite beauty, has been deservedly given an exalted place in the epic of Rajput chivalry by col. Tod and also by Malik Mohammad Jayasi in his Padmavati, a classic work of Hindustani literature . The traditional belief is that the immediate cause of Alauddin Khilji’s invasion of Chitor was his infatuation of Padmini.  History records the chivalrous role of Padmini and a number of other women of Mewar at the time when the famous citadel of Chitor was besieged by Alauddin.

The valiant Rajputs offered a heroic resistance against his onslaught for eight months; but at last to give way in view of the superior numerical strength of the Delhi army.  Before the final surrender of the citadel , however of 26th august , 1303, hundreds of brave women , under the leadership of Padmini plunged themselves in to the fire of JAUHAR – self immolation – to escape pollution and captivity by the Muslim invaders.

The funeral pyre was lighted within the great sub terranean retreat in chambers impervious to the light of the day, and the defenders of Chitor beheld in procession the queens, their own wives, and daughters , to the number of several thousands.

This is the greatest sacrifice of women in the history of the world. This is the bravest act of women the world has never seen.  The fair Padmini closed the throng, which was augmented by whatever of female beauty or youth could be tainted Tartar lust. The women were conveyed to the cavern for security. They were saved from dishonour. Thus Padmini and several thousand Hindu women preferred heroic death  to a disgraced existence.


In the bardic traditions of Rajasthan there are thrilling references to the selfless patriotism and heroic exploits of her daughters. The bards’ folk songs are echoing in the walls of the mighty forts. Every stone and sand particle in the surrounding Thar desert are reverberating with the glorious sacrifices they made.

The first example in this category is Samyogita (RANI SAMYUKTA), daughter of Jjayachandra, the ruler of Kanauj. She married Prithiviraj in a swayamvara. When Mohammad of Ghor marched with reinforced troops for the second time to meet his adversary Prithiviraj on the Tarain near  Thanesar, she is said to have armed her lord for the encounter and exhorted him with the following words—

“To die is the destiny not only of man but of the gods; all desire to throw off the old garment; but to die well is to live for ever. Think not of self; but of immortality; let your sword divide your foe and I will be your arthaanga (other half) hereafter”

Prithiviraj fought with reckless valour, but was at last overpowered and killed by the Muslim invaders. True to her vow, the devoted spouse sacrificed her life by mounting his funeral pyre.

We praise Gargi Vachaknavi of Vedic lore as the oldest and most intelligent woman in the world. And in the same way we can praise Rani Samyukta as the most intelligent and bravest woman in the historic period. She and Rani Padmini will inspire Hindu women for generations to come.

Xxx subham xxx

Surprise! Surprise!! Sri Rangam Temple Diamond is in Russian Sceptre (Post No.7499)

Surprise! Surprise!! Sri Rangam Temple Diamond is in Russian Sceptre (Post No.7499)


Post No.7499

Date uploaded in London – 26 January 2020

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There is an interesting story about a diamond named after a Russian noble man named Count G G Orlov. The story told by Ian Balfour is that it made its way from Sri Rangam Temple to Russia. Count Orlov presented it to Catherine the Great and she asked the Royal jeweller to fix it in the sceptre. It is now in Kremlin in Moscow.

The diamond has many names Moghul Diamond , Dariya-i- Noor, Orlov diamond and possibly Kohinoor diamond. Here is the interesting story as told by Ian Balfour in his book ‘Famous Diamonds’.